The Underground Map

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Featured · Carpenders Park ·

The Underground Map is a project which is creating street histories for the areas of London and surrounding counties lying inside the M25.

In a series of maps from the 1750s until the 1950s, you can see how London grew from a city which only reached as far as Park Lane into the post war megapolis we know today. There are now over 85 000 articles on all variety of locations including roads, houses, schools, pubs and palaces.

You can begin exploring by choosing a place from the dropdown list at the top left and then clicking Reset Location.

As maps are displayed, click on the markers to view location articles.

You can also view historical maps of London - click on the "pile of paper" control on the top right of a page's map to change to a particular decade.

Latest on The Underground Map...
Oxhey Lane, WD19
Oxhey Lane is the oldest road in Carpenders Park. The road connected Oxhey and Hatch End. Midway along, Carpenders Park Farm was formerly the location of Braziers Dairy. Oxhey Lane was a narrow winding lane until widened in 1937.

Little Carpenders, along the lane, dates from around the 1860s and may have been the Estate Agent’s house for the ’Carpenders Estate’.

Before the South Oxhey (Carpenders Park) estate was built, the Oxhey Hall Estate was built in the 1930s in the lands to the west of Oxhey Lane as an example of "Metroland" architecture.

In the mid 1930s, Carpenders Park station was simply a halt for golfers using Oxhey Hall Golf Course. Bungalows and a few houses were built around it and Carpenders Avenue came into being; other roads spread out from it.

After the Second World War, South Oxhey Estate was built by London County Council between the railway line and Oxhey Woods. The land had formerly been part of the extensive Blackwells’ estate (of Crosse and Bl...




Oliphant Street, W10
Oliphant Street was the final alphabetical street on the original Queen’s Park Estate naming scheme The Manor and Parish of Chelsea owned an enclave - covering Kensal Town and Queen’s Park - until 1901 when it was divided between Kensington and Paddington. Kensal Town went to the former and the other side of the Harrow Road to the latter.

The north section was developed in 1875 by the Artizans, Labourers & General Dwellings Company, who were the landlords until 1964. The north-south streets of their grid were numbered 1-6 and euphemistically entitled ’avenues’ : First, Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth and Sixth Avenues. The remaining streets were simply labelled A Street through to O Street.

Eight years later it was decided that even artisans and labourers deserved a little better. A became Alperton, after the Company’s brickyard in Middlesex, and was followed by Barfett, Caird, Droop (after H R. Droop, Artizans, Labourers & General Dwellings Company Director 1877-1883), Enbrook, Farrant (Sir Richard Farrant, Director 1877-1906), Galton (probably i...



Turk’s Head
The Turk’s Head was one of two Wapping pubs of the same name It was situated beside Union Stairs and had the grim task assigned to it of briefly hosting prisoners on their journey to Execution Dock. They would be allowed one quart of ale before departure.

Its address was 30 Wapping High Street (at number 326 on the same street before Victorian renumbering).

Its rather un-PC name derives from many such names coined during the Crusades. Any pub called ‘The Turk’s Head’ or ‘The Saracen’s Head’ is a reference to that period.

It had a dining room by 1940 but the pub was destroyed in the Blitz.
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Abbotsbury Road, W14
Abbotsbury Road runs between Melbury Road and the road known as Holland Park Abbotsbury Road takes its name from one of the Dorset estates of the Earl of Ilchester. It is exclusively residential.

It is a wide tree-lined street and most houses have off street parking – some with their own garages. The road has humps in it to slow down the traffic. Traffic can go both ways. The south end is very close to the shops in Kensington High Street, and the north end to the shops in Holland Park Avenue. Holland Park itself is next to the road.

Work began in the early years of the 20th century, but only Nos. 3-9 odd, and 8-10 and 24-28 (even) were built before the Second World War.

During the 1960s houses and blocks were built on the west side of Abbotsbury Road. These include Abbotsbury House, a 10-storey block of flats, and Abbotsbury Close, a series of small crescents with houses and landscaped gardens, designed by Stone Toms and Partners and built by Wates Builders.

The brick houses are fairly uniform in...



Victoria Embankment, EC4Y
Victoria Embankment is part of the Thames Embankment scheme of 19th-century civil engineering that reclaimed land next to the River Thames The Victoria Embankment was primarily designed by Sir Joseph Bazalgette with architectural work on the embankment wall and river stairs by Charles Henry Driver. Started in 1862, it incorporates the main low level interceptor sewer and the underground District Line over which a wide road and riverside walkway were built. In total, Bazalgette’s scheme reclaimed 22 acres of land from the river. It prevented flooding, such as around what had been the remnants of Thorney Island (Westminster).

Much of the granite used in the projects was brought from Lamorna Cove in Cornwall.

The named named Victoria Embankment runs from the Houses of Parliament to Blackfriars Bridge. It incorporates gardens and open space collectively known as the Embankment Gardens.

Some parts of the Embankment were rebuilt in the 20th century due to wartime bomb damage or natural disasters such as the 1928 Thames flood.
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Peter H Davies   
Added: 17 Jun 2021 09:33 GMT   

Ethelburga Estate
The Ethelburga Estate - named after Ethelburga Road - was an LCC development dating between 1963–65. According to the Wikipedia, it has a "pleasant knitting together of a series of internal squares". I have to add that it’s extremely dull :)

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Lived here
Norman Norrington   
Added: 8 Jun 2021 08:08 GMT   

Blechynden Street, W10
Lived here #40 1942-1967

Brenda Newton   
Added: 5 Jun 2021 07:17 GMT   

Hewer Street W10
John Nodes Undertakers Hewer Street W10


Added: 3 Jun 2021 15:50 GMT   

All Bar One
The capitalisation is wrong

Added: 2 Jun 2021 16:58 GMT   

Parachute bomb 1941
Charles Thomas Bailey of 82 Morley Road was killed by the parachute bomb March 1941


Added: 1 Jun 2021 12:41 GMT   

Abbeville Road (1940 street directory)
North west side
1A Clarke A S Ltd, motor engineers
15 Plumbers, Glaziers & Domestic Engineers Union
25 Dixey Edward, florist
27 Vicary Miss Doris J, newsagent
29 Stenning John Andrew, dining rooms
31 Clarke & Williams, builders
33 Hill Mrs Theodora, confectioner
35 Golding W & sons, corn dealers
... here is Shandon road ...
37 Pennington Mrs Eliz Harvie, wine & spirit merchant
39 Westminster Catering Co Ltd, ham, beef & tongue dealers
41 Masters A (Clapham) Ltd, butchers
43 Thomas Euan Ltd, grocers
45 Garrett C T & Co Ltd, undertakers
47 Mayle T & Sons, fishmongers
49 Mayles Ltd, fruiterers
51 & 73 Hardy Arthur Sydney, draper
53 United Dairies (London) Ltd
... here is Narbonne avenue ...
55 Norris William Lennox, baker
57 Silver Star Laundry Ltd
59 Thorp John, oilman
61 Bidgood Leonard George, boot makers
63 Wilkie Rt Miln, chemist
65 Gander George Albert Isaac, hairdresser
67 Harris Alfred William, greengrocer
69 & 71 Lambert Ernest & Son Ltd, grocers
... here is Hambolt road ...
73 & 51 Hardy Arthur Sydney, draper
75 Cambourn Frederick, butcher
77 Siggers Clement, chemist
77 Post, Money Order, Telephone Call & Telegraph Office & Savings Bank
79 Hemmings William, baker
... here is Elms road ...
85 Cornish Joseph
91 Bedding Mrs
151 Johnson Mrs H K
157 Robinson Albert Ernest, grainer
173 Yardleys London & Provincial Stores Ltd, wine & spirit merchants
175 Clark Alfred, butcher
175A Morley Douglas Frederick, confectioner
... here is Crescent lane ...
... her is St Alphonsus road ...

South east side
... here is Trouville road ...
4 Bossy Miss, private school
... here are Bonneville gardens ...
24 Osborn Charles Edward, ladies hairdresser
24 Hall H Ltd, builders
24A Walton Lodge Laundry Ltd
... here are Shandon road & Abbeville mansions ...
28 Copley Fred Smith, chemist
30 Finch H G Ltd, laundry
32 Carter William Alfred, furniture dealer
34 Spriggs Charles & Co, wireless supplies dealer
36 Miles Frederick William, confectioner
38 Pitman Frederick, hairdresser
40 Rowe Frederick F, valeting service
42 Modridge Edward J, oilman
... here is Narbonne avenue ...
44 Southorn Albert, butcher
46 Brown Ernest, fruiterer
48 Stanley Mrs A A, confectioner
50 Fryatt Owen, delixatessen store
52 Benbrooks, domestic stores
54 Davis William Clifford, boot repairer
56 Blogg Alfred, newsagent
58 Rowlands Thomas & Sons, dairy
... here are Hambalt, Elms, Franconia, Caldervale & Leppoc roads ...
124 Clarke Frederick, decorator
... here are Crescent lane, Briarwood road & Park hill ...

Boo Horton    
Added: 31 May 2021 13:39 GMT   

Angel & Trumpet, Stepney Green
The Angel & Trumpet Public House in Stepney Green was run by my ancestors in the 1930’s. Unfortunately, it was a victim on WWII and was badly damaged and subsequently demolished. I have one photograph that I believe to bethe pub, but it doesn’t show much more that my Great Aunt cleaning the steps.

Added: 17 May 2021 09:42 GMT   

Blackfriars (1959 - 1965)
I lived in Upper Ground from 1959 to 1964 I was 6 years old my parents Vince and Kitty run the Pub The Angel on the corner of Upper Ground and Bodies Bridge. I remember the ceiling of the cellar was very low and almost stretched the length of Bodies Bridge. The underground trains run directly underneath the pub. If you were down in the cellar when a train was coming it was quite frightening




Parkleys, KT2
The Parkleys estate was built in the mid-1950s and was Grade-II listed in 1998. The road runs around flat-roofed blocks in either a three-storey H-plan configuration with a central entrance stairwell or a two-storey terraced configuration, enclosing shared courtyards.

The flats have large timber windows which span the length of the flats and distinctive concrete tile-hanging.

The estate is lushly planted with retro-looking foliage and despite the styling being very much of its time, the quality of the design means it holds up today as a fine example of preserved modernist architecture.
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Kewferry Drive, HA6
Kewferry Drive connects Rickmansworth Road and Kewferry Road. The hilly part of Rickmansworth Road was formerly Kewferry Hill. Kewferry is probably derived from the name of John de Kevere, who had dealings with the Abbey of Bec over property in Northwood in the 1290s. Kewferry spawned in turn a Kewferry Road and a Kewferry Drive.

Kewferry Drive is a private road with houses dating from the 1930s.

The now-closed entrance shaft to Northwood Chalk Mine lies beneath the drive of a bungalow in Kewferry Drive. Brickwork on the entrance shaft dates from the 17th century. The debris heap at the foot of the shaft was excavated and found to contain the complete skeletons of a horse and cow, old tin cans, a complete metal trough, a tin trunk that contained parts of a gin trap, some dissecting needles, parts of a windlass, an excavation tool and two bone implements used for making pins.

The shaft was rediscovered by a Mr Roy in 1946 when, within two days of returning from war service, he fell through the rotted sleepers.
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Deacons Hill Road, WD6
Deacons Hill Road is a road connecting Barnet Lane and Allum Lane. Deacons Hill Road was created in the 19th century by the owner of Deacons Hill House in Barnet Lane, George Monck Gibbs, to provide easier access to the railway station which was opened in 1868. He would often be seen driving a pony and trap. Deacons Hill House is now the site of Deacons Heights.

After Monck’s death, the local council purchased the road in 1898 and called it New Road. It became Deacons Hill Road in the 1920s.

In the 1930s and 1940s, Deacons Hill was a wealthy area and many people associated with the film industry lived here. The most famous of these was the film producer Herbert Wilcox and the actress Anna Neagle. They helped style Boreham Wood as the British Hollywood.

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St John’s Hill
St John’s Hill is the highest point in the area. St John’s Hill is the summit of the high ground of Notting Hill.

When the Kensington Hippodrome was in operation before 1841, the grassy mound here formed a sort of natural grand-stand. Given railings since it was a right-of-way, it served as a free vantage point for pedestrians to watch the racing.

The summit of the hill is described by Florence Gladstone as being a point along ’Upper Lansdown Terrace’ rather than where the church was later placed.
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Unknown as yet
Vestry House Museum presents the history of Waltham Forest. Situated in Walthamstow Village, the building used to house the parish workhouse, and was later a police station and private home.

It now contains themed displays capturing the unique heritage of the local area and includes a Victorian parlour, costume gallery and wonderful display of locally manufactured toys and games.

A collection of 80 000 historic photographs from across the Borough is accessible to everyone by appointment. The volunteer-run garden is an oasis in which to relax and enjoy the arrival of spring.

On permanent display in the museum is the Bremer Car, the first British motor car with an internal combustion engine, which was built by Frederick Bremer in a workshop at the back of his family home in Connaught Road, Walthamstow. The car first ran in 1892 and was donated to the museum by Bremer in 1933.
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Mint Street, SE1
Mint Street, an ancient Southwark street, (now) runs off Marchelsea Road. Mint Street dates from before 1679 in which year Thomas Lant married the daughter of Sir Edward Bromfield, and thus acquired an interest in a house called Suffolk Place. By then, Mint Street is shown on Morden and Lea’s map of 1682 and was closely developed.

The Mint Street area had been known as ’The Mint’. It was a slum area with privileges for debtors until The Mint in Southwark Act 1722 removed these rights. The area remained a slum until the 19th century.

The St Saviour’s Union Workhouse at Mint Street is thought to have provided Dickens with the model for the scene in Oliver Twist where the starving boy "asks for more". The workhouse in Mint Street dated back to 1729. In October 1731 it was reported that “there are now in it 68 Men, Women, and Children, of which all that are able, spin Mop-Yarn, and Yarn for Stockings, which are knit by the Women; and beside this Work, 25 Children are taught to read, and say their Catechism.”




Barnes Cray
Barnes Cray is located on the Greater London border with Kent, bordering Dartford. Barnes Cray is named for the Barne family, who owned land here in the mid-18th century.

Up until the Victorian era it was a hamlet a kilometre downstream of Crayford where no more than sixteen homes were clustered. A calico-printing works drew water power from the culverted River Wansunt in early Victorian times, being later adapted for the manufacture of rubber goods, then felt and finally Brussels carpets. This carpet mill was demolished by 1890 and Barnes Cray House, the next largest building, was cleared by 1933, ending its days as a nursing home.

The remnants of the settlement became absorbed into Crayford with the building of a garden village to facilitate the expansion of Vickers’ armaments factory during the 1915 to 1919 period. Six hundred cottages were built in a variety of styles.

In 1920 the area became part of the Crayford Urban District of Kent (having previously been in Dartford Rural District).

Following Wo...



Dartford lies at the heart of the Thames Gateway, one of the largest growth areas in the UK. Dartford is going through a period of great change with a rising population and extensive new commercial and residential development.

Originally a Roman settlement, Dartford is an old market town connected in history with Wat Tyler’s rebellion of 1381. Dartford was known at various times in its history as Darentford, Tarentford and Dorquentford.

The town centre boasts notable historic buildings. Holy Trinity Church dates from Norman times and has a mediaeval mural. The Royal Manor Gatehouse dates from the time of Henry VIII.

There is a museum and library in the town centre, which also has a wide range of shopping facilities. Two weekly markets are held in the town on Thursdays and Saturdays.

A number of ancient parishes lie to the south of the town, each of which has its own links with English history. Evidence of this can be seen in the many fine churches and old buildings that remain. Darenth Country Pa...



Parsifal Road, NW6
Parsifal Road runs from Finchley Road to Fortune Green Road. The land had belonged to the Flitcroft estate and the name Parsifal Road was approved in 1883.

New College was built at the eastern end in 1887. Between 1890 and 1897, 13 large detached and semi-detached houses were built in Parsifal Road.
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Barra Hall Park
Barra Hall Park is an 11 hectare formal park situated near the centre of Hayes. Barra Hall was originally a manor house, and formerly known as Grove House. In the late eighteenth century it was home to Harvey Combe, who became Lord Mayor of London in 1799. In 1871 was bought by Robert Reid, an auctioneer and surveyor who claimed descent from the Reids of Barra. After enlarging and refacing the building he changed its name to Barra Hall in 1875.

On 20 December 1923, Hayes Urban District Council bought Barra Hall and its grounds from then owner Ethel Penfold for £5700 in order to use it as a town hall.

The Barra Hall building was officially opened as town hall on 23 February 1924 and its grounds became a municipal park with playground, tennis courts and a paddling pool opened by music hall star Jessie Matthews. Barra Hall Park features ornamental lawns, recreational grass areas, rose and shrub beds, seasonal bedding and mature trees.
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Barons Keep, W14
Barons Keep is a gated community of flats off of Gliddon Road, Barons Court. Barons Keep was purpose-built block with communal gardens dating from 1937.

The area had been the western edge of the Gunter Estate - land purchased piecemeal by James Gunter from 1799 and mainly used as market gardens.

Barons Keep was built as a U-shaped range of blocks designed to look like an ocean-liner. The orientation of the buildings was chosen to provide each flat with a view over the open land on the other side of Gliddon Road. This was formerly St Paul’s School playing fields, but is now occupied by Hammersmith & Fulham West London College.
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Barnet Bypass, EN5
The Barnet Bypass, part of the A1, was opened in 1928. The Barnet Bypass is the northern extension of the 1926-built Great North Way. From Fiveways Corner (Mill Hill), the A41 and A1 continue together as Watford Way to Apex Corner where they separate, with the A41 turning west, and the A1 turning to run straight north as the Barnet Way / Barnet Bypass. This dual carriageway was part of a 1920–4 road improvement programme that was mentioned in parliament in 1928 as being completed by the end of that summer.

This route of the A1 was built to provide a way around busy Barnet - the previous routing - with its difficult hill.

The northbound carriageway passes the entrance to Scratchwood, an area of ancient forest which is now a local nature reserve, then crosses the A411 from Watford to Barnet at the Stirling Corner roundabout.

Past Stirling Corner, the A1 as the Barnet Bypass skirts Borehamwood, before turning northeast and running through open countryside to Bignell’s Corner. At Bignell’s ...



Barking Park
Barking Park covers just under 30 hectares to the east of Barking town centre. Barking Park was established in 1896 and was officially opened on 9 April 1898 by Councillor C. L. Beard JP, Chairman of Barking Town Urban District Council.

The park’s most significant feature is a 910 metre long boating lake on the north side of the park. Other facilities include tennis and basketball courts, two bowling greens (indoor and outdoor), a children’s playground, a waterpark, football pitches and a flower garden. A lido was built in 1931 but this was closed permanently in 1988.

Barking Park Light Railway, a miniature passenger railway in the park, opened in the early 1950s. The railway closed between 2005 and 2008 during a change of ownership.
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Brondesbury was originally "Brand’s manor" - a small hamlet in Middlesex. Brondesbury was an ancient hamlet in Willesden parish owned by St.Paul’s Cathedral in medieval times.

A rural area for much of its history, some houses were built on Willesden Lane only in 1847. It was on a hill, which made it suitable for better quality housing and larger villas were built in Brondesbury. Several of them served as hostels for Belgian refugees during the First World War.

Brondesbury station opened on 2 January 1860 as Edgeware Road (Kilburn) station on the Hampstead Junction Railway. It was renamed several times: Edgware Road on 1 November 1865, Edgware Road and Brondesbury on 1 January 1872, Brondesbury (Edgware Road) on 1 January 1873 and finally Brondesbury on 1 May 1883.

A mill stood in adjacent Mapesbury, which was destroyed by fire in 1863. This incident led to the creation of a volunteer fire services in Kilburn.

In 1866 the parish of Christchurch, Brondesbury, was ...



All Saints Notting Hill
All Saints church was designed by the Victorian Gothic revival pioneer William White, who was also a mountaineer, Swedish gymnastics enthusiast and anti-shaving campaigner. In 1852 the Reverend Walker bought 51 acres of Portobello farmland from Mary Anne and Georgina Charlotte Talbot. This covered the whole strip of North Kensington lying east of Portobello Lane, from Portobello farmhouse on the north to Lonsdale Road and Western Terrace on the south. On this land which joined the ‘Ladbrooke estate’, Walker commenced to build ‘a new town’ and erect an elaborate church to the memory of his parents.

The road on which the church was built was called St Columb’s Road, and the church was dedicated to St Ann, but the name of ‘All Saints’ was soon substituted.‘This ‘very stately and abnormal stone church, built after the model of that at St Columb’s Major in Cornwall was structurally completed in 1855, but owing to pecuniary difficulties was left without glass or furniture till 1861.’ Meanwhile it stood boarded up and weed-grown near a pond, the open ground behind being sometimes occupied by gypsies. A footpath which starte...



Greek Orthodox Church of All Saints
All Saints, Camden Town is a Greek Orthodox church known as the Greek Orthodox Church of All Saints. Camden Town was developed from the 1790s onwards in the then largely rural parish of St Pancras, on the northern fringe of London. The parish church was one of the oldest in England, but it had been neglected since the 14th century when most of the inhabitants of the parish had moved to Kentish Town in the northern part of the parish.

In 1822 a new parish church, St Pancras New Church, on Euston Road in the southern part of the parish, was consecrated, but it was intended mainly to serve the population in its immediate vicinity. In 1818 a Church Building Act had been passed by Parliament to facilitate the construction of new churches in London’s many new districts, including this one for Camden Town.

The church was built between 1822 and 1824 and was known as first as the Camden Chapel, then, unofficially, as St Stephen’s. It did not receive the dedication of All Saints until 1920. It was designed by the father and son team of William and Henry Inwood...



The Steelyard
The Steelyard was the main trading base (kontor) of the Hanseatic League in London during 15th and 16th centuries. The word ’Steelyard’ derived from the Middle Low German Stalhof / Dutch Staalhof.

The Steelyard was located on the north bank of the Thames beside the outflow of the Walbrook, in the Dowgate ward of the City of London. The site is now covered by Cannon Street station and commemorated in the name of Steelyard Passage.

The first mention of a Hansa Almaniae (a "German Hansa") in English records is in 1282, concerning merely the community of the London trading post, only later to be made official as the Steelyard and confirmed in tax and customs concessions granted by Edward I, in a Carta Mercatoria ("merchant charter") of 1303.

The true power of the Hanse in English trade came much later, in the 15th century, as the German merchants, led by those of Cologne expanded their premises and extended their reach into the cloth-making industry of England. This led to constant friction over the legal position of English merchants in...



Agar Town
Agar Town was a short-lived area, built in the 1840s, of St Pancras. From 1789 the area was the private estate of William Agar of Elm Lodge. To contemporaries he was commonly called, ’Councillor Agar,’ and known as an eccentric and miserly lawyer. In the 1810s Agar fought a desperate battle to prevent the cutting of the Regent’s Canal through his property, although his underlying motive may simply have been to maximise the compensation he received.

William Agar died in 1838 and his widow soon began to grant building leases on part of the estate, while retaining Elm Lodge. The neighbourhood was started in 1841 with Agar’s widow leasing out small plots on the north side of the canal.
The 72 acre site was built of the lowest quality materials on 21 year leases. An area was a population of labourers living in houses they built for themselves, was generally considered a slum. Street names belied the type of area and included Canterbury Place, Durham Street, and Oxford Crescent.

The local vestry failed to provid...



Wells Street, W1D
Wells Street - ’Welses Lane’ - is first recorded in 1692. Wells Street is an old route, marking the boundary between former freeholds: the Cavendish–Harley, later Portland and then Howard de Walden estate to the west, and the smaller Berners estate to the east.

By the beginning of the eighteenth century, landuse in Marylebone was by no means purely agricultural. Clay and gravel pits abounded due to London’s encroachment, and a tenant of one of the eastern fields, George Wells, had been called a brickmaker as far back as 1658. Wells Lane or Street, named after him, was another old track, but did not connect with Oxford Street till the 1690s.

George Wells occupied the fields east of the lane, called Newlands, when they were bought by Josias Berners in 1654, and where he erected some long-vanished buildings.

Wells (‘Welses’) Lane is first recorded in 1692, when James Long, the Covent Garden inn-keeper and brewer interested in the lands to its west, got permission to create a short route from ...



Dorset Street, E1
Dorset Street was a small thoroughfare running east-west from Crispin Street to Commercial Street. Developed as a footpath across the south side of the ’Spital Field’ in 1674, originally known as Datchett Street after the Berkshire home of the Wheler family who owned much land in this area, the name was soon corrupted to Dorset Street.

By the mid 18th century, Dorset Street, like many others in the area, was the home of artisans and silk weavers, living and working in four-storey townhouses with attic workshops, however these prosperous times came to an end by the 1840s and many properties were turned into common lodging houses. A pub, the Blue Coat Boy, stood on the north side (first recorded in 1825, but thought to be considerably older), approximately half way along the street and is believed to be one of the first pubs to serve the nearby market. The Blue Coat Boy was later joined by two more pubs, The Horn of Plenty on the northern corner with Crispin Street and the Britannia, a beer house, on the corner with Commercial Street.

There were many...



Holland Park Avenue, W11
Holland Park Avenue is one of London’s most ancient thoroughfares. The Romans made Holland Park Avenue their main road into London from Silchester and the west, but it probably existed as an ancient British trackway long before that. In Roman times it ran through a densely forested area, part of the huge forest that was later known as the Forest of Middlesex (which according to a 12th century description was full of red and fallow deer, boars and wild bulls).

After the Romans left, the road appears to have deteriorated to such an extent that the then smaller parallel road to the south that is now High Street Kensington took over as the main way into London for travellers from the West of England. But the old road continued to be used by travellers from Oxford and Uxbridge, and until the 19th century it was known as the Uxbridge Road, or sometimes simply the “North Highway”.

From the Middle Ages onwards, the forest was gradually cleared, to be replaced by arable farmland and meadows. Gravel pits began to be worked a...



Royal Aeronautical Society
The Royal Aeronautical Society, also known as the RAeS, is a British-founded multidisciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community. The objectives of Society include: to support and maintain high professional standards in aerospace disciplines; to provide a unique source of specialist information and a local forum for the exchange of ideas; and to exert influence in the interests of aerospace in the public and industrial arenas.

The Society was founded in January 1866 with the name The Aeronautical Society of Great Britain. Early or founding members included James Glaisher, Francis Wenham, the Duke of Argyll, and Frederick Brearey. In the first year, there were 65 members. In 1868 the Society held a major exhibition at London’s Crystal Palace - John Stringfellow’s steam engine was shown there. The Society sponsored the first wind tunnel in 1870-71, designed by Wenham and Browning.

In 1918, the organization’s name was changed to the Royal Aeronautical Society.

During the 1940s, the RAeS responded to the wartime need to expand the aircraft industry. The Socie...



West Ham
West Ham is a district in East London, located just over six miles east of Charing Cross. West Ham was an administrative unit, with largely consistent boundaries, from the 12th century to the formation of the London Borough of Newham in 1965. The area was originally a manor in the county of Essex, then an ancient parish and ultimately a county borough.

A settlement is first recorded as Hamme in an Anglo-Saxon charter of 958 and then in the 1086 Domesday Book as Hame. The name means ’a dry area of land between rivers or marshland’, referring to the location of the settlement within boundaries formed by the rivers Lea, Thames and Roding and their marshes. The earliest recorded use of West Ham, as distinct from East Ham, is in 1186 as Westhamma.

The boundary between West and East Ham was the now lost Hamfrith Waste and Hamfrith Wood in the north (then the southernmost parts of Epping Forest). There was a small natural harbour known as Ham Creek.

West Ham underwent rapid growth from 1844 following the Metro...



Old Kent Road, SE1
The Old Kent Road is famous as the cheapest property on the London Monopoly board. The route of Old Kent Road is one of the oldest trackways in England and was first metalled by the Romans as the road from Dover to Londinium. The Saxons later called this Watling Street. Chaucer’s pilgrims travelled along this route from London and Southwark on their way to Canterbury.

Although the name appears as simply Old Kent Road on maps, it is usually referred to by Londoners as The Old Kent Road. The Old Kent Road runs from the Bricklayers’ Arms roundabout, where it meets the New Kent Road, Tower Bridge Road, and Great Dover Street, to New Cross Road, which begins a little to the east of the mainline railway bridge - the change in street-name is coincident with the border with Lewisham borough. Before the county of London was created this would have been the boundary between Surrey and Kent, hence the change in name.

At the junction with the presently named Shornecliff Road (previously Thomas Street) was the bridge crossing of S...



Tenter Ground
Tenter Ground harks back to the seventeenth century when this patch of land was surrounded by weavers’ houses and workshops and used to wash and stretch their fabrics on ’tenters’ to dry. The ground was established by the French Protestant Huguenot weavers, who had fled to Spitalfields from Catholic persecutors in France during the seventeenth century.

This area was bounded in the seventeenth century by Lolesworth field and the Wheler estate on the north, Wentworth Street and the hamlet boundary on the south, Rose Lane on the east and Bell Lane on the west. The bounding streets on the south, east and west were built up by the 1640s and the northern boundary was formed into the south side of White’s Row in about 1650. The central plot of ground remained open, however, until the second decade of the nineteenth century and was the last part of Spitalfields to be formed into streets.

In 1550 the area had, like the later Fossan and Halifax estates to the east and west, formed part of two closes in the Manor of Stepney lying between Hog Lane (Middlesex Street) and Brick Lane. By about 1642 it was, like the Fossan estate, held on lease by Willi...



Hewer Street, W10
Built as part of the St Charles’ estate in the 1870s, it originally between Exmoor Street to a former street called Raymede Street. Alfred Hewer was the Secretary of the Land and House Investment Society, which developed the fields of Portobello Farm into streets in the 1860s.

Ernest Walsh, contributing as part of the BBC People’s War in 2004 wrote about Hewer Street:

I was 17 years old when the following incident happened and was living in Notting Hill.

The street shelters were erected just after the outbreak of war. The low square buildings were fitted with bunks to sleep 10 persons and were sited along the road-side.
For nearly two years since 1940,vhen the raids on London really started, the brick built shelters had been our sleeping quartets; built mainly to protect civilians from shrapnel and falling masonry.

As soon as the warning sounded, the family would gather bedding, tea-pot and kettle, and settle down for the night; knowing that there would be no reprieve until the dawn. No luxuries, such as running water, toilet facilities or li...



Chiswick High Road, W4
Chiswick High Road is the main road through Chiswick. Chiswick was a riverside village that got its name, rather unglamorously, from the Old English for ‘cheese farm’ because of an association with an annual cheese fair.

Chiswick was known chiefly for Chiswick House, near its centre, and for 18th- and 19th-century buildings at Chiswick village, referred to as Old Chiswick, and Strand-on-the-Green, respectively at the eastern and western ends of a loop in the Thames.

The parish’s main settlements, lying near its edges, were separated until the 19th century by fields, gardens, and parkland. Forerunners of the existing Chiswick House, which was created by the earl of Burlington (d. 1753) and enlarged by his Cavendish heirs, the dukes of Devonshire, lay between Chiswick village and, to the northwest, Little Sutton and Turnham Green.

The parish had offered a country retreat for Henry VI and later for prelates in the 15th century and for courtiers and the scholars of Westminster from the 16t...



Isleworth Ait
Isleworth Ait is a teardrop-shaped island in the River Thames of just under 4 hectares in area. Also known as Isleworth Eyot, the long Isleworth Ait is on the Tideway facing Old Isleworth and the towpath alongside the Royal Mid-Surrey Golf Club.

Isleworth Ait was once a centre for the production of osier - a willow which used to be harvested on the island to weave baskets to carry fruit and vegetables grown in Middlesex to the markets in London. Much of the island has resulted with the combination of five pre-19th century neighbouring islands, overall covering a broader area and partially reduced by river erosion intensified by passing boat traffic.

The island faces Heron’s Place and a number of commercial buildings.

The islet is covered with densely packed trees, and provides a sanctuary for a variety of wildlife. It is home to more than 57 species of bird life, including the tree-creeper, kingfisher and heron. Two rare species of air-breathing land gastropods also live on the island, the two-lipped door snail Balea biplicata<...



Hampstead Road, NW1
Hampstead Road connects the Euston Road with Camden. There was until the reign of William IV, a rustic corner of the outskirts of London between King’s Cross and St John’s Wood.

The prætorium of one Roman camp was visible where Barnsbury Terrace is now and the remains of another were situated opposite old St Pancras Church. Herds of cattle grazed at Rhodes Farm near where Euston station is now. In 1707 there were no streets west of Tottenham Court Road and one cluster of houses only, besides the ’Spring Water House’ nearly half a century later, at which time what is now the Euston Road was still part of an expanse of verdant fields.

In the reign of George IV, as Samuel Palmer writes in his History of St. Pancras: "the rural lanes, hedge side roads, and lovely fields made Camden Town the constant resort of those who, busily engaged during the day in the bustle of . . . London, sought its quietude and fresh air to re-invigorate their spirits. Then the old ’Mother Red Cap’ was the e...



Avenue Road, DA8
Avenue Road follows the line of the original path leading to Lesney Farm and the Erith Manor House. In 1769 William Wheatley laid out an avenue of elms. Wheatley came from a prominent Erith family and was Lord of the Manor of Erith by then. He built a new manor house which was slightly blighted by a legend that the avenue was haunted by a headless woman being driven by a headless coachman and four black horses.

In 1858 the manor house was pulled down and the far Erith end of Avenue Road (around the railway lines) seems to have been developed at that time. In August 1874 the Wheatley estate was sold off, fetching £170 000 with the open land being sold for building development.

Even so, in the late nineteenth century with all of its pressure for new housing, the road developed only slowly.

In the twentieth century, Avenue Road was extended west along the remaining line of elms. At the western end, in the post Second World War years, council housing was built by Erith Borough Council. The very first development of the new Lesney Farm Esta...



Tube Mapper Project The Underground is the backbone of the city of London, a part of our identity. It’s a network of shared experiences and visual memories, and most Londoners and visitors to the city will at some point have an interaction with the London Underground tube and train network. Photographer Luke Agbaimoni gave up city-scape night photography after the birth of his first child, but creating the Tube Mapper project allowed him to continue being creative, fitting photography around his new lifestyle and adding stations on his daily commute. His memorable photographs consider such themes as symmetry, reflections, tunnels and escalators, as well as simply pointing out and appreciating the way the light falls on a platform in an evening sunset. This book reveals the London every commuter knows in a unique, vibrant and arresting style.
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