Hampstead Road, NW1

Road in/near Euston, existing until now

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(51.52976 -0.13868) 

Hampstead Road, NW1

MAP YEAR:1750180018301860190019502020Remove markers
Road · * · NW1 ·
JUNE
19
2018

Hampstead Road connects the Euston Road with Camden.

There was until the reign of William IV, a rustic corner of the outskirts of London between King’s Cross and St. John’s Wood.

The prætorium of a Roman camp was visible where Barnsbury Terrace is now; the remains of another were situated opposite old St Pancras Church, and herds of cows grazed at Rhodes Farm near where Euston station is now. The New Road (Euston Road) between Battle Bridge (King’s Cross) to Tottenham Court Road was considered unsafe after dark; and "parties used to collect at stated points to take the chance of the escort of the watchman in his half-hourly round." In 1707 there were no streets west of Tottenham Court Road; and one cluster of houses only, besides the "Spring Water House" nearly half a century later, at which time what is now the Euston Road was part of an expanse of verdant fields.

In the reign of George IV., as Mr. Samuel Palmer writes in his History of St. Pancras: "the rural lanes, hedgeside roads, and lovely fields made Camden Town the constant resort of those who, busily engaged during the day in the bustle of . . . London, sought its quietude and fresh air to re-invigorate their spirits. Then the old ’Mother Red Cap’ was the evening resort of worn-out Londoners, and many a happy evening was spent in the green fields round about the old wayside house by the children of the poorer classes. At that time the Dairy, at the junction of the Hampstead Road and Kentish Town Road, was a rural cottage, furnished with forms and benches for the pedestrians to rest upon the road-side, whilst its master and mistress served out milk fresh from the cow to all who came."

The Euston Road (New Road) was at the time of its formation in the eighteenth century, the boundary line for limiting the "ruinous rage for building" on the north side of the town. It was made by virtue of an Act of Parliament passed in the reign of George II. (1756), after violent objections of the Duke of Bedford, who opposed its construction on the ground of its approaching too near to Bedford House, the duke’s town mansion. The Duke of Grafton, on the other hand, strenuously supported it, and after a fierce legal battle it was ultimately decided that the road should be formed.

In the Gentleman’s Magazine for 1755 there is a "ground plan" of the New Road, from Islington to Edgware Road, showing the then state of the ground (and the names of the proprietors) between Oxford Street and the New Road. The Act of Parliament for the formation of this great thoroughfare directed that no building should be erected "within fifty feet of the New Road."

In Gwynn’s London Improved published in the first decade of the 1800s, it is stated that "the present mean appearance of the backs of the houses and hovels have rendered this approach to the capital a scene of confusion and deformity, extremely unbecoming the character of a great and opulent city." Gwynn’s remarks applied aptly to the quarter of a mile of the New Road which lies between Gower Street North, where the old Westgate Turnpike formerly stood, and the eastern entrance to Regent’s Park. Here the road was narrow, and perpetually obstructed by wagons

In course of time, an improvement was made and that part of the road was widened by the removal of some obtruding houses, and the thoroughfare made as nearly as possible of one uniform width all along, with the exception of the hundred yards immediately to the west and east of the Adam and Eve at the junction of the Euston Road, Hampstead Road and Tottenham Court Road.

After constructing the Metropolitan Railway before 1863 using ’cut and cover’, the company re-made the roadway.

At the corner of the Euston Road and Hampstead Road was a public house. Nearly on the site of what is now Tolmers Square, was a reservoir of the New River Company, surrounded with a grove of trees - removed around 1860.

The "Adam and Eve" as late as 1832 was quite a rural inn, only one storey in height, "with spacious gardens at the side and in the rear, a fore-court with large timber trees, and tables and benches for out-door customers. In the gardens were fruit-trees and bowers and arbours for tea-drinking parties. In the rear there were no houses at all; now there is a town."

An advertisement in the public journals in September, 1718, tells us how that "there is a strange and wonderful fruit growing at the ’Adam and Eve,’ at Tottenham Court, called a ’Calabath’, which is five feet and a half round, where any person may see the same gratis."

The rural nature of the neighbourhood of the Adam and Eve can be seen from an advert which appeared in 1708:—"At Tottenham Court, near St. Giles’s, and within less than a mile of London, a very good Farm House, with outhouses and above seventy acres of extraordinary good pastures and meadows, with all conveniences proper for a cowman, are to be let, together or in parcels, and there is dung ready to lay on. Enquire further at Mr. Bolton’s, at the sign of the ’Crown,’ in Tottenham Court aforesaid, or at ’Landon’s Coffee House,’ over against Somerset House, Strand."

The first street to the north of the "Adam and Eve" in the Hampstead Road became called Eden Street - now gone.

The streets on the west side on Hampstead Road are mostly named after the first names of the family of the owner of the land, such as Henry, Charles, Frederick, William, Robert, and Edward Streets.

Henry Street became Brock Street. Charles Street disappeared when Drummond Street’s name was extended westwards. Frederick Street became William Road and Edward Street, Varndell Street.

At the corner of Charles Street (formerly Sol’s Row) was the "Sol’s Arms," which is immortalised by Dickens in "Bleak House." It derives its name from the Sol’s Society, an institution which was conducted somewhat upon the principles of freemasonry. They used to hold their meetings at the "Queen of Bohemia’s Head," in Drury Lane; but on the pulling down of that house the society was dissolved. In Sol’s Row, David Wilkie, the artist, resided for some time, and there painted his "Blind Fiddler." We found him afterwards in the more fashionable suburb of Kensington, Each of the above-mentioned streets cross at right angles a broader and more important thoroughfare, called Stanhope Street, which runs parallel with the Hampstead Road.

The remaining streets on the west side of Hampstead Road have other designations: Rutland Street, Granby Street and Mornington Crescent, which connects the road with Camden High Street. Granby Street commemorates the English general, the Marquis of Granby. Mornington Crescent compliments the Earl of Mornington, then Governor General of India and the brother of the Duke of Wellington.

Charles Dickens, when about twelve years old, was sent to a school in Hampstead Road, close to the corner of Mornington Place and Granby Street and called Wellington House Academy. At this time Dickens was living with his parents, in "a small street leading out of Seymour Street, north of Mr. Judkin’s Chapel." Whilst here he would "ramble over the Field of the Forty Footsteps".

On the eastern side of the Hampstead Road, the Old King’s Head at the corner opposite to the Adam and Eve presented an "awkward break in the uniform width of the Euston Road", by projecting some feet beyond its neighbours, and so narrowing the thoroughfare.

To the north of this tavern much of the land facing Eden Street was not built upon until about 1860. Here were large waterworks and a reservoir.

Drummond Street, the next road to the north, extends along by the front of Euston station. This street crosses George Street, which runs from Gower Street to Hampstead Road. Between George Street and Cardington Street is St. James’s Church, formerly a chapel of ease to the mother church of St. James’s, Piccadilly.

The Russell family owned the land further to the north - the names of several of the streets and squares commemorate them and a considerable part of the district was originally called Bedford New Town.

Ampthill Square - now disappeared beneath railway tracks - was not a square but a triangle. It was named after Ampthill Park in Bedfordshire, formerly the seat of the Earls of Upper Ossory, but afterwards the property of the ducal house of Bedford, to whom the land about this part belonged.

Harrington Square faces two sides of a triangular plot of ground, facing Mornington Crescent called after the Earl of Harrington, one of whose daughters married the seventh Duke of Bedford.


Main source: Euston Road and Hampstead Road | British History Online
Further citations and sources



Camden Town, from the Hampstead Road, Marylebone (1780)

Camden Town, from the Hampstead Road, Marylebone (1780)
Old and New London: Volume 5 (1878)

NEARBY LOCATIONS OF NOTE
Ossulston Estate The Ossulston Estate is a multi-storey council estate built by the London County Council in Somers Town between 1927 and 1931.
Regent’s Park Estate The Regent’s Park Estate is a large housing estate in the London Borough of Camden.
Rhodes Farm Rhodes Farm was situated on Hampstead Road.
St. James Gardens St. James Gardens were used as a burial ground between 1790 and 1853.

NEARBY STREETS
Albany Street, NW1 Albany Street runs from Marylebone Road to Gloucester Gate following the east side of Regent’s Park.
Aldenham Street, NW1 Aldenham Street – Richard Platt, 16th century brewer and local landowner, gave land for the endowment of Aldenham School, Hertfordshire.
Ampthill Square, NW1 Ampthill Square is a name which has existed in two different time periods.
Augustus House, NW1 Residential block
Augustus Street, NW1 Augustus Street - after Ernest Augustus, King of Hanover, brother of the Prince Regent (George IV).
Barclay Street, NW1 Barclay Street led from Aldenham Street northwards to Medburn Street.
Barnby Street, NW1 Barnby Street is a street in Camden Town.
Bridgeway Street, NW1 Bridgeway Street is a street in Camden Town.
Cambridge Gate Mews, NW1 Cambridge Gate Mews is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Cambridge Terrace Mews, NW1 Cambridge Terrace Mews is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Cambridge Terrace, NW1 Cambridge Terrace is a crescent off of the Outer Circle.
Cambridge Terrace, NW1 Cambridge Terrace is a street in Camden Town.
Cardington Street, NW1 Cardington Street is a rare London street in that it closed for good as late as 2017.
Chalton Street, NW1 Chalton Street was formerly Charlton Street.
Charrington Street, NW1 Charrington Street runs south to north and is a continuation of Ossulston Street.
Chester Close North, NW1 Chester Close North is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Chester Close South, NW1 Chester Close South is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Chester Court, NW1 Chester Court is a street in Camden Town.
Chester Gate, NW1 Chester Gate is a street in Camden Town.
Chester Terrace, NW1 Chester Terrace is the longest unbroken facade of the neo-classical terraces in Regent's Park.
Clarence Gardens, NW1 Clarence Gardens is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Clarkson Row, NW1 Clarkson Row is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Cobourg Street, NW1 Cobourg Street is a street in Camden Town.
Cranleigh Street, NW1 Cranleigh Street is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Cumberland Market, NW1 Cumberland Market is a street in Camden Town.
Cumberland Terrace, NW1 Cumberland Terrace is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Doric Way, NW1 Doric Way is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Doric Way, NW1 Doric Way is a street in Camden Town.
Drummond Crescent, NW1 Drummond Crescent is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Drummond Street, NW1 Drummond Street was the original site of Euston Station.
Endsleigh Gardens, WC1H Endsleigh Gardens is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area.
Endsleigh Street, WC1H Endsleigh Street is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area.
Ernest Street, NW1 Ernest Street appears on the 1860 map as the name for part of Robert Street.
Euston Road, NW1 Euston Road runs from Marylebone Road to King's Cross. The road is part of the London Inner Ring Road and forms part of the London congestion charge zone boundary.
Euston Road, WC1H Euston Road is a road in the WC1H postcode area
Euston Square, NW1 This is a street in the NW1 postcode area
Euston Street, NW1 Euston Street is a street in Camden Town.
Eversholt Street, NW1 Eversholt Street is a street in Camden Town.
Everton Buildings, NW1 Everton Buildings is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Foundry Mews, NW1 Foundry Mews is a road in the NW1 postcode area
George Mews, NW1 George Mews is a street in Camden Town.
Grafton Place, NW1 Grafton Place is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Granby Terrace, NW1 Granby Terrace is a street in Camden Town.
Harrington Square, NW1 Harrington Square is a street in Camden Town.
Harrington Street, NW1 Harrington Street is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Lancing Street, NW1 Lancing Street is a street in Camden Town.
Laxton Place, NW1 Laxton Place is a street in Camden Town.
Lidlington Place, NW1 Lidlington Place is a street in Camden Town.
Mayford, NW1 Mayford is a street in Camden Town.
Melton Street, NW1 Melton Street is a street in Camden Town.
Munster Square, NW1 Munster Square is a street in Camden Town.
Nash Street, NW1 Nash Street is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Netley Street, NW1 Netley Street is a street in Camden Town.
North Gower Street, NW1 North Gower Street is a street in Camden Town.
Oakshott Court, NW1 Oakshott Court is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Osnaburgh Street, NW1 Osnaburgh Street is a street in Camden Town.
Phoenix Road, NW1 Phoenix Road is a street in Camden Town.
Polygon Road, NW1 Polygon Road is a street in Camden Town.
Prince Of Wales Passage, NW1 Prince Of Wales Passage is a street in Camden Town.
Prince Regent Mews, NW1 Prince Regent Mews is a street in Camden Town.
Redhill Street, NW1 Redhill Street is a street in Camden Town.
Regents Park, NW1 Regents Park is a street in Camden Town.
Robert Street, NW1 Robert Street is a street in Camden Town.
Somers Close, NW1 Somers Close is a road in the NW1 postcode area
St Annes, NW1 St Annes is a street in Camden Town.
St Mary Magdalene Church, NW1 St Mary Magdalene Church is a street in Camden Town.
Stanhope Parade, NW1 Stanhope Parade is a street in Camden Town.
Stanhope Street, NW1 Stanhope Street is a street in Camden Town.
Starcross Street, NW1 Starcross Street is a street in Camden Town.
Stephenson Way, NW1 Stephenson Way is a street in Camden Town.
Taviton Street, WC1H Taviton Street is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area.
The Polygon The Polygon was a housing estate, a Georgian building with 15 sides and three storeys that contained 32 houses.
Tolmers Square, NW1 Tolmers Square is a street in Camden Town.
Varndell Street, NW1 Varndell Street is a road in the NW1 postcode area
Werrington Street, NW1 Werrington Street is a street in Camden Town.
Whittlebury Street, NW1 Whittlebury Street once laid to the west of Euston station.
William Road, NW1 William Road is a street in Camden Town.
William Street, NW1 William Street appears on the 1860 map west of Hampstead Road.


Euston

London Euston is the southern terminus of the West Coast Main Line - serving Birmingham, Manchester, Liverpool and Glasgow.

Euston was the first inter-city railway station in London. It opened on 20 July 1837 as the terminus of the London and Birmingham Railway.

The site was selected in the early 1830s by George and Robert Stephenson, engineers of the London and Birmingham Railway. The area was then mostly farmland at the edge of the expanding city of London. The station was named after Euston Hall in Suffolk, the ancestral home of the Dukes of Grafton, who were the main landowners in the area.

Objections to the station by local farmers meant that, when the Act authorising construction of the line was passed in 1833, the terminus was relocated to Chalk Farm. However, these objections were overcome, and in 1835 an Act authorising construction of the station at its originally planned site was passed, and construction went ahead.

The original station was built by William Cubitt. It was designed by the classically trained architect Philip Hardwick and initially it had only two platforms, one for departures and one for arrivals. Also designed by Hardwick was a 72 foot-high Doric propylaeum, the largest ever built, erected at the entrance as a portico and which became known as the Euston Arch.

The station grew rapidly over the following years as traffic increased. It was greatly expanded in the 1840s, with the opening in 1849 of the spectacular Great Hall, designed by Hardwick's son Philip Charles Hardwick in classical style.

In the early 1960s it was decided that a larger station was required. Because of the restricted layout of track and tunnels at the northern end, enlargement could be accomplished only by expanding southwards over the area occupied by the Great Hall and the Arch. Amid much public outcry, the station building including the Arch was demolished in 1961-2 and replaced by a new building. Its opening in 1968 followed the electrification of the West Coast Main Line.

A few remnants of the older station remain: two Portland stone entrance lodges and a war memorial. A statue of Robert Stephenson by Carlo Marochetti, previously in the old ticket hall, stands in the forecourt.

On 12 May 1907 the City and South London Railway (C&SLR, now the Bank branch of the Northern Line) opened a station at Euston as the terminus of a new extension from its existing station at Angel.


LOCAL PHOTOS
Euston Road, NW1
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The Polygon, Somers Town in 1850.
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St. James Gardens
Credit: Google
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