St. Clement Danes, 1900.
101 Strand, WC2R This shop was one of the first in London to have gas lighting fitted. Ackermann’s Rudolph Ackermann (20 April 1764 in Stollberg, Saxony – 30 March 1834 in Finchley) was an Anglo-German bookseller, inventor, lithographer, publisher and businessman. Alsatia Alsatia was the name given to an area lying north of the River Thames covered by the Whitefriars monastery. Lisle’s Tennis Court Lisle’s Tennis Court was a building off Portugal Street in Lincoln’s Inn Fields in London. Temple Bar Temple Bar is the point in London where Fleet Street, City of London, becomes the Strand, Westminster, and where the City of London traditionally erected a barrier to regulate trade into the city. Thavie’s Inn Thavie’s Inn was a former Inn of Chancery, associated with Lincoln’s Inn, established at Holborn, near the site of the present side street and office block still known as Thavies Inn Buildings. The Adelphi The Adelphi is a small district surrounding the streets of Adelphi Terrace, Robert Street and John Adam Street. Adam Street, WC2R Adam Street is named after John and Robert Adam, who built the Adelphi development in the 1760s. Aldwych, WC2B The name Aldwych derives from the Old English eald and wic meaning 'old trading town' or 'old marketplace'; the name was later applied to the street and district. Ashentree Court, EC4Y Ashentree Court was named after the ashen trees formerly located here at the Whitefriars’ monastery. Bell Yard, EC4A Bell Yard is a small lane off the Strand where the Bell hostel once stood. Bolt Court, EC4A Bolt Court is one of the streets of London in the EC4A postal area. Bouverie Street, EC4Y Bouverie Street is named for the Pleydell-Bouveries, Earls of Radnor, who were landowners in this area. Bow Street, WC2B Bow Street was first developed by Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford in 1633. Brick Court, EC4Y Brick Court is one of the streets of London in the EC4Y postal area. Broad Court, WC2B Broad Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Carting Lane, WC2R Carting Lane is thought to be named after the carts that brought goods to and from the wharf formerly located here. Chancery Lane, WC2A Chancery Lane has formed the western boundary of the City of London since 1994, having previously been divided between the London boroughs of Westminster and Camden. Crown Court, WC2B Crown Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Drury Lane, WC2B Drury Lane is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Essex Court, EC4Y Essex Court is one of the streets of London in the EC4Y postal area. Falcon Court, EC4Y Falcon Court is a courtyard off the south side of Fleet Street between Chancery Lane and Fetter Lane. Fetter Lane, EC4A Fetter Lane is corrupted from ’Fautre’ which was the name for a spear rest - spears were made close by. Gate Street, WC2A Gate Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2A postal area. Hare Court, EC4Y Hare Court is one of the streets of London in the EC4Y postal area. Hare Place, EC4Y Hare Place is one of the streets of London in the EC4Y postal area. Hind Court, EC4A Hind Court is one of the streets of London in the EC4A postal area. Hood Court, EC4Y Hood Court is one of the streets of London in the EC4Y postal area. Ivybridge Lane, WC2R Ivybridge Lane is named after a former ivy-covered bridge that crossed an old watercourse on this spot; the bridge was demolished sometime before 1600. Kean Street, WC2B Kean Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Kingsway, WC2B Kingsway is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Lincoln’s Inn Fields, WC2A Lincoln’s Inn Fields is the largest public square in London, laid out in the 1630s under the initiative of the speculative builder William Newton. Magpie Alley, EC4Y Magpie Alley marks the position occupied by the dorter (dormitory) of the Friary of the Blessed Virgin of Mount Carmel, commonly called the Whitefriars Monastery New Square, WC2A New Square is one of the streets of London in the WC2A postal area. Norfolk Street, WC2R Norfolk Street ran from the Strand in the north to the River Thames and, after the Victoria Embankment was built (1865–1870), to what is now Temple Place. Old Square, WC2A Old Square is one of the streets of London in the WC2A postal area. Parker Mews, WC2B Parker Mews is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Pemberton Row, EC4A Sir James Pemberton was Lord Mayor of London in 1611, and a member of the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths. PO Box 4 New St Square is one of the streets of London in the EC4A postal area. PO Box 4 Tooks Court is one of the streets of London in the EC4A postal area. Pump Court, EC4Y Pump Court is one of the streets of London in the EC4Y postal area. Red Lion Court, EC4A Red Lion Court forms part of labyrinth of little passages behind the shops on the north side of Fleet Street. Sardinia Street, WC2B Sardinia Street, formerly Duke Street, was a street that ran from Prince’s Street in the south to the western side of Lincoln’s Inn Fields in the north. Savoy Court, WC2R Savoy Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2R postal area. Savoy Place, WC2N Savoy Place is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Savoy Place, WC2R Savoy Place is one of the streets of London in the WC2R postal area. Savoy Way, WC2R Savoy Way is located on the former site of the Savoy Palace, built for Peter II, Count of Savoy in 1245.
Star Yard, WC2A Star Yard is one of the streets of London in the WC2A postal area. Strand, WC2A Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2A postal area. Strand, WC2B Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Strand, WC2N Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Strand, WC2R Strand (or the Strand) runs just over 3⁄4 mile from Trafalgar Square eastwards to Temple Bar, where the road becomes Fleet Street inside the City of London. Surrey Street, WC2R Surrey Street was built on land once occupied by Arundel House and its gardens. Tallis Street, EC4Y This street honours Thomas Tallis, composer whose name is engraved on the façade of the nearby former building of the Guildhall School of Music and Drama. Temple Pier, WC2R Temple Pier is one of the streets of London in the WC2R postal area. The Arcade, WC2B The Arcade is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. The Strand, WC2N The Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. The Strand, WC2R The Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2R postal area. Tweezer’s Alley, WC2R Tweezer’s Alley probably got its name after the tweezers used by smiths to heat items in the forge that stood there.
Watergate, EC4Y Watergate is one of the streets of London in the EC4Y postal area. Wild Street, WC2B Wild Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area.
Westminster - heart of government.
While the underground station dates from 1868, Westminster itself is almost as old as London itself. It has a large concentration of London’s historic and prestigious landmarks and visitor attractions, including the Palace of Westminster, Buckingham Palace, Westminster Abbey and Westminster Cathedral.
Historically part of the parish of St Margaret in the City and Liberty of Westminster and the county of Middlesex, the name Westminster was the ancient description for the area around Westminster Abbey – the West Minster, or monastery church, that gave the area its name – which has been the seat of the government of England (and later the British government) for almost a thousand years.
Westminster is the location of the Palace of Westminster, a UNESCO World Heritage Site which houses the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The area has been the seat of the government of England for almost a thousand years. Westminster
is thus often used as a metonym for Parliament and the political community of the United Kingdom generally. The civil service is similarly referred to by the area it inhabits, Whitehall, and Westminster
is consequently also used in reference to the ’Westminster System’, the parliamentary model of democratic government that has evolved in the United Kingdom.
The historic core of Westminster is the former Thorney Island on which Westminster Abbey was built. The Abbey became the traditional venue of the coronation of the kings and queens of England. The nearby Palace of Westminster came to be the principal royal residence after the Norman conquest of England in 1066, and later housed the developing Parliament and law courts of England. It can be said that London thus has developed two distinct focal points: an economic one in the City of London; and a political and cultural one in Westminster, where the Royal Court had its home. This division is still very apparent today.
The monarchy later moved to the Palace of Whitehall a little towards the north-east. The law courts have since moved to the Royal Courts of Justice, close to the border of the City of London.
The Westminster area formed part of the City and Liberty of Westminster and the county of Middlesex. The ancient parish was St Margaret; after 1727 split into the parishes of St Margaret and St John. The area around Westminster Abbey formed the extra-parochial Close of the Collegiate Church of St Peter surrounded by—but not part of—either parish. Until 1900 the local authority was the combined vestry of St Margaret and St John (also known as the Westminster District Board of Works from 1855 to 1887), which was based at Westminster City Hall on Caxton Street from 1883. The Liberty of Westminster, governed by the Westminster Court of Burgesses, also included St Martin in the Fields and several other parishes and places. Westminster had its own quarter sessions, but the Middlesex sessions also had jurisdiction. The area was transferred from Middlesex to the County of London in 1889 and the local government of Westminster was reformed in 1900 when the court of burgesses and parish vestries were abolished, to be replaced with a metropolitan borough council. The council was given city status, allowing it to be known as Westminster City Council.
The underground station was opened as Westminster Bridge
on 24 December 1868 by the steam-operated Metropolitan District Railway (MDR) (now the District line) when the railway opened the first section of its line from South Kensington. It was originally the eastern terminus of the MDR and the station cutting ended at a concrete wall buffered by timber sleepers. The approach to the station from the west runs in cut and cover tunnel under the roadway of Broad Sanctuary and diagonally under Parliament Square. In Broad Sanctuary the tunnel is close to Westminster Abbey and St Margaret’s church and care was required to avoid undermining their foundations when excavating in the poor ground found there.
The station was completely rebuilt to incorporate new deep-level platforms for the Jubilee line when it was extended to the London Docklands in the 1990s. During the works, the level of the sub-surface platforms was lowered to enable ground level access to Portcullis House. This was achieved in small increments carried out when the line was closed at night.