New Palace Yard
was built by William II (William Rufus).
New Palace Yard
was named ’new’ to distinguish it from Old Palace Yard
which lies to the south but it dates from 1097. It formed an entrance to Westminster Hall, also built by William II (Rufus).
An octagonal fountain was built in 1443 by Henry VI. The fountain, which incorporated the remains of an early 12th century conduit, stood in the yard until the late 17th century.
The yard was laid out as a garden and a fountain commemorating the Queen’s Silver Jubilee was added in 1977.
New Palace Yard
now conceals a five-level underground car park opened in 1974.
Air Street, W1B Air Street was the most westerly street in London when newly built in 1658. Birdcage Walk, SW1H Birdcage Walk runs east from Great George Street, along the south side of St James’s Park. Bondway, SW8 Bondway is named after the late 18th century developers of the street, John and Sarah Bond. Broadway, SW1H Broadway - formerly the location of the headquarters of both London Transport and the Metropolitan Police. Carey Place, SW1V Carey Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1V postal area. Carlton House Terrace, SW1Y Carlton House Terrace consists of a pair of terraces - white stucco-faced houses on the south side of the street overlooking St. James’s Park. Caxton Street, SW1H William Caxton was responsible for the introduction of the printing press to England. Charing Cross, SW1A Charing Cross, long regarded as London’s central point, as an address is an enigma. Cockspur Street, SW1Y Cockspur Street is possibly after the cock fighting that formerly occurred here, cocks often having spurs attached to their feet during fights. Craven Passage, WC2N Craven Passage is named after William Craven, 3rd Baron Craven, who owned the land when the street was built in the 1730s. Craven Street, WC2N Craven Street is named after William Craven, 3rd Baron Craven, who owned the land when the street was built in the 1730s. Deans Yard, SW1P Dean’s Yard comprises most of the precincts of the former monastery of Westminster, not occupied by the Abbey buildings. Derby Gate, SW1A Derby Gate is one of the streets of London in the SW1A postal area. Dn, SE1 A street within the postcode Downing Street, SW1A Downing Street has been the home of British Prime Minsters since the eighteenth century. Duke Street, SW1Y Duke Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Eagle Place, SW1Y Eagle Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Elm Lane, SW8 Elm Lane is one of the streets of London in the SW8 postal area. Haymarket, SW1Y Haymarket – site of a former market selling hay until the 1830s. Hide Place, SW1P Hide Place is one of the streets of London in the SW1P postal area. Hobhouse Court, WC2H Hobhouse Court is named after Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Victorian MP and arts patron. King Street, SW1Y King Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Masons Yard, SW1Y Masons Yard is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Miles Street, SW8 Miles Street was developed from 1778 onwards by the Sarah and John Bond. Millbank, SW1P Millbank is one of the streets of London in the SW1P postal area. Nine Elms Lane, SW8 Nine Elms Lane was named around 1645, from a row of elm trees bordering the road. North Court, SW1P North Court is one of the streets of London in the SW1P postal area. Northumberland Avenue, WC2N Northumberland Avenue runs from Trafalgar Square in the west to the Thames Embankment in the east. The road was built on the site of Northumberland House and on part of the parallel Northumberland Street. Northumberland Street, WC2N Northumberland Street commemorates the former Northumberland House, built originally in the early 17th century for the earls of Northampton and later acquired by the earls of Northumberland.
Orange Street, WC2H Orange Street gets its name from William III, Prince of Orange - the reigning king when the street was built. Ormond Yard, SW1Y Ormond Yard is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Oxendon Street, W1D Oxendon Street, after Sir Henry Oxendon, husband of Mary Baker, daughter of Robert Baker who built the former Piccadilly House nearby. Page Street, SW1P Page Street runs from Regency Street in the west to the junction of John Islip Street and Dean Ryle Street in the east. Pall Mall, SW1Y Pall Mall is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Panton Street, W1D Panton Street was named after Colonel Thomas Panton, local property dealer of the 17th century. Parliament Square, SW1A Parliament Square is one of the most important squares in Westminster, home to the Houses of Parliament and Westminster Abbey. Ponton Road, SW8 Ponton Road is one of the streets of London in the SW8 postal area. Pulford Street, SW1V Pulford Street was a street between construction in 1848 and demolition after the Second World War. Spring Gardens, SW1A Spring Gardens derives its name from the Spring Garden, formed in the 16th century as an addition to the pleasure grounds of Whitehall Palace. St George’s Square, SW1V St Georges Square is a long narrow space reaching to the river with an enclosed garden in the centre. Suffolk Place, SW1Y The Earl of Suffolk (Thomas Howard) was the reason for the naming of Suffolk Place. Suffolk Street, SW1Y Suffolk Street was named after Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, who owned a stable yard attached to Northumberland House which lay on this site. The Arches, WC2N The Arches is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. The Mall, SW1Y The Mall is the processional route between Trafalgar Square and Buckingham Palace. Trafalgar Square, SW1Y Trafalgar Square commemorates Horatio Nelson’s 1805 victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. Vincent Square, SW1P Vincent Square is a large grass-covered square which provides playing fields for Westminster School, which owns it. Walcott Street, SW1P Walcott Street was named after Reverend MEC Walcott, curate of the St Margaret’s, Westminster in the 1840s. Waterloo Place, SW1Y Waterloo Place, a broad extension of Regent Street, is awash with statues and monuments that honour heroes and statesmen of the British Empire. It is framed by palatial buildings designed by John Nash, the famed Regency-era architect and Decimus Burton, his protégé. West Bridge, SW8 West Bridge is one of the streets of London in the SW8 postal area. Whitcomb Street, WC2H Whitcomb Street - named after William Whitcomb, 17th century brewer and property developer. Whitehall, SW1A Whitehall is recognised as the centre of the government of the United Kingdom.
The railways largely replaced the canals as a means of transport. Uniquely for a main line station, Victoria station was built on top of one.
Before the railway arrived in 1862, this area - like the area immediately south of it - was known as Pimlico
. The Grosvenor Canal ended in a large basin here.
Victoria station’s origins lie with the Great Exhibition of 1851, when a railway called the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway
came into existence, serving the site of the exhibition halls which had been transferred to Sydenham from Hyde Park. The terminus of that railway was at Stewarts Lane in Battersea on the south side of the river. In 1858 a joint enterprise was set up to take trains over the river: it was entitled the Victoria Station and Pimlico Railway
; and was a mile and a quarter in length. The railway was owned by four railway companies: the Great Western (GWR); London & North Western (LNWR); the London, Brighton and South Coast (LBSCR); and the London Chatham and Dover Railways (LCDR). It was incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1858.
The station was built in two parts: those on the western side, opened in 1862, with six platforms, ten tracks and an hotel (the 300-bedroom Grosvenor) were occupied by the Brighton company; whilst adjacent, and in the same year, the Chatham company were to occupy a less imposing wooden-fronted building. The latter’s station had nine tracks and was shared by broad-gauge trains of the GWR, whose trains arrived from Southall via the West London Extension Joint Railway through Chelsea. The GWR remained part owner of the station until 1932, although its trains had long since ceased to use it. Each side of the station had its own entrance and a separate station master; a wall between the two sections effectively emphasised that fact.
At the start of the twentieth century both parts of the station were rebuilt. It now had a decent frontage and forecourt, but not as yet a unified existence. Work on the Brighton side was completed in 1908 and was carried out in red brick; the Grosvenor Hotel was rebuilt at the same time. The Chatham side, in a Edwardian style with baroque elements, designed by Alfred Bloomfield, was completed a year later. The two sections were eventually connected in 1924 by removing part of a screen wall, when the platforms were renumbered as an entity. The station was redeveloped internally in the 1980s, with the addition of shops within the concourse, and above the western platforms.
The station was now serving boat trains, and during WWI it became the hub of trains carrying soldiers to and from France, many of them wounded. After the war the Continental steamer traffic became concentrated there, including the most famous of those trains, the Golden Arrow. The area around the station also became a site for other other forms of transport: a bus station in the forecourt; a coach terminal to the south; and it is now the terminal for trains serving Gatwick Airport.
Victoria is also well-served by London underground. The sub-surface Circle and District Lines opened on December 24, 1868; and the Victoria Line line came to Victoria Station with the third phase of construction of the line - the station’s platforms were opened on March 7, 1969, six months after the Victoria line had started running in outer London.