Gower Street is named after Gertrude Leveson-Gower, the wife of John Russell, the 4th Duke of Bedford.
Leveson-Gower was noted as a formidable adviser to her husband who held various political roles during the reigns of George II and George III, including Lord Privy Seal and Ambassador to France at the end of the Seven Years’ War.
The Gower baronetcy was a subsidiary title of the Duke of Sutherland, held in the Leveson-Gower family until 1963.
The area now known as Bloomsbury had come into the possession of the Russell family in 1669. That year the 5th Earl of Bedford’s son married Lady Rachel Vaughan, daughter of the 4th Earl of Southampton.
Southampton had started developing the area in the 1660s. John Russell died in 1771 and Gower Street was laid out from the 1780s onwards under Lady Gertrude’s supervision. During its development, a square was proposed near the northern end but the land was taken instead for University College London
. The university was founded to provide an alternative to the Anglican-dominated colleges of Oxford and Cambridge and was nicknamed ‘the godless institution of Gower Street’. The Wilkins Building opened in 1828 and the university has since progressively expanded to consume most of the east side of Gower Street and the land behind it. University College hospital opened on the west side of the street in 1833. The hospital’s early medical students invented ‘Gower Street dialect’ - spoonerisms such as ‘poking a smipe’ for ‘smoking a pipe’.
Gower Street still has one of London’s longest sets of unbroken Georgian terraces.
Gower Street was one of the original stations on the London Underground when the Metropolitan Railway opened in 1863.
10 Gower Street, Bloomsbury
Abbey Place, WC1H Abbey Place was in the centre of Bloomsbury, off what was originally the west side of Little Coram Street and directly behind the Russell Institution on Great Coram Street. Agar Grove, NW1 Formerly known as St Paul’s Road, the name Agar Grove dates from 1938. Agar Street, WC2N Agar Street is named after George Agar, who built the street in the 1830s with John Ponsonby, Earl of Bessborough Air Street, W1B Air Street’s name is believed to be a corruption of ‘Ayres’, after Thomas Ayre, a local brewer and resident in the 17th century. Air Street, W1B Air Street was the most westerly street in London when newly built in 1658. Albany Courtyard, W1J The courtyard is named after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, who in 1791 purchased Melbourne House which stood on this site. Albany, W1S The Albany is an apartment complex in Piccadilly, divided into apartments in 1802. Albemarle Street, W1S Albemarle Street takes its name from the second Duke of Albermarle, son of General Monk. Aldenham Street, NW1 Aldenham Street – Richard Platt, 16th century brewer and local landowner, gave land for the endowment of Aldenham School, Hertfordshire. Alfred Mews, WC1E Alfred Mews is situated off Tottenham Court Road, running behind the gardens of North Crescent. Alfred Place, WC1E Alfred Place was built in 1806 by a Marylebone stonemason called John Waddilove who named it after his son Alfred. All Souls Place, W1B All Souls Place is a short cul-de-sac in the shadow of All Souls Church, originating in the eighteenth century as a mews off Edward Street. Archer Street, W1D Archer Street was Arch Street in 1675, Orchard Street in 1720 and Archer Street by 1746. Argyll Street, W1F Argyll Street was named after John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, owner of the land in the 18th century. Arlington Road, NW1 Arlington Road is misnamed from a noble derivation of Harlington, Middlesex. Augustus Street, NW1 Augustus Street - after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV). Barker Drive, NW1 Barker Drive built over railway sidings, takes its name from Tom Barker (1887-1970) who served as Mayor of Camden in the 1950s. Bateman Street, W1D Bateman Street was named for Sir James Bateman, local landowner and Lord Mayor of London in the 1670s. Bayham Street, NW1 Bayham Street is named for one of Lord’s Camden’s titles, Viscount Bayham. Beak Street, W1B Beak Street runs roughly east-west between Regent Street and Lexington Street. Beak Street, W1F Beak Street is named after Thomas Beake, one of the Queen’s messengers. Bedforbury, WC2N Bedforbury is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Bedford Square, WC1B Bedford Square was designed as a unified architectural composition in 1775-6 by Thomas Leverton. Bedford Way, WC1H Bedford Way is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area. Bedfordbury, WC2N Bedfordbury is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Berners Mews, W1T Berners Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Berners Street, W1D Berners Street runs from the junction of Oxford Street and Wardour Street to join up with Mortimer Street and the former Middlesex Hospital. Berwick Road, W1F Berwick Road is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Berwick Street, W1F Berwick Street commemorates the Duke of Berwick, an illegitimate son of James II. Bird Street, W1T Bird Street is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Bloomsbury Square, WC1A The 4th Earl of Southampton was granted a building license for the construction of Bloomsbury Square in 1661. Bloomsbury Street, WC1A Bloomsbury Street runs from Gower Street in the north to the junction of New Oxford Street and Shaftesbury Avenue in the south. Bolton Street, W1J Bolton Street runs from Curzon Street in the north to Piccadilly in the south. Bow Street, WC2E Bow Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Boyle Street, W1S Boyle Street was built on a piece of land called the Ten Acres to discharge some Boyle family debts. Brandon Road, N7 Brandon Road is one of the streets of London in the N7 postal area. Brewer Street, W1D Brewer Street runs west to east from Glasshouse Street to Wardour Street. Bridle Lane, W1F Bridle Lane is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Broadwick Street, W1F Broadwick Street runs west-east between Marshall Street and Wardour Street, crossing Berwick Street. Bruton Lane, W1J Bruton Lane is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area. Buck Street, NW1 Buck Street leads from Kentish Town Road to Camden High Street. Buckingham Street, WC2N Buckingham Street is named after George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, 17th century courtier, who acquired York House which formerly stood on this site; his son sold the area to developers on condition that his father and titles were commemorated on the new streets. Burlington Arcade, W1J Burlington Arcade is a covered shopping arcade, 179 metres in length, that runs from Piccadilly to Burlington Gardens. Burlington Gardens, W1S Burlington Gardens, with houses dating from 1725, was laid out on land that was once part of the Burlington Estate. Bury Place, WC1A Bury Place is one of the streets of London in the WC1A postal area. Bury Street, SW1A Bury Street runs north-to-south from Jermyn Street to King Street, crossing Ryder Street. Bury Street, SW1Y Bury Street runs north-to-south from Jermyn Street to King Street, crossing Ryder Street. Bywell Place, W1T Bywell Place is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Camden Road, NW1 Camden Road is a main road running from Camden up to Holloway Road. Carlton House Terrace, SW1Y Carlton House Terrace consists of a pair of terraces - white stucco-faced houses on the south side of the street overlooking St. James’s Park. Charing Cross, SW1A Charing Cross, long regarded as London’s central point, as an address is an enigma. Ching Court, WC2H Ching Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Clare Court, WC1H Clare Court is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area. Cleveland Street, W1W Cleveland Street maybe dates from before 1632 when its name was recorded as Wrastling Lane. Cockspur Street, SW1Y Cockspur Street is possibly after the cock fighting that formerly occurred here, cocks often having spurs attached to their feet during fights. Colonnade, WC1N Colonnade is one of the streets of London in the WC1N postal area. Conway Mews, W1T Conway Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Conway Street, W1T Conway Street runs from the Euston Road in the north to Fitzroy Square in the south. Cork Street, W1S Cork Street, on the Burlington Estate, was named after Richard Boyle, 3rd Earl of Burlington and 4th Earl of Cork. Cosmo Place, WC1N Cosmo Place is one of the streets of London in the WC1N postal area. Covent Garden, WC2E Covent Garden, is the name of a district, but also the name of the central square which formerly hosted a fruit-and-vegetable market. Coventry Street, W1D Coventry Street is a short street connecting Piccadilly Circus to Leicester Square. On the London Monopoly board, it was named after the politician Henry Coventry, secretary of state to Charles II. Cranbourn Street, WC2H Cranbourne Street was named after local landowner the Earl of Salisbury, Viscount Cranbourn (Cranbourne) after the town in Dorset. Craven Passage, WC2N Craven Passage is named after William Craven, 3rd Baron Craven, who owned the land when the street was built in the 1730s. Craven Street, WC2N Craven Street is named after William Craven, 3rd Baron Craven, who owned the land when the street was built in the 1730s. Curnock Street, NW1 George Curnock was the 19th century proprietor of two wharves on the Regent’s Canal. Dansey Place, W1D Dansey Place is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Dean Street, W1D Dean Street is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Denton Street, N1C Denton Street disappeared under the construction of St Pancras station. Dn, SE1 A street within the postcode Dover Street, W1S Dover Street is one of the streets of London in the W1S postal area. Downing Street, SW1A Downing Street has been the home of British Prime Minsters since the eighteenth century. Duck Lane, W1F Duck Lane is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Duke Street, SW1Y Duke Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Dukes Road, WC1H Dukes Road is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area. Durham House Street, WC2N Durham House Street was the former site of a palace belonging to the bishops of Durham in medieval times.
Eagle Place, SW1Y Eagle Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. East Street, TW8 East Street is one of the streets in the Twickenham postal district. Eastcastle Street, W1T The portion of Eastcastle Street to the east of Wells Street originally belonged to the Berners Estate. Endell Street, WC2H Endell Street, originally known as Belton Street, is a street that runs from High Holborn in the north to Long Acre and Bow Street in the south. Ernest Street, NW1 Ernest Street appears on the 1860 map as the name for part of Robert Street. Euston Road, NW1 Euston Road runs from Marylebone Road to King's Cross. The road is part of the London Inner Ring Road and forms part of the London congestion charge zone boundary. Euston Tower, NW1 Euston Tower is a skyscraper located at 286 Euston Road, near the intersection with Tottenham Court Road. Excel Court, WC2H Excel Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. First Floor, W1T First Floor is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Fitzroy Mews, W1T Fitzroy Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Fludyer Street, SW1A Fludyer Street used to be a street which lay parallel to, and south of, Downing Street. Foley Street, W1W Foley Street is one of the streets of London in the W1W postal area. Galen Place, WC1A Galen Place is one of the streets of London in the WC1A postal area. Goodge Place, W1T Goodge Place is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Gordon Square, WC1H The completion of Thomas Cubitt’s Gordon Square in 1860 marked the final development of Bloomsbury. Grafton Mews, W1T Grafton Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Grafton Way, W1T Grafton Way is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Great Russell Street, WC1A Great Russell Street commemorates the marriage of the daughter of the 4th Earl of Southampton to William Russell in 1669. Great Windmill Street, W1F Great Windmill Street has had a long association with music and entertainment, most notably the Windmill Theatre. Greens Court, W1F Greens Court is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Ham Yard, W1D Ham Yard is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Hanover Square, W1S Hanover Square was created as the ’Whig’ square with Cavendish Square being the ’Tory’ square. Hanway Place, W1T Hanway Place is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Hay Hill, W1J Hay Hill is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area. Haymarket, SW1Y Haymarket – site of a former market selling hay until the 1830s. Herbrand Street, WC1N Herbrand Street is in the east of Bloomsbury, running south from Tavistock Place to Guilford Street. High Holborn, WC2B High Holborn is a road which is the highest point in the City of London - 22 metres above sea level. Hills Place, W1F Hills Place is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Hobhouse Court, WC2H Hobhouse Court is named after Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Victorian MP and arts patron. Hog Lane, WC2H Hog Lane was a lane that went from St Giles’ leper hospital (set up in the 12th century) to the monument to Eleanor at Charing Cross. Holles Street, W1C Holles Street runs north from Oxford Street, on the east side of the John Lewis store. Hop Gardens, WC2N Hop Gardens is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. John Adam Street, WC2N John Adam Street is named after John Adam, who built the Adelphi development with his brother Robert in the 1760s. Judd Street, WC1H Judd Street is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area. Kemp’s Court, W1F Kemp’s Court is situated in the heart of Berwick Street Market where a line of stalls stretch down both sides of the road. Keppel Street, WC1E Keppel Street links Store Street and Gower Street in the west to Malet Street in the east. King Street, SW1Y King Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. King Street, WC2E King Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. King’s Terrace, NW1 King’s Terrace was formerly Little King Street South and Little King Street North. Kingly Court, W1B Kingly Court is one of the streets of London in the W1B postal area. Linen Hall, W1B Linen Hall is one of the streets of London in the W1B postal area. Little Guildford Street Little Guildford Street was the middle part of what is now Herbrand Street, between Great Coram Street and Bernard Street, on the western edge of the Foundling estate. Livonia Street, W1F Livonia Street was originally Bentinck Street, family name of owner the Duke of Portland. Long Acre, WC2E Long Acre is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Maiden Lane, WC2E Maiden Lane is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Malet Street, WC1E Sir Edward Malet was married to Lady Ermyntrude Sackville Russell, daughter of Francis Russell who owned much of the surrounding area. Manette Street, W1D Manette Street in Soho is named after the character from Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities. Maple Street, W1T Maple Street is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Market Place, W1W Market Place is one of the streets of London in the W1W postal area. Masons Yard, SW1Y Masons Yard is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Meard Street, W1F John Meard, the younger was a carpenter, later a landowner, who developed the street. Medburn Street, NW1 Medburn Street is named after a farm between Elstree and Radlett in Hertfordshire. Mill Street, W1S Mill Street is one of the streets of London in the W1S postal area. Moor Street, W1D Moor Street is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Museum Street, WC1A Museum Street is so-named since it approaches the main entrance of the British Museum. Neal Street, WC2H Neal Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Neals Yard, WC2H Neals Yard is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. New Bond Street, W1S New Bond Street is the northernmost section of what is simply known as ’Bond Street’ in general use. New Row, WC2N New Row is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Newburg Road, W1F Newburg Road is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Newport Court, WC2H Newport Court was laid out approximately on the site of the courtyard of Newport House. Newport Place, W1D Newport Place was named after Mountjoy Blount, Earl of Newport (Isle of Wight), who owned a house on Newport Street in the 17th century. Noel Street, W1F Noel Street is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Northumberland Avenue, WC2N Northumberland Avenue runs from Trafalgar Square in the west to the Thames Embankment in the east. The road was built on the site of Northumberland House and on part of the parallel Northumberland Street. Northumberland Street, WC2N Northumberland Street commemorates the former Northumberland House, built originally in the early 17th century for the earls of Northampton and later acquired by the earls of Northumberland.
Odhams Walk, WC2H Odhams Walk is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Ogle Street, W1W Ogle Street is one of the streets of London in the W1W postal area. Orange Street, WC2H Orange Street gets its name from William III, Prince of Orange - the reigning king when the street was built. Ormond Yard, SW1Y Ormond Yard is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Oxendon Street, W1D Oxendon Street, after Sir Henry Oxendon, husband of Mary Baker, daughter of Robert Baker who built the former Piccadilly House nearby. Pall Mall, SW1Y Pall Mall is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Palladium House, W1B Palladium House is a grade II listed (in 1981) Art Deco office building located on the corner of Great Marlborough Street and Argyll Street. Panton Street, W1D Panton Street was named after Colonel Thomas Panton, local property dealer of the 17th century. Park Place, SW1A Park Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1A postal area. Percy Street, W1T Percy Street is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Peter Street, W1F Peter Street is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Plender Street, NW1 William Plender, 1st Baron Plender was an accountant and public servant who served as Sheriff of the County of London in 1927. Rathbone Place, W1T Rathbone Place honours Captain Rathbone who was the builder of the road and properties thereon from 1718 onwards. Regent Place, W1B Regent Place is one of the streets of London in the W1B postal area. Regent Street, W1 Regent Street is one of the streets of London in the W1 postal area. Riding House Street, W1W Riding House Street commemorates a riding house and barracks of the First Troop of Horse Grenadier Guards. Robert Street, WC2N Robert Street is named after Robert Adam, who built the Adelphi development with his brother John in the 1760s. Rochester Mews, NW1 Rochester Mews is a cobbled through road with a cul-de-sac section off Rochester Road. Rose Street, WC2E Rose Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Royal Arcade, W1S Royal Arcade is one of the streets of London in the W1S postal area. Royalty Mews, W1D Royalty Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Rupert Court, W1D Rupert Court was named for Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the First Lord of the Admiralty when the court was built in 1676. Rupert Street, W1D Rupert Street – after Prince Rupert of the Rhine, noted 17th century general and son of Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I. Russell Square, WC1B Russell Square was laid out from 1800 by James Burton following the demolition of Bedford House, which originally stood on the site surrounded by gardens and fields. Scala Street, W1T Scala Street is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Shaftesbury Avenue, W1D Shaftesbury Avenue is a major street in the West End of London, named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury Avenue, WC2H Shaftesbury Avenue was named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, Victorian politician and philanthropist. Silver Place, W1F Silver Place is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Smiths Court, W1D Smiths Court is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Soho Square, W1D In its early years, Soho Square was one of the most fashionable places to live in London. Soho Street, W1D Soho Street is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Spring Gardens, SW1A Spring Gardens derives its name from the Spring Garden, formed in the 16th century as an addition to the pleasure grounds of Whitehall Palace. Stephen Mews, W1T Stephen Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Suffolk Place, SW1Y The Earl of Suffolk (Thomas Howard) was the reason for the naming of Suffolk Place. Suffolk Street, SW1Y Suffolk Street was named after Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, who owned a stable yard attached to Northumberland House which lay on this site. Swallow Street, W1B Swallow Street honours Thomas Swallow, lessee in 1540 of the pastures on which the road was built. Tavistock Square, WC1H Tavistock Square was built by property developer James Burton and the master builder Thomas Cubitt for Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford. The Arches, WC2N The Arches is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. The Mall, SW1Y The Mall is the processional route between Trafalgar Square and Buckingham Palace. The Market, WC2E The Market is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. The Piazza, WC2E The Piazza is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Third Floor, WC1E Third Floor is one of the streets of London in the WC1E postal area. Tileyard Road, N7 Tileyard Road is one of the streets of London in the N7 postal area. Torrington Square, WC1H Torrington Square was originally laid out as part of the Bedford Estate development in 1821-25, named after the father-in-law of the 6th Duke of Bedford. Tottenham Court Road, W1T Tottenham Court Road is a major road running from the junction of Oxford Street and Charing Cross Road, north to Euston Road - a distance of about three-quarters of a mile. Tower Court, WC2H Tower Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Trafalgar Square, SW1Y Trafalgar Square commemorates Horatio Nelson’s 1805 victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. Union Street, W1W The easternmost section of Riding House Street was previously known as Union Street. Vale Royal, N7 Vale Royal is one of the streets of London in the N7 postal area. Vigo Street, W1S Vigo Street is one of the streets of London in the W1S postal area. Walker’s Court, W1D Walker’s Court is one of the many passageways which in past years was known as ’Paved Alley’. Wardour Street, W1D The part of Wardour Street south of Shaftesbury Avenue runs through London’s Chinatown. Wardour Street, W1F Wardour Street is a street that runs north from Leicester Square, through Chinatown, across Shaftesbury Avenue to Oxford Street. Warren Mews, W1T Warren Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Warren Street, W1T Warren Street was named after Anne Warren (1737–1807), the wife of Charles FitzRoy, landowner. Watergate Walk, WC2N Watergate Walk is named after a former watergate built in 1626 for George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham as an entrance for the former York House. Waterloo Place, SW1Y Waterloo Place, a broad extension of Regent Street, is awash with statues and monuments that honour heroes and statesmen of the British Empire. It is framed by palatial buildings designed by John Nash, the famed Regency-era architect and Decimus Burton, his protégé. Wells Mews, W1T Wells Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Wells Street, W1W Wells Street is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. West Street, WC2H West Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Whitcomb Street, WC2H Whitcomb Street - named after William Whitcomb, 17th century brewer and property developer. Whitehall, SW1A Whitehall is recognised as the centre of the government of the United Kingdom. Whitfield Street, W1T Whitfield Street runs from Warren Street in the north to Windmill Street in the south. Wilsted Street, NW1 Wilsted Street was the original name for the lower end of Ossulston Street. Woburn Mews, WC1H Woburn Mews ran parallel between Woburn Place and Upper Bedford Place to the west of Woburn Place. Woburn Place, WC1H Woburn Place is situated on the Bedford estate, running north from the east of Russell Square to the east of Tavistock Square. Wollstonecraft Street, N1C Wollstonecraft Street was the first name to be chosen from a naming competition by the developers of N1C. York Buildings, WC2N York Buildings marks a house was built on this site in the 14th century for the bishops of Norwich.
Bloomsbury is an area of the London Borough of Camden, in central London, between Euston Road and Holborn, developed by the Russell family in the 17th and 18th centuries into a fashionable residential area.
The earliest record of what would become Bloomsbury is the 1086 Domesday Book, which records that the area had vineyards and 'wood for 100 pigs'. But it is not until 1201 that the name Bloomsbury is first noted, when William de Blemond, a Norman landowner, acquired the land.
The name Bloomsbury is a development from Blemondisberi
– the bury, or manor, of Blemond. An 1878 publication, Old and New London: Volume 4, mentions the idea that the area was named after a village called Lomesbury
which formerly stood where Bloomsbury Square
is now, though this piece of folk etymology is now discredited.
At the end of the 14th century Edward III acquired Blemond's manor, and passed it on to the Carthusian monks of the London Charterhouse, who kept the area mostly rural.
In the 16th century, with the Dissolution of the Monasteries, Henry VIII took the land back into the possession of the Crown, and granted it to Thomas Wriothesley, 1st Earl of Southampton.
In the early 1660s, the Earl of Southampton constructed what eventually became Bloomsbury Square
. The area was laid out mainly in the 18th century, largely by landowners such as Wriothesley Russell, 3rd Duke of Bedford, who built Bloomsbury Market, which opened in 1730. The major development of the squares that we see today started in about 1800 when Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford removed Bedford House and developed the land to the north with Russell Square
as its centrepiece.
Historically, Bloomsbury is associated with the arts, education, and medicine. The area gives its name to the Bloomsbury Group of artists, the most famous of whom was Virginia Woolf, who met in private homes in the area in the early 1900s, and to the lesser known Bloomsbury Gang of Whigs formed in 1765 by John Russell, 4th Duke of Bedford.
The publisher Faber & Faber used to be located in Queen Square, though at the time T. S. Eliot was editor the offices were in Tavistock Square
. The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was founded in John Millais's parents' house on Gower Street in 1848.
The Bloomsbury Festival was launched in 2006 when local resident Roma Backhouse was commissioned to mark the re-opening of the Brunswick Centre
, a residential and shopping area. The free festival is a celebration of the local area, partnering with galleries, libraries and museums, and achieved charitable status at the end of 2012.