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Shepherds Bush ·
August
18
2019

The Underground Map is a project which is creating street histories for the areas of London and surrounding counties lying inside the M25.


In a series of maps from the 1750s until the 1950s, you can see how London grew from a city which only reached as far as Park Lane into the post war megapolis we know today. There are now over 85 000 articles on all variety of locations including roads, houses, schools, pubs and palaces.

You can begin exploring by choosing a place from the dropdown list at the top left and then clicking Reset Location.

As maps are displayed, click on the markers to view location articles.

You can also view historical maps of London - click on the "pile of paper" control on the top right of a page's map to change to a particular decade.

Latest on The Underground Map...
Bush Theatre
The Bush Theatre is located in the Passmore Edwards Public Library, Shepherd’s Bush. The Bush Theatre was established in 1972 to showcase for the work of new writers. The theatre strives to create a space which nurtures and develops new artists and their work. The Bush Theatre has produced many premieres, many of them Bush Theatre commissions, and hosted guest productions by theatre companies and artists from across the world.



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Featured articles

APRIL
30
2019

 

Whitechapel Gallery
The Whitechapel Gallery is a public art gallery in Aldgate. It was designed by Charles Harrison Townsend and opened in 1901. It was one of the first publicly-funded galleries in London. The work of contemporary artists is featured alongside retrospective exhibitions and shows of interest to the local community.

The Whitechapel Gallery played an important part in the history of post-war British art.

Initiated by members of the Independent Group, the gallery brought Pop Art to the attention of the general public as well as introducing some of the artists, concepts, designers and photographers that would define the Swinging Sixties.

By the late 1970s, the preeminence of the Whitechapel Gallery was being threatened by newer venues such as the Hayward Gallery. The Whitechapel Gallery had a major refurbishment in 1986 and completed, in April 2009, a two-year programme of work to incorporate the former Passmore Edwards Library building next door. This has doubled the physical size of the Gallery and nearly...
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APRIL
29
2019

 

Central Square, NW11
Central Square was the original centre of Hampstead Garden Suburb due to the further development of the Suburb in the 1920s and 1930s, it is now located towards the west. Raymond Unwin’s 1905 preliminary plan of Hampstead Garden Suburb defined a central area containing churches and public buildings with a formal approach road from the Heath.

By 1908 the design had become formalised with two central churches and The Institute, dedicated to adult learning. The Institute subsequently became Henrietta Barnet School. It was not possible to mirror the houses on the west of North Square with some on the due to the then land ownership.

Sir Edwin Lutyens finished designs for St Jude’s and the Free Church between 1908 and 1910. The final Central Square layout was complete in 1912.

Central Square was designed as a focus for the spiritual, recreational and community needs of Suburb residents. The centre of the Square is a public garden with tennis courts. The housing was designed for affluent residents but Southwood Court and Bigwood Court were originally intended as flats for the bereaved families of servicemen.
»read full article


APRIL
28
2019

 

Blackheath
Blackheath is divided between the London Borough of Lewisham and the London Borough of Greenwich with the borough boundary running across the middle of the heath. Blackheath Village, south of the heath, lies in Lewisham. The Blackheath Standard area and Westcombe Park lie on the north-east side in Greenwich. The name ’Blackheath’ derives from the dark colour of the soil in the area.

It was known to the Romans as a stopping point on Watling Street. Blackheath was a rallying point for the uprisings - Wat Tyler’s Peasants’ Revolt of 1381, and Jack Cade’s Kentish rebellion in 1450. After pitching camp on Blackheath, Cornish rebels were defeated in the Battle of Deptford Bridge to the west on 17 June 1497. Blackheath was a notorious haunt of highwaymen during the 17th century.

During the seventeenth century Blackheath was a common assembly point for English Armies. In 1673 the Blackheath Army was assembled under Marshal Schomberg to serve in the Third Anglo-Dutch War.

The main area of the village lies to the north side of Blackheath railway station (opened on 30 July 1849), between the ...
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APRIL
27
2019

 

South Oxhey
South Oxhey, the catchment area for Carpender’s Park station, has a population of about 11,000 with a small centre consisted of shops, local amenities and estate agents. South Oxhey was a large housing estate built on land that was once part of the Oxhey Hall Estate. Oxhey Place - the local manor house - was once owned by the Blackwell family of Crosse and Blackwell fame but burnt down in 1960. Oxhey Chapel dates from 1612 and is still standing.

The estate was built by the London County Council after the Second World War to help alleviate the housing pressures after the Blitz as well as general inadequate housing. In 1980 the ownership and management of the estate was transferred to Three Rivers District Council and in 2008 to Thrive Homes housing association.

The parish church of All Saints was opened in 1954 to serve the new estate. The church was demolished and rebuilt in 2000.

The town has a number of pubs and there is a small selection of restaurants. A larger choice of entertainment can be found in Watford and other towns.

Separating South Oxhey and Northwood are Oxhey Woods. The woods are a nature reserve and offer pleasant walks.
»read full article


APRIL
26
2019

 

Ridley Road Market
Ridley Road Market is a market situated opposite Dalston Kingsland station just off the Kingsland High Street. Ridley Road has been the market’s home since the end of 1880s. It started with about 20 stalls but recently it had up to 150 stalls offering a diverse range.

Fruit and vegetables are sold from traditional barrows (trolleys) in the pedestrianised street from 8am-6pm daily (but not Sundays or Bank Holidays). There is a large range of traditional and exotic produce from around the world. There are other stalls and many other shops lining the street selling a wide variety of foods and household goods.
»read full article


APRIL
25
2019

 

Bushey
Bushey is a town in the Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire. The first written record of Bushey is an account in the Domesday Book, which describes a small agricultural village named ’Bissei’. Chance archaeological findings of Stone Age tools are evidence that the area was inhabited as far back as the Palaeolithic period. The town also has links to the Roman occupation of Britain - a Roman tessellated pavement was discovered near to Chiltern Avenue.

Bushey’s population rose from 856 in 1801, to just under 24 000 in the twenty first century. There was an industrial boom caused by the arrival of the railway. Many new jobs were created in and around Watford, and the first council houses were built in Bushey in the early 1920s. The expansion eventually died down when much of the land in and around Bushey was protected under the green belt scheme after the Second World War.

Hubert Herkomer, a poor immigrant from Bavaria arrived in Bushey in 1874, and fell in love with the village. He rented a pair of...
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APRIL
24
2019

 

Cock Lane, EC1A
Cock Lane leads from Giltspur Street in the east to Snow Hill in the west. Cock Lane was once ’Cokkes Lane’ and the site of legal brothels. The writer John Bunyan died from fever at 25 Cock Lane in 1688. The address became separately famous as both the site where the supposed Cock Lane ghost manifested itself in 1762.

The junction of Cock Lane and Giltspur Street was known as Pye Corner - famous as marking the furthest extent of the Great Fire of London.
»read full article


APRIL
22
2019

 

St George’s German Lutheran Church
St George’s German Lutheran Church is a church in Alie Street, Whitechapel. From its foundation in 1762 until 1995 it was used by German Lutherans. St George’s was the fifth Lutheran church to be built in London and is now the oldest surviving German Lutheran church in the United Kingdom.


»read full article


APRIL
21
2019

 

Vortex Jazz Club
The Vortex Jazz Club is a music venue, started by David Mossman in the 1980s. The Vortex began as a jazz club in 1987 and was located in Stoke Newington Church Street. After the acquisition of that building by property developers, the club was moved in 2005 to the Dalston Culture House in Gillett Street. It opened on 10 November 2006 with a performance by Andy Sheppard’s Saxophone Massive, a band of 200 saxophonists. The street in front of the club was renamed ’Aim Bailey Place’ in December 2007 in honor of guitarist Derek Bailey.
»read full article


APRIL
20
2019

 

Victoria Park
Victoria Park is a large open space that stretches out across part of the East End. The park was laid out by notable London planner and architect Sir James Pennethorne between 1842 and 1846. Reminiscent of Regent’s Park - the latter was designed by Pennethorne’s teacher, John Nash - it is considered as the finest park in East London. It is bounded on two sides by branches of the Regent’s Canal.

Two alcoves - the only two surviving fragments of the old London Bridge demolished in 1831 - are located at the east end of the park where they were placed in 1860. Alcoves such as these would have been important for pedestrian safety - the roadway was very narrow and the risk of being run down very high.

Victoria Park’s reputation as the ’People’s Park’ grew as it became a centre for political meetings and rallies. The biggest crowds were usually drawn to ’star’ socialist speakers such as William Morris and Annie Besant. The tradition of public speaking in the park continued until well after the second w...
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APRIL
19
2019

 

Bermondsey
The name Bermondsey first appears in a letter from Pope Constantine (708-715), in which he grants privileges to a monastery at ’Vermundesei’, then in the hands of the abbot of Medeshamstede, as Peterborough was known at the time. Though Bermondsey’s name may derive from Beornmund’s island (whoever the Anglo-Saxon Beornmund was, is another matter), but Bermondsey is likely to have been a higher, drier spot in an otherwise marshy area, rather than a real island.

The area first appears in a letter from Pope Constantine (708-715), in which he grants privileges to a monastery at Vermundesei, then in the hands of the abbot of Medeshamstede, as Peterborough was known at the time.

Bermondsey appears in Domesday Book. It was then held by King William, though a small part was in the hands of Robert, Count of Mortain, the king’s half brother, and younger brother of Odo of Bayeux, then Earl of Kent.

Bermondsey Abbey was founded as a Cluniac priory in 1082, and was dedicated to St Saviour. Monks from the abbey began the development of the area, cultivating the land and embanking the riverside. They turned an adjacent tidal inlet at the mouth of the Riv...
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APRIL
18
2019

 

Royal Society
The Royal Society is a self-governing Fellowship of many of the world’s most distinguished scientists drawn from all areas of science, engineering and medicine. The Society has played a part in some of the most fundamental, significant, and life-changing discoveries in scientific history and Royal Society scientists continue to make outstanding contributions to science in many research areas.

The origins of the Royal Society lie in an ’invisible college’ of natural philosophers who began meeting in the mid-1640s to discuss the new philosophy of promoting knowledge of the natural world through observation and experiment, which we now call science.

Its official foundation date is 28 November 1660, when a group of 12 met at Gresham College after a lecture by Christopher Wren, then the Gresham Professor of Astronomy, and decided to found ’a Colledge for the Promoting of Physico-Mathematicall Experimentall Learning’. This group included Wren himself, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, Sir Robert Moray, and William, Viscount Brouncker.

The Royal Society’s motto ’Nullius in ...
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APRIL
17
2019

 

Dalston Kingsland
Kingsland railway station was first opened on this site in 1850, but was replaced by Dalston Junction in 1865. The current station was opened in 1983. Kingsland gets its name from the hunting grounds of a Tudor-era royal residence at Newington Green – "King’s Lands".

It was originally a small roadside settlement centred on the Old North Road near to the junction with Dalston Lane.

In 1672, Kingsland had 28 householders assessed for hearth tax. It expanded in the 18th century along Kingsland Road and by 1724 had five inns. The local parishes lobbied Parliament in 1713 for the right to set up a Turnpike Trust, to pay for the necessary maintenance to the North Road. Gates were installed at Kingsland and Stamford Hill to collect the tolls. Larger scale development began in 1807, and a new estate was created on Lamb Farm, to the south and west of the Dalston Lane junction.

The ’Lock Hospital’ for lepers was founded in 1280 by the City of London, as one of ten located on the main roads from the City. From 1549, the hospital was administered by St Bartholomew’s Hospit...
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APRIL
16
2019

 

Pimlico
Pimlico is known for its garden squares and Regency architecture. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Manor of Ebury was divided up and leased by the Crown to servants or favourites. In 1623, James I sold the freehold of Ebury - the land was sold on several more times until it came into the possession of heiress Mary Davies in 1666.

Mary’s dowry not only included modern-day Pimlico and Belgravia, but also most of what is now Mayfair and Knightsbridge. She was much pursued and in 1677 at the age of twelve she married Sir Thomas Grosvenor. The Grosvenors were a family of Norman descent long seated at Eaton Hall in Cheshire who until this auspicious marriage were only of local consequence in the county of Cheshire. Through the development and good management of this land, the Grosvenors acquired enormous wealth.

At some point in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, the area ceased to be known as Ebury (or ’The Five Fields’) and gained the name by which it is now known. According t...
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APRIL
15
2019

 

St Magnus-the-Martyr
St Magnus the Martyr church is dedicated to St Magnus the Martyr, earl of Orkney, who died on 16 April 1116. Archaeological evidence suggests that the area of London Bridge head was not occupied from the early 5th century until the early 10th century.

Environmental evidence indicates that the area was waste ground during this period, colonised by elder and nettles. Following Alfred’s decision to reoccupy the walled area of London in 886, new harbours were established at Queenhithe and Billingsgate. A bridge was in place by the early 11th century, a factor which would have encouraged the occupation of the bridgehead by craftsmen and traders.

St Magnus was built to the south of Thames Street to serve the growing population of the bridgehead area and was certainly in existence by 1128-33.

Until 1831, London Bridge was aligned with Fish Street Hill, so the main entrance into the City from the south passed the West door of St Magnus on the north bank of the river. The bridge included a chapel dedicated to St Thomas Becket for the use of pilgrims...
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APRIL
14
2019

 

Wells Street, W1D
Wells Street - ’Welses Lane’ - is first recorded in 1692. Wells Street is an old route, marking the boundary between former freeholds: the Cavendish–Harley, later Portland and then Howard de Walden estate to the west, and the smaller Berners estate to the east.

By the beginning of the eighteenth century, landuse in Marylebone was by no means purely agricultural. Clay and gravel pits abounded due to London’s encroachment, and a tenant of one of the eastern fields, George Wells, had been called a brickmaker as far back as 1658. Wells Lane or Street, named after him, was another old track, but did not connect with Oxford Street till the 1690s.

George Wells occupied the fields east of the lane, called Newlands, when they were bought by Josias Berners in 1654, and where he erected some long-vanished buildings.

Wells (‘Welses’) Lane is first recorded in 1692, when James Long, the Covent Garden inn-keeper and brewer interested in the lands to its west, got permission to create a short route from ...
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APRIL
13
2019

 

Canary Wharf
Canary Wharf is a large business development on the Isle of Dogs, centred on the old West India Docks. Canary Wharf was the site of cargo warehouses that served the docks based in London E14, taking its name from sea trade with the Canary Islands. The docks were, as recently as 1961, the busiest in the world but fell into declie after containerisation.

The project to revitalise eight square miles of derelict London docks began in 1981 with the establishment of the London Docklands Development Corporation. At first, redevelopment was focused on light industrial schemes and Canary Wharf’s largest occupier was Limehouse Studios, a TV production company.

In 1984, Michael von Clem, head of the investment bank Credit Suisse First Boston, was visiting the Docklands looking for a site for a client’s food processing plant and noticed that there was empty land. Thinking of relocating City of London offices, von Clem contacted his opposite number at Morgan Stanley who said that a large scheme with critical mass would be necessary. It was also agreed that a new T...
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APRIL
12
2019

 

Carlton House Terrace, SW1Y
Carlton House Terrace consists of a pair of terraces - white stucco-faced houses on the south side of the street overlooking St. James’s Park. The land on which Carlton House Terrace was built had once been part of the grounds of St James’s Palace, known as "the Royal Garden" and "the Wilderness". The Wilderness was at one time in the possession of Prince Rupert of the Rhine and was later called Upper Spring Garden.

From 1700 the land was held by Henry Boyle, who spent nearly £3000 on improving the existing house in the Royal Garden. Boyle was created Baron Carleton in 1714. On his death the lease passed to his nephew, Lord Burlington, and thence in 1732 to Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of George II. After Frederick’s premature death in 1751, his widow Augusta continued living in the house. After her death in 1772, the house devolved to her son - George III - who in turn granted it to his eldest son, George, Prince of Wales. The Prince spent enormous sums on the property, running up huge debts. The house became a rival Court to his father. When the Prince became King George IV in 1820, he moved t...
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APRIL
11
2019

 

Lincoln’s Inn Fields, WC2A
Lincoln’s Inn Fields is the largest public square in London, laid out in the 1630s under the initiative of the speculative builder William Newton. Lincoln’s Inn Fields takes its name from the adjacent Lincoln’s Inn, from which the private gardens are separated by a perimeter wall and a large gatehouse.

Up to the 17th century, the fields were part of a agricultural land called Pursefield which belonged to St Giles Hospital. Katherine Smyth, the owner of the White Hart Inn on Drury Lane, leased the land from 1520 but then reverted to the Crown.

Its use as pasture meant that turnstiles were placed around the land to enable pedestrians to enter without animals escaping. Shops developed along these footpaths - still called Great Turnstile and Little Turnstile.

Inigo Jones drew out a plan for "laying out and planting" the fields but it was William Newton who was granted permission to erect 32 houses in what became known as Lincoln’s Inn Fields in 1638.

The completion of the houses that surrounded the fields proceeded slowly. The oldest building from the ear...
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APRIL
10
2019

 

Bank of England
The Bank of England is the central bank of the United Kingdom. Sometimes known as the Old Lady of Threadneedle Street, it was founded in 1694, nationalised in 1946, and gained operational independence to set monetary policy in 1997.

After the ’Glorious Revolution’ of 1688, there were calls for a national public bank to stabilise the nation’s resources. Many schemes were proposed but the successful one was from William Paterson. This envisaged a loan of £1,200,000 to the Government but in return the subscribers would be incorporated as the ’Governor and Company of the Bank of England’. The Royal Charter was sealed on 27 July 1694, and the Bank started its official role which it continues today.

In 1734, the Bank acquired premises in Threadneedle Street. Over the next hundred years it added adjacent properties until the present island site was secured, and Sir John Soane’s massive curtain wall was erected round it.

The Bank’s notes became an accepted currency - people seldom doubte...
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APRIL
9
2019

 

Kamballa Road, SW11
Kamballa Road ran from Natal Road to Falcon Road. Alfred Heaver bought the land here in 1879 becoming part of the Falcon Park estate. Surveyor W. C. Poole planned the area, continuing Mantua Street eastwards. Two new streets, Heaver Road and Musjid Road were set out running between Natal Road and Falcon Road.

Kambala Road was built when in 1882 Alfred Heaver obtained building rights over a narrow market-garden field which lay south of the Prince’s Head and which had a house called Falcon House on it. The field had been leased in the 1850s to William Watling who had promised to build on it but instead rented out Falcon House and let the lands at the back for a piggery and cowsheds.

Watling’s grandson, John Stephens, acquired the freehold in 1880 just before he died. The leases for houses on
Kamballa Road houses were mostly giving out by his widow Emily Louise Stephens.

Between Kamballa and Musjid Roads, Arding and Hobbs had a warehouse and there were workshops for Munt Brothers...
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APRIL
8
2019

 

Battersea High Street, SW11
Battersea High Street is anything but the high street of Battersea. Overtaken as a commercial street by Falcon Road and Battersea Park Road, the street is now largely residential, albeit with a remaining larger-than-average supply of public houses.

Battersea had been an area of market gardens until the Victorian era and much of the area near the Thames was marshland. The village of Battersea had been centred on Battersea Square and Battersea High Street.

Landowner Lord Spencer opened up Battersea by building a bridge across the Thames in 1772. St. Mary’s Church was rebuilt in 1777.

A railway station, since closed, was built on Battersea High Street in 1863 for the West London Extension Railway.

But it was Clapham Junction which was the important Battersea development. The railway station encouraged the local council to site its buildings in the area surrounding it - a cluster of new civic buildings included the town hall, police station, court, a library and post office in the 1880s and...
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APRIL
7
2019

 

White City Stadium
White City Stadium was built for the 1908 Summer Olympics, and hosted the finish of the first modern marathon. It was designed by J.J. Webster and completed within 10 months by George Wimpey on part of the site of the Franco-British Exhibition.

The stadium had a seating capacity of 68,000 was opened by King Edward VII on 27 April 1908. Upon completion, the stadium had a running track 24 ft wide and three laps to the mile. Outside the stadium there was a 660 yard cycle track.

Many events of the 1908 Olympics were held at the stadium. Even swimming was held at White City Stadium, in a 100-yard pool dug into the infield. The distance of the modern marathon was fixed at the 1908 Games and calculated from the start of the race at Windsor Castle to a point in front of the royal box at White City.

The original running track continued in use until 1914. There were attempts to sell the stadium in 1922, but several athletes in the team for the 1924 Summer Olympics used it for training.

From 1927 to 1984, it was a venue for greyhound racing, ho...
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APRIL
6
2019

 

South Ruislip
South Ruislip developed only in the twentieth century after the opening of the local station. A GWR/GCR joint line was built to High Wycombe from both Paddington and Marylebone. The two railways met at Northolt Junction, situated slightly to the east of the station.

South Ruislip station was opened on 1 May 1908 and was originally known as Northolt Junction. The station then became South Ruislip & Northolt Junction in 1932 and received its present name on 30 June 1947.

The station was first served by the Central line on 21 November 1948 when the Central line extension from London towards West Ruislip was finished. The concrete, glass and granite chip frieze in the booking hall is one of the earliest public works by glass artist, Henry Haig.
»read full article


APRIL
5
2019

 

Mill Hill East
Mill Hill East station is on the High Barnet branch of the Northern Line, and is the only station on a branch from Finchley Central. Mill Hill East station was built by the Edgware, Highgate and London Railway (EH&LR) and was opened as Mill Hill on 22 August 1867 by the Great Northern Railway (GNR) (which had taken over the EH&LR) in rural Middlesex. The station was on a line from Finsbury Park to Edgware via Highgate.

The EH&LR was built as a double track formation, but only a single track was laid, with the intention of doubling the track when business developed. However, when the GNR opened a branch from Finchley Central to High Barnet in April 1872 traffic on that section was greater, and the second track was never laid from Finchley Central to Edgware. For most of its history the service between those two stations was operated as a shuttle.

The station opened as Mill Hill and was given its present name in 1928.

The area around Mill Hill East has still the air of a village about it. It is quiet and very green with plenty of parks and golf courses to hand.

»more


APRIL
4
2019

 

Bunhill Fields
Bunhill Fields was in use as a burial ground from 1665 until 1854. By the mid nineteenth century, about approximately 123,000 interments were estimated to have taken place of which over 2000 monuments remain.

It contains the graves of many notable people including John Bunyan, author of ’The Pilgrim’s Progress’; Susanna Wesley, known as the "Mother of Methodism"; Daniel Defoe, author of ’Robinson Crusoe’; William Blake (died 1827), artist, poet, and mystic; . It was a nondenominational burial ground, and was particularly favoured by nonconformists.

On the far side of Bunhill Row is a Quaker burial ground, also sometimes also known by the name Bunhill Fields and in use from 1661 to 1855. Its remains are a public garden, Quaker Gardens, managed by the London Borough of Islington.
»read full article


APRIL
3
2019

 

Goodmayes
Goodmayes station was built in 1901 and forms part of the (Crossrail) Elizabeth line. Although Goodmayes appears on maps as early as the 1770s, the area remained largely undeveloped until the end of the 19th century when suburban development took place as London expanded. Most of the area was built up between 1898 and 1910 by the developer A. C. Corbett who used new stations on the Great Eastern Railway to promote new suburbs.

Goodmayes was part of the ancient parish of Barking until 1888 when it became part of the new parish of Ilford. The London Borough of Redbridge was formed in 1965 from Ilford and other areas.

Actors Cardew Robinson and Sir Ian Holm were born in Goodmayes.



»read full article


APRIL
2
2019

 

Roman Road, E3
Roman Road is divided into an E2 and E3 section. The Roman Road Market may date from as early as 1843 but was certainly as a fully fledged street market in 1887 by poverty campaigner Charles Booth. He reported that "Roman Road ... is one of the great market streets in London. Things to be bought of every sort, even patent leather shoes."

By 1901 there were 90 stalls trading in Roman Road. Typical market produce, says romanroadlondon.com, would have included fruit and vegetables, fish, meat, furniture and clothing.

The market was partly pedestrianised after the Second World War. Two archways, erected in 1986, mark each end of the Roman Road Market. Nowadays, Roman Road Market operates on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Saturdays.

The newspaper of the Suffragette movement was published from 321 Roman Road. The Suffragettes ran a stall in Roman Road market selling the ’Women’s Dreadnought; together with the toys and second hand goods.
»read full article


APRIL
1
2019

 

Percy Circus, WC1X
Percy Circus was once referred to as "one of the most delightful bits of town planning in London". Percy Circus was begun in 1841 but not completed until 1853. Around the railed central garden are still fifteen of the original twenty-seven houses.

It has five unevenly-spaced entry points and is laid out on the side of a hill.

On 15 May 1941, parachute mines and high explosive bombs fell in Holford Square and Percy Circus causing widespread devastation in the immediate vicinity.

The damage inflicted on this rare survival in London continued well into the 1960s when, in 1969, some of the remaining authentic Victorian houses were demolished to make way for a new hotel.

Despite the best attentions of the Luftwaffe and post war London planners the Circus still retains, in part at least, some of its old world charm.
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