Endell Street, originally known as Belton Street, is a street that runs from High Holborn
in the north to Long Acre
and Bow Street
in the south.
The land on which the southern part of Endell Street is built was originally owned by William Short, who leased it to Esmé Stewart, 3rd Duke of Lennox, in 1623–24. Lennox House was built on the site which eventually passed to Sir John Brownlow who began to build from 1682.
Belton Street was created, named after the Brownlow’s country seat in Lincolnshire, Belton House.Henry Wheatley writes that the southern end of the street from Castle Street to Short’s Gardens was originally known as Old Belton Street, the northern end from Short’s Gardens to St Giles, was known as New Belton Street.
In the seventeenth century, Queen Anne is supposed to have bathed in the waters from a medical spring there at a site known as Queen Anne’s Bath.
The modern Endell Street was created according to the reforming plans of architect James Pennethorne.
Charles Lethbridge Kingsford states that the street was built in 1846 when Belton Street was widened and extended northwards to Broad Street (now in High Holborn
). The street is believed to have been named after the Reverend James Endell Tyler, rector of St Giles in the Fields
in the 1840s.
During the first world war a military hospital operated from Endell Street, staffed entirely by women. The hospital was opened in 1915 by suffragists Dr. Flora Murray and Dr. Louisa Garrett Anderson and treated 24,000 patients and carried out over 7,000 operations. It closed in 1919. The hospital was sited on land formerly used as a workhouse.
St Paul’s Hospital relocated from Red Lion Square
to 24 Endell Street in 1923. It became the first artificial kidney unit in the United Kingdom in 1959 and performed the first kidney dialysis in the U.K. in 1961. The building is now The Hospital Club
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Endell Street towards Long Acre, 2015
Admiral Duncan The Admiral Duncan is well-known as one of Soho’s oldest gay pubs. British Museum station British Museum was a station on the Central line, located in Holborn and taking its name from the nearby British Museum in Great Russell Street. De Hems De Hems has become a base for London’s Dutch community, serving bitterballen and frikandellen. Garrick Yard Garrick Yard, together with the more familiar Garrick Street to the northeast of here, both took their names from the Garrick Club which commemorates the famous 18th century actor, David Garrick. Leicester Square Leicester Square, while indeed a square, is also the name for a tube station. L’Escargot L’Escargot is one of London’s oldest restaurants. Weston’s Music Hall Weston’s Music Hall was a music hall and theatre that opened in 1857. In 1906, the theatre became known as the Holborn Empire. Aldwych, WC2B The name Aldwych derives from the Old English eald and wic meaning 'old trading town' or 'old marketplace'; the name was later applied to the street and district. Arne Street, WC2E Arne Street was named after the 18th century composer Thomas Arne, who was born near here. Bateman Street, W1D Bateman Street was named for Sir James Bateman, local landowner and Lord Mayor of London in the 1670s. Bedford Square, WC1B Bedford Square was designed as a unified architectural composition in 1775-6 by Thomas Leverton. Bloomsbury Street, WC1A Bloomsbury Street runs from Gower Street in the north to the junction of New Oxford Street and Shaftesbury Avenue in the south. Bow Street, WC2B Bow Street was first developed by Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford in 1633. Bow Street, WC2B Bow Street was built in the shape of a bow between 1633 and 1677. Broad Court, WC2B Broad Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Bury Place, WC1A Bury Place is one of the streets of London in the WC1A postal area. Ching Court, WC2H Ching Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Covent Garden, WC2E Covent Garden, is the name of a district, but also the name of the central square which formerly hosted a fruit-and-vegetable market. Cranbourn Street, WC2H Cranbourne Street was named after local landowner the Earl of Salisbury, Viscount Cranbourn (Cranbourne) after the town in Dorset. Crown Court, WC2B Crown Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Dansey Place, W1D Dansey Place is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Drury Lane, WC2B Drury Lane is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Excel Court, WC2H Excel Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Galen Place, WC1A Galen Place is one of the streets of London in the WC1A postal area. Gate Street, WC2A Gate Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2A postal area. Hanway Place, W1T Hanway Place is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. High Holborn, WC1V High Holborn was part of the old road from Newgate and the Tower to the gallows at Tyburn. High Holborn, WC2B High Holborn is a road which is the highest point in the City of London - 22 metres above sea level. Hog Lane, WC2H Hog Lane was a lane that went from St Giles’ leper hospital (set up in the 12th century) to the monument to Eleanor at Charing Cross. Kean Street, WC2B Kean Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. King Street, WC2E King Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Kingsway, WC2B Kingsway is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Lincoln’s Inn Fields, WC2A Lincoln’s Inn Fields is the largest public square in London, laid out in the 1630s under the initiative of the speculative builder William Newton. Lion Court, WC1V Lion Court is one of the streets of London in the WC1V postal area. Long Acre, WC2E Long Acre is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Manette Street, W1D Manette Street in Soho is named after the character from Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities. Moor Street, W1D Moor Street is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Museum Street, WC1A Museum Street is so-named since it approaches the main entrance of the British Museum. Neal Street, WC2H Neal Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Neals Yard, WC2H Neals Yard is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. New Row, WC2N New Row is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Newport Court, WC2H Newport Court was laid out approximately on the site of the courtyard of Newport House. Newport Place, W1D Newport Place was named after Mountjoy Blount, Earl of Newport (Isle of Wight), who owned a house on Newport Street in the 17th century. Odhams Walk, WC2H Odhams Walk is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Parker Mews, WC2B Parker Mews is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Romilly Street, W1D Romilly Street is a small street that runs behind Shaftesbury Avenue and takes its name from lawyer Samuel Romilly. Rose Street, WC2E Rose Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Royalty Mews, W1D Royalty Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Rupert Court, W1D Rupert Court was named for Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the First Lord of the Admiralty when the court was built in 1676. Rupert Street, W1D Rupert Street – after Prince Rupert of the Rhine, noted 17th century general and son of Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I. Sardinia Street, WC2B Sardinia Street, formerly Duke Street, was a street that ran from Prince’s Street in the south to the western side of Lincoln’s Inn Fields in the north. Seven Dials, WC2H Seven Dials was built on the site of the Cock-and-Pie Fields, named for a nearby inn. Shaftesbury Avenue, W1D Shaftesbury Avenue is a major street in the West End of London, named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury Avenue, WC2H Shaftesbury Avenue was named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, Victorian politician and philanthropist. Sicilian Avenue, WC1A Sicilian Avenue is a shopping parade that diagonally runs in between Southampton Row and Bloomsbury Way. Soho Square, W1D In its early years, Soho Square was one of the most fashionable places to live in London. Soho Street, W1D Soho Street is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Strand, WC2A Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2A postal area. Strand, WC2B Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Strand, WC2N Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Strand, WC2R Strand (or the Strand) runs just over 3⁄4 mile from Trafalgar Square eastwards to Temple Bar, where the road becomes Fleet Street inside the City of London. The Arcade, WC2B The Arcade is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. The Market, WC2E The Market is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. The Piazza, WC2E The Piazza is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. The Strand, WC2N The Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. The Strand, WC2R The Strand is one of the streets of London in the WC2R postal area. Tower Court, WC2H Tower Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Wardour Street, W1D The part of Wardour Street south of Shaftesbury Avenue runs through London’s Chinatown. West Street, WC2H West Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Wild Street, WC2B Wild Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area.
From fruit and veg to Froo Tan VetchCovent Garden
is a district in London on the eastern fringes of the West End, between St. Martin's Lane and Drury Lane
It is associated with the former fruit and vegetable market in the central square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, and the Royal Opera House, which is also known as Covent Garden
. The district is divided by the main thoroughfare of Long Acre
, north of which is given over to independent shops centred on Neal's Yard and Seven Dials
, while the south contains the central square with its street performers and most of the elegant buildings, theatres and entertainment facilities, including the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane
, and the London Transport Museum.
Though mainly fields until the 16th century, the area was briefly settled when it became the heart of the Anglo-Saxon trading town of Lundenwic
. After the town was abandoned, part of the area was walled off by 1200 for use as arable land and orchards by Westminster Abbey, and was referred to as 'the garden of the Abbey and Convent'. The land, now called the Covent Garden
, was seized by Henry VIII, and granted to the Earls of Bedford in 1552. The 4th Earl commissioned Inigo Jones to build some fine houses to attract wealthy tenants. Jones designed the Italianate arcaded square along with the church of St Paul's. The design of the square was new to London, and had a significant influence on modern town planning, acting as the prototype for the laying-out of new estates as London grew.
A small open-air fruit and vegetable market had developed on the south side of the fashionable square by 1654. Gradually, both the market and the surrounding area fell into disrepute, as taverns, theatres, coffee-houses and brothels opened up; the gentry moved away, and rakes, wits and playwrights moved in.
By the 18th century it had become a well-known red-light district, attracting notable prostitutes. An Act of Parliament was drawn up to control the area, and Charles Fowler's neo-classical building was erected in 1830 to cover and help organise the market. The area declined as a pleasure-ground as the market grew and further buildings were added: the Floral Hall, Charter Market, and in 1904 the Jubilee Market
. By the end of the 1960s traffic congestion was causing problems, and in 1974 the market relocated to the New Covent Garden
Market about three miles (5 km) south-west at Nine Elms. The central building re-opened as a shopping centre in 1980, and is now a tourist location containing cafes, pubs, small shops, and a craft market called the Apple Market, along with another market held in the Jubilee Hall.
tube station is a Grade II listed building and was opened by Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway on 11 April 1907, four months after services on the rest of the line began operating on 15 December 1906.
Like the rest of the original GNP&BR stations, the street level station building and platform tiling was designed by Leslie Green. The station building is a classic red 'Oxblood' building which has two elevations fronting onto the end of James Street
and Long Acre
. The platform wall was tiled with two shades of yellow and white tiling which formed geometric shapes along with three blank spaces to incorporate the station name. As part of TFL's investment programme, the ageing tiling dating back from the station's opening was replaced in 2010 in a like-for-like basis, retaining the look and feel of the platforms.
station is one of the few stations in Central London for which platform access is only by lift or stairs and often becomes congested due to the Covent Garden
area's popularity with tourists. To control congestion on Saturday afternoons, when the surrounding shopping areas are at their busiest, the station was previously exit only to avoid the risk of dangerous overcrowding of the platforms, but following replacement of the lifts, this restriction has been lifted. There are four lifts which give access to street level, although a final flight of stairs from the lifts to the platforms means that the station is wheelchair inaccessible. Alternatively, there is an emergency spiral staircase of 193 steps (The equivalent to a 15 storey building). During the lift journey a recorded announcement is played asking passengers to have their tickets/passes ready as they exit the lifts and advising where to turn for Covent Garden
Image: Chris Ross