Wellington Arch

Monument in/near Hyde Park Corner, existing between the 1830s and now

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Monument · * · W1J ·
July
14
2018

Wellington Arch is located to the south of Hyde Park at the western corner of Green Park.



Both the Wellington Arch and Marble Arch (originally sited in front of Buckingham Palace) were planned in 1825 by George IV to commemorate Britain’s victories in the Napoleonic Wars. The Wellington Arch was also conceived as an outer gateway to Constitution Hill and therefore a grand entrance into central London from the west.

The presence of a turnpike gate at this point had led, in the 18th century, to a strong perception that this was the beginning of London (reflected in the nickname for Apsley House as "No 1, London") and the arch was intended to reflect the importance of the position.

The arch was built between 1826 and 1830 to a design by Decimus Burton. It was planned as part of a single composition with Burton’s screen that forms the Hyde Park Corner entrance to Hyde Park. The arch was originally positioned directly to the south of the screen, with the end of Constitution Hill re-aligned to meet it squarely, to form a corresponding entrance to a grand ceremonial route towards Buckingham Palace.

The arch has a single opening, and uses the Corinthian order. Much of the intended exterior ornamentation was omitted as a cost-saving exercise necessitated by the King’s overspending on the refurbishment of Buckingham Palace, which was underway at the same time. A contemporary account, written in anticipation of its completion to its original plan, describes what was intended.

The entabulature is loft and elegant with a richly sculptured frieze, and a row of boldly projecting lions’ heads on the cymatium, marking the centres of columns and other sub-divisions of the order. Above the entablature, on a lofty blocking course, is raised an attic, the body of which is embellished with a sculptural representation of an ancient triumph. On each of the columns is a statue of a warrior, and on the summit of the acroterium which surmounts the attic is a figure in a quadriga or ancient four horse chariot.

In 1846 the arch was selected as a location for a statue of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, soldier and Prime Minister. The bronze Wellington Statue by Matthew Cotes Wyatt which eventually crowned the arch was at 40 tons and 28 feet high, the largest equestrian figure ever made.

It generated considerable controversy and ridicule at the time. Motions were put in place to move it to a different location but as this could have been seen as insulting to Wellington it was left in place on the orders of the Queen and remained there throughout the remainder of the Duke’s lifetime.

In 1882-3 the arch was moved a short distance to its present location on Hyde Park Corner to facilitate a road widening scheme. In the new location it lost its original relationship to the entrance of Hyde Park, but was now on axis with the main part of Constitution Hill, to which it continued to form a grand entrance. It is now in the centre of a large traffic island, taken from what was the western tip of Green Park.

When the arch was rebuilt in its new position, the Wellington statue was not replaced. It was removed to Aldershot, and a smaller equestrian statue of the duke was commissioned from Joseph Edgar Boehm to stand on a plinth nearby. Decimus Burton had originally envisaged a sculpture of a quadriga on top of the arch. His intentions were finally realised in 1912, with the installation of a bronze designed by Adrian Jones. It is based on a smaller original which caught the eye of Edward VII at a Royal Academy exhibition. The sculpture depicts Nike, the Winged Goddess of Victory, descending on the chariot of war. The face of the charioteer leading the quadriga is that of a small boy (actually the son of Lord Michelham,, who funded the sculpture). The angel of peace was modelled on Beatrice Stewart. The statue is the largest bronze sculpture in Europe.

The arch is hollow inside, and until 1992 housed the smallest police station in London.


Main source: Wikipedia
Further citations and sources




CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE LOCALITY


Comment
Pauline jones   
Added: 16 Oct 2017 19:04 GMT   

Bessborough Place, SW1V
I grew up in bessborough place at the back of our house and Grosvenor road and bessborough gardens was a fantastic playground called trinity mews it had a paddling pool sandpit football area and various things to climb on, such as a train , slide also as Wendy house. There were plants surrounding this wonderful play area, two playground attendants ,also a shelter for when it rained. The children were constantly told off by the playground keepers for touching the plants or kicking the ball out of the permitted area, there was hopscotch as well, all these play items were brick apart from the slide. Pollock was the centre of my universe and I felt sorry and still do for anyone not being born there. To this day I miss it and constantly look for images of the streets around there, my sister and me often go back to take a clumped of our beloved London. The stucco houses were a feature and the backs of the houses enabled parents to see thier children playing.

Reply

Justin Russ   
Added: 15 Feb 2021 20:25 GMT   

Binney Street, W1K
Binney St was previously named Thomas Street before the 1950’s. Before the 1840’s (approx.) it was named Bird St both above and below Oxford St.

Reply
Lived here
   
Added: 1 May 2021 16:46 GMT   

Cheyne Place, SW3
Frances Faviell, author of the Blitz memoir, "A Chelsea Concerto", lived at 33, Cheyne Place, which was destroyed by a bomb. She survived, with her husband and unborn baby.

Reply
Lived here
Julian    
Added: 23 Mar 2021 10:11 GMT   

Dennis Potter
Author Dennis Potter lived in Collingwood House in the 1970’s

Reply
Comment
Jessie Doring   
Added: 22 Feb 2021 04:33 GMT   

Tisbury Court Jazz Bar
Jazz Bar opened in Tisbury Court by 2 Australians. Situated in underground basement. Can not remember how long it opened for.

Reply
Born here
www.violettrefusis.com   
Added: 17 Feb 2021 15:05 GMT   

Birth place
Violet Trefusis, writer, cosmopolitan intellectual and patron of the Arts was born at 2 Wilton Crescent SW1X.

Source: www.violettrefusis.com

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LATEST LONDON-WIDE CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PROJECT

Comment
Peter H Davies   
Added: 17 Jun 2021 09:33 GMT   

Ethelburga Estate
The Ethelburga Estate - named after Ethelburga Road - was an LCC development dating between 1963–65. According to the Wikipedia, it has a "pleasant knitting together of a series of internal squares". I have to add that it’s extremely dull :)

Source: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Reply
Lived here
Norman Norrington   
Added: 8 Jun 2021 08:08 GMT   

Blechynden Street, W10
Lived here #40 1942-1967

Reply
Comment
Brenda Newton   
Added: 5 Jun 2021 07:17 GMT   

Hewer Street W10
John Nodes Undertakers Hewer Street W10

Reply

   
Added: 3 Jun 2021 15:50 GMT   

All Bar One
The capitalisation is wrong

Reply
Comment
   
Added: 2 Jun 2021 16:58 GMT   

Parachute bomb 1941
Charles Thomas Bailey of 82 Morley Road was killed by the parachute bomb March 1941

Reply

   
Added: 1 Jun 2021 12:41 GMT   

Abbeville Road (1940 street directory)
North west side
1A Clarke A S Ltd, motor engineers
15 Plumbers, Glaziers & Domestic Engineers Union
25 Dixey Edward, florist
27 Vicary Miss Doris J, newsagent
29 Stenning John Andrew, dining rooms
31 Clarke & Williams, builders
33 Hill Mrs Theodora, confectioner
35 Golding W & sons, corn dealers
... here is Shandon road ...
37 Pennington Mrs Eliz Harvie, wine & spirit merchant
39 Westminster Catering Co Ltd, ham, beef & tongue dealers
41 Masters A (Clapham) Ltd, butchers
43 Thomas Euan Ltd, grocers
45 Garrett C T & Co Ltd, undertakers
47 Mayle T & Sons, fishmongers
49 Mayles Ltd, fruiterers
51 & 73 Hardy Arthur Sydney, draper
53 United Dairies (London) Ltd
... here is Narbonne avenue ...
55 Norris William Lennox, baker
57 Silver Star Laundry Ltd
59 Thorp John, oilman
61 Bidgood Leonard George, boot makers
63 Wilkie Rt Miln, chemist
65 Gander George Albert Isaac, hairdresser
67 Harris Alfred William, greengrocer
69 & 71 Lambert Ernest & Son Ltd, grocers
... here is Hambolt road ...
73 & 51 Hardy Arthur Sydney, draper
75 Cambourn Frederick, butcher
77 Siggers Clement, chemist
77 Post, Money Order, Telephone Call & Telegraph Office & Savings Bank
79 Hemmings William, baker
... here is Elms road ...
85 Cornish Joseph
91 Bedding Mrs
151 Johnson Mrs H K
157 Robinson Albert Ernest, grainer
173 Yardleys London & Provincial Stores Ltd, wine & spirit merchants
175 Clark Alfred, butcher
175A Morley Douglas Frederick, confectioner
... here is Crescent lane ...
... her is St Alphonsus road ...

South east side
... here is Trouville road ...
4 Bossy Miss, private school
... here are Bonneville gardens ...
24 Osborn Charles Edward, ladies hairdresser
24 Hall H Ltd, builders
24A Walton Lodge Laundry Ltd
... here are Shandon road & Abbeville mansions ...
28 Copley Fred Smith, chemist
30 Finch H G Ltd, laundry
32 Carter William Alfred, furniture dealer
34 Spriggs Charles & Co, wireless supplies dealer
36 Miles Frederick William, confectioner
38 Pitman Frederick, hairdresser
40 Rowe Frederick F, valeting service
42 Modridge Edward J, oilman
... here is Narbonne avenue ...
44 Southorn Albert, butcher
46 Brown Ernest, fruiterer
48 Stanley Mrs A A, confectioner
50 Fryatt Owen, delixatessen store
52 Benbrooks, domestic stores
54 Davis William Clifford, boot repairer
56 Blogg Alfred, newsagent
58 Rowlands Thomas & Sons, dairy
... here are Hambalt, Elms, Franconia, Caldervale & Leppoc roads ...
124 Clarke Frederick, decorator
... here are Crescent lane, Briarwood road & Park hill ...

Reply
Comment
Boo Horton    
Added: 31 May 2021 13:39 GMT   

Angel & Trumpet, Stepney Green
The Angel & Trumpet Public House in Stepney Green was run by my ancestors in the 1930’s. Unfortunately, it was a victim on WWII and was badly damaged and subsequently demolished. I have one photograph that I believe to bethe pub, but it doesn’t show much more that my Great Aunt cleaning the steps.

Reply
Comment
MCNALLY    
Added: 17 May 2021 09:42 GMT   

Blackfriars (1959 - 1965)
I lived in Upper Ground from 1959 to 1964 I was 6 years old my parents Vince and Kitty run the Pub The Angel on the corner of Upper Ground and Bodies Bridge. I remember the ceiling of the cellar was very low and almost stretched the length of Bodies Bridge. The underground trains run directly underneath the pub. If you were down in the cellar when a train was coming it was quite frightening

Reply

NEARBY LOCATIONS OF NOTE
25 Park Lane 25 Park Lane was the London residence of Sir Philip Sassoon.
48 Belgrave Square 48 Belgrave Square was occupied for the same family for 170 years.
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Down Street Down Street, also known as Down Street (Mayfair), is a disused station on the London Underground, located in Mayfair.
Halkin Hotel The Halkin (styled as The Halkin by COMO) is a 5-star hotel.
Hyde Park Corner At the other end of Park Lane from Marble Arch, Hyde Park Corner has struck terror into many a learner driver.
InterContinental London InterContinental London Park Lane is a luxury 5-star hotel.
London Lock Hospital The London Lock Hospital was the first venereal disease clinic.
Londonderry House Londonderry House was an aristocratic townhouse situated on Park Lane.
Memorial Gates The Memorial Gates are a war memorial located at the Hyde Park Corner end of Constitution Hill in London.
Parkside Park Side was situated on the north side of Knightsbridge.
RAF Bomber Command Memorial The Royal Air Force Bomber Command Memorial is a memorial commemorating the crews of RAF Bomber Command who embarked on missions during the Second World War.
Royal Aeronautical Society The Royal Aeronautical Society, also known as the RAeS, is a British-founded multidisciplinary professional institution dedicated to the global aerospace community.
Royal Air Force Club The Royal Air Force Club (often referred to as the RAF Club) is situated at 128 Piccadilly.
Royal Artillery Memorial The Royal Artillery Memorial is a stone memorial at Hyde Park Corner, dedicated to the First World War casualties of the Royal Regiment of Artillery.
Royal Mews The Royal Mews is a mews (i.e. combined stables, carriage house and in recent times also the garage) of the British Royal Family.
Shepherd Market Shepherd Market was described by Arthur Bingham Walkley in 1925 as one of the oddest incongruities in London.
St Paul’s Church, Knightsbridge St Paul’s Church, Knightsbridge is a Grade II* listed Anglican church.
The Athenaeum Hotel The Athenaeum is a family-owned five-star hotel overlooking Green Park.
The Berkeley The Berkeley is a five star deluxe hotel, located in Wilton Place.
Wellington Arch Wellington Arch is located to the south of Hyde Park at the western corner of Green Park.

NEARBY STREETS
Achilles Way, W1K Achilles Way is named for the nearby Wellington as Achilles statue in Hyde Park.
Albert Gate, SW1X Albert Gate is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Ann’s Close, SW1X Ann’s Close is a road in the SW1X postcode area
Apsley Way, SW1X Apsley Way is the formal name for the pathway which runs under Wellington Arch.
Belgrave Mews North, SW1X Belgrave Mews North is a road in the SW1X postcode area
Belgrave Square, SW1X Thomas Cubitt’s greatest achievement, Belgrave Square, is the grandest and largest of his squares, and is the centrepiece of Belgravia.
Bradbrook House, SW1X Residential block
Brick Street, W1J Brick Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Carrington Street, W1J Carrington Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Chapel Street, SW1X Chapel Street runs south-west to north-east from Belgrave Square to Grosvenor Place.
Chester Close, SW1X Chester Close lies off of Chester Street.
Chester Mews, SW1X Chester Mews is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Chester Street, SW1X Chester Street dates from 1805.
Constitution Hill, SW1A Constitution Hill connects Buckingham Palace with Hyde Park Corner.
Curzon Square, W1K Curzon Square is a road in the W1K postcode area
Derby Street, W1J Derby Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Down Street Mews, W1J Down Street Mews is a largely hidden side street in Mayfair.
Down Street, W1J Down Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Duke of Wellington Place, SW1X Duke of Wellington Place is the official name for the road which skirts the central Hyde Park Corner island on the south and east sides.
Duplex Ride, SW1X Duplex Ride is a road in the SW1X postcode area
Garrick House, W1J Residential block
Groom Place, SW1X Groom Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Grosvenor Crescent Mews, SW1X Grosvenor Crescent Mews is a gated mews.
Grosvenor Crescent, SW1X Grosvenor Crescent is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Grosvenor Place, SW1X Grosvenor Place is the main road connecting Hyde Park Corner with Victoria.
Half Moon Street, W1J Half Moon Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Halkin Arcade, SW1X Halkin Arcade is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Halkin Street, SW1X Halkin Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Hamilton Mews, W1J Hamilton Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Hamilton Place, W1J Hamilton Place lies just to the north of Hyde Park Corner.
Headfort Place, SW1X Headfort Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Hertford Street, W1J Hertford Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Holforoad Way, W1J A street within the W1J postcode
Holforoad Way, W1J A street within the W1J postcode
Hyde Park Corner, W1J Hyde Park Corner is a major road junction at the southeastern corner of Hyde Park.
Kinnerton Place South, SW1X Kinnerton Place South is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Kinnerton Street, SW1X Kinnerton Street - a small winding street - was originally the service road for Wilton Place and Wilton Crescent.
Kinnerton Yard, SW1X Kinnerton Yard is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Knightsbridge, SW1X Knightsbridge is a main thoroughfare running along the south side of Hyde Park.
Lambs Close, SW1W Lambs Close is a road in the SW1W postcode area
Lanesborough Place, SW1X Lanesborough Place is a small street serving The Lanesborough Hotel.
Little Chester Street, SW1X Little Chester Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Lovers’ Walk, W1K Lovers’ Walk is a road in the W1K postcode area
Lowndes Square, SW1X Lowndes Square is named after the Secretary to the Treasury William Lowndes.
Lowndes Street, SW1X Lowndes Street was built by Thomas Cubitt and Seth Smith.
Market Mews, W1J Market Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Montrose Place, SW1X Montrose Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Motcomb Street, SW1X Motcomb Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Old Barrack Yard, SW1X Old Barrack Yard is a narrow street of terraced cottages.
Old Park Lane, W1J Old Park Lane is a road in the W1J postcode area
Park Towers, W1J Park Towers is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Pembroke Close, SW1X Pembroke Close is a road in the SW1X postcode area
Pitt’s Head Mews, W1K Pitt’s Head Mews is a road in the W1J postcode area
Shepherd Market, W1J Shepherd Market was developed between 1735 and 1746 by Edward Shepherd from an open area called Brook Field
Shepherd Street, W1J Shepherd Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Stanhope Row, W1J Stanhope Row is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
Studio Place, SW1X Studio Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
The Royal Mews, SW1E The Royal Mews is a road in the SW1W postcode area
The Royal Mews, SW1E The Royal Mews is a road in the SW1E postcode area
Trebeck Street, W1J Trebeck Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
West Halkin Street, SW1X West Halkin Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
White Horse Street, W1J White Horse Street is one of the streets of London in the W1J postal area.
William Mews, SW1X William Mews is a partially redeveloped, private Mews off Lowndes Square.
William Mews, SW1X A street within the SW1X postcode
William Street, SW1X William Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Wilton Crescent, SW1X Wilton Crescent is notable for its affluent and politically important list of residents, present and historic.
Wilton Mews, SW1X Wilton Mews is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Wilton Place, SW1X Wilton Place was built in 1825 to connect Belgravia with Knightsbridge.
Wilton Row, SW1X Wilton Row is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.
Wilton Street, SW1X Wilton Street was built in 1817.
Wilton Terrace, SW1X Wilton Terrace is one of the streets of London in the SW1X postal area.

NEARBY PUBS
Drama This pub existed immediately prior to the 2020 global pandemic and may still do so.
Kings Arms This pub existed immediately prior to the 2020 global pandemic and may still do so.
Market Tavern This pub existed immediately prior to the 2020 global pandemic and may still do so.
Rose & Crown This pub existed immediately prior to the 2020 global pandemic and may still do so.
Shepherds Tavern This pub existed immediately prior to the 2020 global pandemic and may still do so.


Hyde Park Corner

At the other end of Park Lane from Marble Arch, Hyde Park Corner has struck terror into many a learner driver.

In the centre of the roundabout stands Constitution Arch (or Wellington Arch), designed by Decimus Burton as a memorial to the Duke of Wellington and originally providing a grand entrance to London. It was built as a northern gate to the grounds of Buckingham Palace. Originally the arch was topped with an equestrian statue of the Duke by Matthew Cotes Wyatt, but it was replaced with the current work, The Angel of Peace descending on the Quadriga of Victory (1912) by Adrian Jones.

Other monuments at Hyde Park Corner include Jones’s Monument to the Cavalry of the Empire (off the west side of Park Lane), Alexander Munro’s Boy and Dolphin statue (in a rose garden parallel to Rotten Row, going west from Hyde Park Corner), the Wellington Monument (off the west side of Park Lane) and a statue of Byron (on a traffic island opposite the Wellington Monument).

To the north of the roundabout is Apsley House, the home of the first Duke of Wellington. Such was Wellington’s ego, that he insisted that his letters were addressed to Number 1, London.

Hyde Park Corner was used as a code to announce to the Government the death of King George VI in 1952.

Hyde Park Corner tube station was opened by the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906. It is one of the few stations which have no associated buildings above ground, the station being fully underground.

The original, Leslie Green-designed station building still remains to the south of the road junction, notable by its ox-blood coloured tiles; it was until June 2010 used as a pizza restaurant, and since January 2013 it is the Wellesley Hotel. The building was taken out of use in the early 1930s when the station was provided with escalators in place of lifts although an emergency stairway provides a connection to the platforms. The lift shafts are now used to provide ventilation.

After the station was rebuilt with escalators the adjacent little-used station at Down Street to the east (towards Green Park) was taken out of use.


LOCAL PHOTOS
The 52 bus
TUM image id: 1556876554
Licence: CC BY 2.0
Belgrave Square
Credit: Thomas Shepherd
TUM image id: 1586353394
Licence: CC BY 2.0
Grosvenor Gardens Mews East
TUM image id: 1544975168
Licence: CC BY 2.0
Lowndes Street, c. 1905.
TUM image id: 1483984242
Licence: CC BY 2.0
Boscobel Place
TUM image id: 1546446783
Licence: CC BY 2.0

In the neighbourhood...

Click an image below for a better view...
Exterior of the memorial in 2013.
Credit: Tim Rademacher
Licence: CC BY 2.0
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The 52 bus
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Wellington Arch photographed on 10 January 2017. Wellington Arch was built as an original entrance to Buckingham Palace, later becoming a victory arch proclaiming Wellington’s defeat of Napoleon. Crowned by the largest bronze sculpture in Europe, it depicts the Angel of Peace descending on the ’Quadriga’ - or four-horsed chariot - of War. The pathway that runs underneath the arch has a formal name - Apsley Way.
Credit: The Underground Map
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Belgrave Square
Credit: Thomas Shepherd
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Letter to Chuck Berry from Carl Sagan
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Eaton Square
Credit: GoArt/The Underground Map
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Grosvenor Gardens Mews East
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Hyde Park Corner in 1842, looking east towards Piccadilly. The entrance to Hyde Park through Decimus Burton’s Ionic Screen is on the left, and behind it, in darker stone, is Apsley House.
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Lowndes Street, c. 1905.
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The distinctive Leslie Green red tiling of the former Down Street station frames the entrance to a mews which predates the station - Down Street Mews.
Credit: The Underground Map
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