London Street Names by Gillan Bebbington

This project has used the excellent 1972 book by Gillian Bebbington, “London Street Names”. At time of writing, this book is sadly out of print.

All of the streets lined to here are streets with a story behind them.

 

Adelaide. Queen Adelaide was the consort of King William IV, whom he dutifully married in a vain attempt to provide an heir to the throne. Their reign was short and uneventful, but it did witness the replacing of the Charing Cross slums by Adelaide Street (4) and William IV Street, new thoroughfares patriotically named after the crowned heads.

Adelphi Terrace (Strand 4). The Adelphi area south of the Strand derives its name adelphoi, ‘brothers’, from the famous Adam Brothers (Adam Street and Lower Adam Street) who in 1768 obtained a lease of the Durham House site (see Durham House Street). With skill and ingenuity they created an elegant residential district raised on high arches, with the Lower streets under-ground at Thames level. John, the eldest brother, and Robert, the most gifted, have left their names here in John Adam Street, Robert Street and Lower Robert Street. (James Street and William Street, after the other two brothers, have been combined as Durham House Street.) There is also a Robert Adam Street in Marylebone, close to Home House, Portman Square, now the Courtauld Institute, perhaps Robert’s most impressive work.

Admiral Mews and Place (North Kensington). From the Admiral Blake pub in Ladbroke Grove. Blake was a Cromwellian admiral who defeated the Royalist navy during the Civil War, and captured a Spanish treasure-fleet in 1656.

Admirals Walk (Hampstead I). The tall white Georgian villa here called Admiral’s House was built by retired Admiral Matthew Barton, who arranged an armed quarterdeck on the roof and marked national events by firing cannonades. He died at Admiral’s House in 1795.

Adrian Mews (West Brompton 6) was named after Adrian House (67 Tregunter Road), which was built opposite the end of this mews on the corner of Ifield and Tregunter Roads in the 1860s.

Affleck Street (Pentonville Road 4) was built by a Mr A. Attneave in 1884. Affleck may have been his Christian name.

Agar Grove and Place (St Pancras 8). The stretch of countryside between here and the site of King’s Cross Station was leased by ‘Counsellor’ William Agar, QC in 1816. 25 years later he started to cover his fields with tightly packed rows of two- and four-roomed workers’ cottages, the district known as Agar Town. It was a notorious slum area, crammed with the penniless and the criminal, and later crowded with the poor of St Giles whose homes were destroyed when New Oxford Street was formed. Agar’s descendants were not permitted to renew the lease when it expired, and it was transferred to the Midland Railway Company, whose warehouses and rails have replaced the rookery . The decrepit streets were all neutrally named after English towns; the only one to survive was Cambridge Street, (now adapted to Canley Street), King’s Cross.

Agamemnon Road, NW6

Agincourt Road (Hampstead 8) and Cressy Road were built in mid-Victorian times and presumably named in patriotic memory of the English victories at Agincourt and Cressy, near Calais, during the Hundred Years’ War.

Ainger Road (South Hampstead 8) lies along the boundary of St John’s Hampstead, a parish which saw much rapid development and the evils which accompany it—in the nineteenth century. The name commemorates Thomas Ainger, vicar of St John’s from 1841 until his death in 1863, who tried to keep the evils to a minimum by providing clinics, schools and churches to go with the new houses.

Ainsworth Estate (South Hampstead 1). A post-war housing estate named after novelist William Harrison Ainsworth (1805-1882) who lived in Hampstead and introduced low scenes into many of his books. The Houses on the estate commemorate local writers and artists: Sir Walter Besant, nineteenth-century novelist, who lived at Frognal ; Henry Fielding, author of Tom Jones, who frequented the district; Kate Greenaway see Greenaway Gardens; John Linnell, a painter of Hampstead scenes; Maria Edgeworth (1767-1849), an Irish novelist and frequent visitor to Hampstead, and Robert Louis Stevenson, at one time a resident of Hampstead.

Air Street (Regent Street 7). Although this was the most westerly street in London when newly built in 1658, the name was not chosen to indicate its healthy atmosphere; it is derived from Thomas Ayres, a local brewer and builder.

Airlie Gardens (Kensington 6). After the 5th Earl of Airlie (1826-1881), who lived on nearby Campden Hill at Holly Lodge, the house where Lord Macaulay spent the last years of his life. It is now part of Queen Elizabeth College, London University.

Ajax Road. NW6

Akenside Road (Hampstead 1). After Mark Akenside (1721-1770), poet and physician to the royal family. He lived at North End, Hampstead, for two or three years.

Alba Place (North Kensington 2) was Albion Place until 1937, one of the many patriotic names dating from the period immediately following the Crimean War.

Albany. The Duke of York and Albany, the ‘Grand Old Duke’ of the nursery rhyme, was the eldest brother of the Prince Regent. Albany in Piccadilly was begun in 1802 through the gardens of his home, York House (now Albany House, known as the `mansion’, at the south end of Albany). The Duke had lived there for only ten years when his debts and extravagance caught up with him and forced him to sell.

Albemarle Way (Clerkenwell 5) built soon after the Restoration, honours the popular hero General Monk, who had been largely responsible for bringing Charles II to the throne. As soon as the king was established in London he created Monk Duke of Albemarle. Albermarle Street (Piccadilly 7), owes its name to Monk’s extravagant spendthift son Christopher, who succeeded him as 2nd Duke. In 1675 Christopher bought Clarendon House in Piccadilly,  which had been the home of Lord Chancellor Clarendon until his downfall and exile; it was the ‘most useful, graceful], magnificent house in England’ according to Evelyn the diarist. But only eight years later he had to sell it for demolition, as Evelyn reports indignantly : ‘This stately palace is decreed to ruine, to support the prodigious waste the Duke of Albemarle had made of his estate, since the old man died’. Albemarle Street and the surrounding streets were then built on the site by Sir Thomas Bond and partners .

Albert. Queen Victoria and Prince Albert hold the record for the greatest number of commemorative London street names. This reflects the fervent patriotism of their reign, which coincided with furious growth in the suburbs and the building of great new roads across the centre of the metropolis. Albert married Victoria in 1840, and streets then being developed on the expanding fringes of London (and indeed towns all over the country) were forthwith named after him. Among the many were Albert Place, off Victoria Road Kensington, the Albert Gate into Hyde Park (7) and Albert Street and Terrace, Primrose Hill (8). Primrose Hill Road was renamed Prince Albert Road (8). After the Queen’s bereavement in 1861, more important memorials came thick and fast. The Albert Embankment (7) was finished in 1870 and so called as a com-panion name to the Victoria Embankment on the opposite bank. Albert Bridge (6), the only London bridge named in honour of a person, was opened in 1873. And on the South Kensington Estate where the Prince had dreamed of creating the national cultural centre which he did not live to witness, (see Exhibition Road), rose the Royal Albert Hall followed by Albert Hall Mansions, Albert Court and Prince Consort Road (6). Albion. The patriotic fervour which led builders to name their streets Albion’ and ‘Britannia’ seems to have been a phenomenon of the Georgian era; since the Hanoverian kings were Personally unpopular, loyalty to the motherland was expressed by these vague but loaded names (except when victories occurred, to engender a profusion of Nelsons, Trafalgars Waterloos). But after Victoria’s accession in 1837 the incidence of Albions and Britannias in London shows a marked decrease accompanied by an outburst of Victoria Terraces, followed within ‘ the decade by dozens of Alberts. Thus there are Albion Buildings in the City (5) erected in 1766, Albion Place Clerkenwell (5), so named in 1822, about the same time as Albion Road, Stoke Newington, and Albion Close and Street, Paddington (3), begun in about 1830. Exceptionally late is Albion (now Alba) Place, North Kensington, built in 1863. Britannias follow the same pattern : Britannia Street, King’s Cross, dating from the 1770s, and Britannia Row, Islington, c. 1800. There is also a Georgian Patriot Square in the East End.

Aldenham Street (King’s Cross 4). The Aldenham Estate at King’s Cross was given to the public school at Aldenham in Hertfordshire by its founder, Richard Platt. Platt was a native of Aldenham and a successful London brewer of the reign of Elizabeth i. Like many gentlemen of his time, he saw the importance of the new learning that was spreading from the continent, and he was concerned at the state of education in England since the church schools had been dissolved. It was becoming the custom for wealthy merchants to endow free Grammar Schools in their home towns with estates of land near London: see for instance Rugby Street, Tunbridge Street, Bedford Row, and Lyon’s Place (on the Harrow School Estate). Platt be-queathed three fields ‘lying nighe the Churche of St Pancrasse in the County of Nid’x besides London’ and some land at Aldenham, including Medburn Farm, to be controlled for the school by the Brewers’ Company. The fields at St Pancras are now Aldenham Street, Platt Street, Medburn Street and Charrington Street, after the firm of brewers.

Alderman’s Walk (Bishopsgate, City) was once Dashwood’s Walk, the passage to Francis Dashwood’s house and garden. The name was changed in the eighteenth century, when he and several of his kinsmen were elected as City Aldermen.

Aldermanbury (City 5) takes its name from a bury, or fortified mansion, which occupied this site by the twelfth century. The original `ealdormen’ of Alfred the Great’s day were the king’s representatives in the shires, and this may have been the residence of the officer for London. By 1066 the title alderman was conferred on the chiefs of the City wards, theoretically elected annually by the freemen of the ward. In practice aldermen were virtually princes of their domain, wealthy and powerful members of the City’s leading families. Whether Norman or Saxon, the Alderman’s bury must have been a considerable mansion of great importance in the neighbourhood.

Alderney Street (Pimlico 7) has had a complicated history: at first it was Stanley Street, from the Stanley family who have owned a plot of land here for centuries: hence the Stanley Arms in Lupus Street and Stanley Place (q.v.). But streets of this name were so numerous in London that it had to be changed, and in 1879 the name Alderley was chosen by association with the noble family of Stanleys of Alderley. However Lord Stanley of Alderley objected, and so the name was immediately adapted to Alderney.

Aldersgate Street (City 5). The original gate here was breached by the Romans some time after the City wall was built in the second century. It was a double gateway strengthened by towers projecting on the outside; part of the western tower was discovered beneath Aldersgate Street in 1939. The name is Saxon : the gate of Aldred, who perhaps lived above the gate to guard the approach road. Further fortifications and guard rooms were added through the middle ages. Aldersgate was finally demolished in 1761, and now only a plaque marks its site.

Aldgate (City 5) recalls one of the massive gates which defended the City from Roman times until 1760. Stow wrote in his Survey of London of 1598 that ‘It hath had two pair of gates, though now but one; the hooks remaineth yet. Also there hath been two port-closes; the one of them remaineth, the other wanteth, but the lace of letting down is manifest’. The name has been interpreted as Aiegate, ‘ale gate’, Aelgate, ‘public gate’ or Aldgate, ‘old gate’.

Aldgate High Street was probably a Roman road leading to the gate.

Aldred Road (Hampstead 1). Origin of name unknown.

Aldridge Road Villas (Westbourne Park 2). The Aldridge family held land beside the Harrow Road at Westbourne Park by 1743. John Aldridge, who died in 1795, and was MP for Queensborough, married Henrietta Busby, the wealthy widow of a considerable Bayswater land-owner, thus adding several scattered fields in Bayswater and Westbourne to his possessions. Aldridge Road Villas and Queensborough Terrace,, built by his grandson in the 1860s stand on part of his lands.

Aldwych (Strand 4) A new street (built 1900-1905)

Alexander Place (South Kensington) After John Alexander, heir to the Thurloe estate.

Alexander Square (South Kensington) Named after the family of W.H. Alexander, who gifted the London Portrait Gallery to London in 1896.

Alexander Street (Westbourne Park 2) was built in 1853 by Alexander Hall of Watergate House, Sussex. He owned several acres of land around this site, largely occupied by the principal London depot of his family’s quarry-owning interests, conveniently situated beside the main railway line into Paddington.

Alexandra Road (South Hampstead ) was built in about 1863, the year young Princess Alexandra, daughter of Christian tx of Denmark, came to England to marry the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII).

Alfred Place (off Tottenham Court Road 4) was built in 1806 by a Marylebone stonemason called John Waddilove who named it after his son Alfred. Alfred Waddilove was still collecting profits from the enterprise many years later.

Alfred Road (Westbourne Park 2). the Royal Saxon pub here opened in the 1850s and dedicated to Alfred the Great.

All Saints Roas (North Kensington Road 2). The church of All-Saints-With-St Columb was built by the the Reverend Samuel Walker, who came from St Columb Major, near St Ervan Cornwall: hence also Cornwall Crescent and St Ervan’s Road. Kensington. In 1852 he bought several fields of Portobello Farm and spent thousands of pounds developing them, starting with this church. the church was isolated and derelict for 10 years . Local residents and irreverently called it ‘Walker’s Folly’ or ‘All Sinners in the Mud . Refs: 114, 59.

AlI Souls’ Place (Langham Place Marylebone) adjoins the beautiful church of All Souls, built in 1822 from designs by John Nash.

Allcroft Road (Gospel Oak 8) The church of St Martin’s on the corner of Alicroft Road and Vicar’s Road was built in 1865 at the expense of John D. Alicroft, a wealthy Shropshire gentleman who was concerned about the spiritual welfare of the hundreds of workers and artisans moving into this rapidly developing neighbourhood. A memorial to him was erected in the church at his death in 1893.

Allen Street (Kensington 6). Thomas Allen, a Buckinghamshire gentleman who owned and developed this property, was one of the innovators of stucco, according to Faulkner’s History of Kensington (1820) : ‘Mr Allen is now building two large rows of houses in the modern style, covered with plaister to ressemble stone’. Faulkner denounced this as `tasteless tasteless innovation’.

Allhallows Lane (City 5) took its name from a Wren church which stood on the corner with Upper Thames Street until 1894. It was known as Allhallows-the-Great to distinguish it from Allhallows-the-Less (also demolished) situated about 50 yards further east along Upper Thames Street.

Allington Street (Victoria 7) is first found in 1827, a year when a rash of new streets and terraces appeared in the future Victoria area, an named for no apparent reason after towns and counties scattered over the country: Allington (Lincs), Stockbridge (Hants), Shaftesbury (Dorset), Bedford, Trelleck (Mon), Pembroke, Hindon (Wilts) and Howick (Lanes). Apart from Allington Street and Howick Place, they have all since disappeared. Names of towns were a common source of street names among uninspired builders.

Allitsen Road (St John’s Wood 3). Frances Allitsen was a song-writer best remembered for the patriotic There’s a land, popular at the time of the Boer War. She died in 1912 having spent part of her life at 20 Queen’s Grove, St John’s Wood, and so her name was selected when this nearby street, formerly Henry Street, was being renamed in 1938.

Allsop Place (Marylebone Road 3). Thomas AIlsop had a farm on the north side of Marylebone Road soon after its construction in 1757. He was described as a `cow-keeper’, and a cow-yard is still shown on maps of the 1830s, but by that time his grazing land was covered by Allsop’s Buildings, Mews and Place. Only the Place now remains. The Allsop Arms in Gloucester Place was also on part of the farm.

Alma. A popular name with street builders of the late 1850s, commemorating the River Alma on whose banks the first Anglo-French victory of the Crimean War was won in 1854. Alma Square (St John’s Wood 3) and Alma Terrace (Allen Street, Kensington) were built shortly after that date. All the streets formed on the same field as Alma Street (Kentish Town 8) are named from this war see Inkerman Road.

Alperton Street (Kensal Town 2) was originally called A Street : see First Avenue, Kensal Town.

Alpha Close (Marylebone 3) was the southernmost and, begun by 1799, the earliest street on the Eyre estate, and so was named with the first letter of the Greek alphabet. It was also the pioneer street of ‘villa development’ : the houses were semi-detached in-stead of in rows. Its subsidiaries, Beta Place and Omega Place, and all but a stump of Alpha Close, were swept away by the Great Central Railway in the 1890s.

Alpha Place, Chelsea. An early nineteenth-century street, probably so called because it was the first turning to be built out of the old lane now named Flood Street.

Alvanley Gardens (Hampstead 1). Named in honour of one of Hampstead’s distinguished residents, Lord Chief Justice Alvanley (1745-1804), who lived his last years at Frognal Hall.

Amberley Road (Westbourne Green 2). From the Lord Amberley pub here, opened in about 1861 when Lord John Russell, the statesman and was created Viscount Amberley.

America Square (City 5) was begun in the 1760s. Ironically, it must have been finished just before the American War of Independence broke out in 1775.

Anchor Yard (Old Street 5). The Anchor tavern in Old Street was recommended in the early eighteenth-century Guide to Good Fellows, and is mentioned again in 1799, but thereafter it cannot be traced. Ref: 174.

Anderson Street (Chelsea 7), Lincoln Street and Coulson Street occupy the site of Colvill’s Nursery, one of the many nursery grounds which flourished beside the King’s Road, Chelsea until well into the nineteenth century. James Colvill (there is now a Colville Arms in King’s Road) died in about 1843, bequeathing his property to Thomas Coulson, a Clerkenwell bootmaker, and his son James, a Hammersmith baker. The trustees appointed to administer and develop the estate were John Anderson of Old Church Street, Chelsea, and Stroud Lincoln of Brompton, who was involved in many building schemes in Chelsea and Kensington in the mid-nineteenth century.

Andover Place (Paddington 2) was given a Hampshire place name by analogy with the other Hampshire names hereabouts: see Southwick Street, Paddington.

Andrew Borde Street (St Giles High Street 4). Dr Andrew Borde was reputedly the original Merry Andrew, a renowned wit of the time of Henry VIII, and author of the Tales of the mad men of Gotham. When the king dissolved St Giles Hospital, Doctor Borde owned the former Hospital Master’s House, which stood, as far as can be ascertained, where this modern (1962) street runs.

Andrews Crosse (Chancery Lane, City): The “Andrewes crosse” inn, showing the Scottish flag of St Andrew as its sign, occupied this site in Shakespeare’s time.

Angel. The Angel was one of the commonest medieval inn-signs, and gave its name to a multitude of little streets; in the mid-eighteenth century there were still 23 Angel Alleys and 30 Angel Courts in London. Unlike other common signs–Bells, Crowns, Balls and so on–it was not particularly simple to depict, so the pre-dominating idea must have been to invoke heavenly protection on the house and its occupants. Early Angel signs pictured the Annunciation to the Virgin ; after the Reformation, Mary was omitted from the scene.

Angel Mews (Pentonville Road 5) runs behind the well-known Angel, Islington, which dates from at least 1638. It was a popular resting place for farmers driving their cattle to Smithfield and other travellers who stayed there overnight rather than venture down St John Street, then infested with robbers, after dark. The inn now stands empty and anonymous on the corner of Pentonville Road and Islington High Street. Another Angel coaching inn, flourishing by the time of Oliver Cromwell, stood on the north side of Angel Street (St Martin’s-le-Grand 5) and survived until about 1840. The name also survives, though the inn has gone, in three thoroughfares that were so called by the time of Charles II Angel Court (Throg-morton Street 5), Angel Passage (Upper Thames Street 5) and Angel Court (St James’s 7).

Anglers Lane (Kentish Town 8) was ‘one of the loveliest sites imaginable’ according to an old resident of Kentish Town, reminiscing in the local newspaper in 1909: ‘Beside it, and then with a curve over it ran the Fleet River. Many a time, as a lad, I beheld the spectacle which gave it its name : a row of weary anglers, some in cloth caps and some in battered top hats’. The river on whose banks they fished was forced into sewer pipes in the 1860s when the area was developed, but there is still a Jolly Anglers pub at the end of the lane, as there has been for centuries.

Ann Lane (Chelsea 6) may be named after Mary Ann Riley.

Ann’s Close (Belgravia 7). Name first found in 1842. Origin unknown,

Ansdell Street and Terrace commemorate Richard Ansdell RA, whose animal paintings were highly popular with the Victorian public. After some success in his native Liverpool, Ansdell moved to Kensington in 1847, and there he was to live (in Victoria Road and later St Albans Road) until shortly before his death in 1885.

Ansleigh Place (Treadgold Street, North Kensington) contains back entrances to buildings in St Antis Road and Stoneleigh Street.

Antrim Grove and Road (Hampstead 8). Origin of name unknown.

Apollo Place (Chelsea 6) is first shown on a plan of ‘Mr Riley’s freehold’ dated 1829. Probably from an early tavern sign in Riley Street.

Apothecary Street (City 5) leads to Apothecaries’ Hall. James I founded the company of Apothecaries in 1617, in order to restrict medicine-making to qualified druggists, and it was his royal apothecary who established the Hall here.

Appled Tree Yard (St James’s 7) was once St James’s Field, described in 1650 as pasture ground planted with apple trees. Some of the trees were probably allowed to survive when this yard and the surrounding streets were built 25 years later. Samuel Pepys came to St James’s in 1688 : and there walk an hour of two; and in the King’s garden, and saw the Queen and ladies walk; and I did steal some apples off the trees.’

Aquila Street (St John’s Wood 3) was built in about 1840. Origin unknown.

Archer Street (Soho 7). Origin unknown. First found in 1675, when it was called Arch Street.

Archery Close (Bayswater 3) recalls a nearby Archery Ground used by the Royal Toxopholite Society from 1821 until the land was wanted for development in 1834. Bathurst Street and the Archery Tavern now cover its site.

Archibald Mews (Mayfair 7) used to be John Court, after John, 5th Lord Berkeley who owned and developed the land. When and why John became Archibald is not known.

Arctic Street (Kentish Town 8) was originally Franklin Street, probably named after its Victorian builder. This was changed in 1937 because there were other London Franklin Streets, and Arctic was chosen by association of ideas : Sir John Franklin was the British Arctic explorer who died in an attempt to discover the North-West Passage in 1847.

Ardwick Road (North Hampstead 1). After Major Ardwick Burgess: see Burgess Hill, North Hampstead.

Argyle Square, Street and Walk (King’s Cross 4) and neighbouring streets were built on Battle Bridge Field (see Battle Bridge Road) in 1824, a few years after the adjoining Tonbridge School Field was laid out with streets named after places near Tonbridge, Kent. As a contrast, the Battle Bridge names were chosen from the north of Britain: Argyle, or Argyll, in Scotland; Belgrove Street, formerly Belgrave Street (Warwickshire); Crestfield Street, formerly Chesterfield Street (Derbyshire); and Birkenhead Street (Cheshire). There were also once Manchester, Liverpool and Derby Streets here.

Argyll Road (Kensington 6). After the Duke of Argyll, of Bedford Lodge : see Duchess of Bedford’s Walk, Kensington.

Argyll Street (Oxford Street 7). The 2nd Duke of Argyll, soldier and statesman, a founder of the union of Scotland and England, owned a small field on the site of this street. He established his town house here, but it was demolished to make way for Little Argyll Street. After his death in 1743, his successor the 3rd Duke built a new mansion in Argyll Street, which remained the family home until 1808. The London Palladium now occupies its site. Ref: 208.

Ariel Road (Hampstead 1). Ariel was a Hebrew word signifying a water spirit. Milton featured Ariel as a fallen spirit in Paradise Lost, and Shakespeare and Pope used the name in The Tempest and The Rape of the Lock. Ariel is also one of the satellites of the planet Uranus, but the reason this street should be so named is not known.

Arlington. Sir Henry Bennet, one of the King’s supporters in the Civil War, who loyally followed the royal family into exile, was rewarded at the Restoration with the Earldom of Arlington, and became Charles II’s Secretary of State. In 1681 the king gave him the Six Acre Close, previously part of Green Park, on which Bennet Street and Arlington Street St James’s, are built. , Arlington also received from the king the Manor of Tottenham Court, which passed to his daughter Isabella, ‘a sweete child if ever there was any’ according to the diarist Evelyn. At 5-years-old she married the king’s little illegitimate son, Henry Fitzroy. Their descendants built Arlington Road, Kentish Town (8) : see Fitzroy Square, Tottenham Court Road.

Arlington Way (Rosebery Avenue 5) was built in 1822 on the site of an old footpath from Islington village to Sadler’s medicinal wells. Origin of name unknown.

Arne Street (Long Acre, Covent Garden). Thomas Arne, the composer of Rule Britannia and Where the bee sucks was born near here in King Street, Covent Garden, in 1710. His father wanted him to become a lawyer, but Thomas smuggled a spinet into his bedroom and practised secretly at night, muffling the strings with a handkerchief. In a borrowed livery he studied opera from the servants’ gallery at Covent Garden Theatre where later he was to become official composer. He died in 1778 and is buried, appropriately, at St Paul’s, Covent Garden.

Arneway Street (Westminster 7). In honour of Thomas Arneway, who founded in 1603 a charity for ‘the pore of Saint Margarettes’ in Westminster.

Artesian Road (Westbourne Park 2) was built across a field containing an Artesian well, sunk in the early nineteenth century by boring through the clay surface to the water-bearing gravel below. It supplied the surrounding countryside with water until the 1850s, when it was filled in so that Talbot Road could cross the site.

Artillery. Artillery Row (Victoria Street 7) commemorates ‘the Shooteing house in Tuttle Ffields’ which stood on the site of Artillery Mansions and contained the butts where the Westminster men held their artillery practice, ‘that is to witt for Long Bowes Crosbowes and Handgonnes’. The parish accounts mention payment ‘To Mr Fisher, for making the Butts at Tothill’ as early as 1517. These butts beside Artillery Row (an old path from the Shooting House onto Tothill Fields) were not removed until the beginning of the nineteenth century. On the other side of London is Artillery Lane (Bishopsgate 5), a track which led into another Artillery Yard, a walled field seized from the Priory of St Mary Spital by Henry VIII and given over to the Honourable Artillery Company for national defence work. Volunteers and regular soldiers practised there weekly as a precaution in case of invasion, gradually replacing bows and arrows with guns and cannon. After the Artillery Company moved to its present ground in City Road in 1641, Gun Street and Fort Street were built across the Artillery Yard.

Arundel Street (Strand 5) and its neighbourhood—Norfolk, Howard, Surrey and Maltravers Streets belong to the Howards, Dukes of Norfolk, and have been in the family since 1549. Here stood Arundel House, their town mansion, formerly Bath Inn, which Henry Fitzalan, ancestor of the Dukes of Norfolk, purchased after Henry VII seized it from the Bishop of Bath. The streets were built when the house was demolished in 1678. The powerful Howards, once close kin of the royal family and still the premier noble family of England, have held many titles which appear as street names in Inner London.

Ashbridge Street (Marylebone 3). Arthur Ashbridge was the District Surveyor of Marylebone from 1884 until 1918. The large collection of prints, maps and cuttings relating to the district that he made during that time was bequeathed to the borough at his death, and is kept at Marylebone Road Library. The street was named after him in 1938.

Ashburn Gardens and Place (South Kensington 6) were begun in 1873. Origin unknown.

Ashburnham Road (Chelsea 6) runs the length of what was once the great lawn of Ashburnham House, stretching from Lots Lane almost to the King’s Road. The old house and its grounds, the home of the 2nd Earl of Ashburnham in about 1780, were replaced by rows of dreary streets in 1878.

Ashdown Street (Kentish Town 8). Edwin Ashdown esquire bought up several scattered properties in the rapidly developing Kentish Town district in the 1860s, including a house in Malden Crescent backing on to the little field on which this street was built in 1865. Ashdown probably owned the field as well as the house.

Ashen Tree Court (Whitefriars Street, City). A relic of the White Friars’ shaded cloister walks.

Ashland Place (Marylebone 3). The Victorian fondness for euphemism seems to have been responsible for the change of this name from Burying Ground Passage in 1886. The burying ground, now the adjacent recreation ground, was the graveyard belonging to St Marylebone Church.

Ashley Place (Victoria). Probably after Anthony Ashley-Cooper, better known as the Earl of Shaftesbury . At the time this street was begun (about 1850) he was still known by his earlier title, Lord Ashley. He was already the leading philanthropist of his age, famed for his attempts to improve the lot of lunatics and chimney sweeps, to limit the factory workers’ day to 10 hours, to prevent women and children working underground in mines and to open Ragged Schools for working-class children.

Ashmill Street (Marylebone 3) was originally Devonshire Street—the Portman family (Portman Square), who owned this land, also had estates in Devonshire. Renamed in 1912 after a village in that county, because there is another Devonshire Street in Marylebone.

Ashworth Road (Paddington 3). Four parallel roads named Ashworth, Biddulph, Castellain and Delaware were all formed in 1875. It would seem that this is just an alphabetical series, with no intrinsic meaning.

Astell Street (Chelsea 6). Mary Astell, a remarkable femininist and a forerunner of the suffragettes, lived in Chelsea in Royal Hospital Road. She planned to set up a sort of monastery where women could withdraw from men and lead useful lives, but the idea was ridiculed by Swift and Addison. She was buried in Chelsea Old Church in 1731.

Atherstone Mews (South Kensington 6). The name of a Warwickshire town. Connection with Kensington unknown.

Athlone Street (Kentish Town 8), has replaced a notorious black spot of the Kentish Town slums. Its decrepit Victorian cottages and tenements were demolished by the St Pancras Housing Society and in 1933 the first block of ten large flats on the estate was opened by HRH Princess Alice, Countess of Athlone, after whom the building was named Athlone House. More land was purchased on the other side of the street and three further blocks of flats were erected and named after Lady Pentland, Mrs J. B. Priestley and Leonard Day, all tireless members of the St Pancras Housing Society. The Society then obtained the London County Council’s permission to name the street Athlone Street.

Attneave Street (Farringdon Road 5). Named in 1895 after Mr A. Attneave of 192 Pentonville Road, a builder who had made some improvements in this area.

Aubrey Road and Walk (Kensington 6). Aubrey de Vaere was Lord of the Manor of Kensington, granted to him by William the Conqueror.

Austin Friars. The Dutch church here is all that remains of the important Augustinian (Austin) Friary, founded in 1253, which covered all the area between London Wall and Throgmorton Street and was the principal priory of the Order in England. After the dissolution of the monasteries, most of this property passed to the Marquis of Winchester, but its church was given to the Dutch colony in London.

Avenue Road and Close (St John’s Wood 1). An avenue is ‘a wide and handsome street, usually bordered by trees, a good description of this road, which was a broad tree-lined boulevard when first built in the 1830s. A turning out of it was named Avenue Close some years later.

Avery Row (Mayfair 71) and Avery Farm Row (Pimlico 71). Avery is a corruption of the old name Ebury (q. v.).

Avondale Park Gardens and Road (North Kensington 2). Avondale Park was opened in 1892, the year the death of the Duke of Avondale shocked and grieved the nation. The young Duke, who was the eldest son of the Prince of Wales and Princess Alexandra and therefore heir to the throne, was only 28-years-old and had just become engaged to Princess Mary of Teck when he suddenly died of pneumonia at Sandringham.

Aybrook Street (Marylebone) Aye brook was the alternative medieval name for the River Tyburn : probably provided the first syllable of the Westminster names Avery Row, Hay Hill and Ebury Street. The stream flowed across the south end of the street and the slope of the valley is still just perceptible.

Aylesbury Street (Clerkenwell). The south side of this street was once occupied by Aylesbury House, whose grounds stretched from here to Albemarle Way. The house was originally part of the priory of St John of Jerusalem, which passed to the Earls of Exeter after the dissolution of the monasteries, and then by marriage in 1646 to the 1st Earl of Aylesbury. It remained the town house of the Aylesbury’s until 1706.

 

Finstock Road, W10

Oliphant Street, W10

First Street (Chelsea 7), begun in 1845, was the first street laid out on the Hasker estate.

Fish Street Hill (City 5). By the thirteenth century the City fish-mongers had settled in this street close to Billingsgate, London’s main fish market. Soon afterwards they built their Hall in nearby Fish-mongers’ Hall Street. Members of the Fishmongers’ Company still come from the Hall to inspect the quality of the fish at Billingsgate. In the middle ages fishmongers were intensely hated by the poor, for whom fish was the staple diet, because the Company used its monopoly to keep prices artificially high.

Ulysses Road, NW6



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