Earnshaw Street was at first called Arthur Street.
Earnshaw Street runs south from New Oxford Street
and was built as a result of, the construction of New Oxford Street
in 1844–1847. The new street followed a path which went from New Oxford Street
to St Giles’s Church.
Arthur Street was renamed after Thomas Earnshaw, a Bloomsbury-based maker of chronometers.
Its original buildings were demolished and replaced by large Ministry of Defence premises, occupying the whole area between Earnshaw Street, Bucknall Street
, St Giles High Street
, and Dyott Street
. In 2007, these buildings in turn were demolished to make way for the St Giles Court development.
Abbey Place, WC1H Abbey Place was in the centre of Bloomsbury, off what was originally the west side of Little Coram Street and directly behind the Russell Institution on Great Coram Street. Adam Street, WC2R Adam Street is named after John and Robert Adam, who built the Adelphi development in the 1760s. Adelphi Terrace, WC2N Adelphi Terrace is named after John and Robert Adam, who built the Adelphi development in the 1760s. Agar Street, WC2N Agar Street is named after George Agar, who built the street in the 1830s with John Ponsonby, Earl of Bessborough Alfred Mews, WC1E Alfred Mews is situated off Tottenham Court Road, running behind the gardens of North Crescent. Alfred Place, WC1E Alfred Place was built in 1806 by a Marylebone stonemason called John Waddilove who named it after his son Alfred. Archer Street, W1D Archer Street was Arch Street in 1675, Orchard Street in 1720 and Archer Street by 1746. Argyle Street, WC1H Argyle Street, originally Manchester Street, was named after the former Argyle House. Bateman Street, W1D Bateman Street was named for Sir James Bateman, local landowner and Lord Mayor of London in the 1670s. Bedforbury, WC2N Bedforbury is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Bedford Square, WC1B Bedford Square was designed as a unified architectural composition in 1775-6 by Thomas Leverton. Bedford Way, WC1H Bedford Way is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area. Bedfordbury, WC2N Bedfordbury is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Bloomsbury Square, WC1A The 4th Earl of Southampton was granted a building license for the construction of Bloomsbury Square in 1661. Bloomsbury Street, WC1A Bloomsbury Street runs from Gower Street in the north to the junction of New Oxford Street and Shaftesbury Avenue in the south. Bow Street, WC2B Bow Street was first developed by Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford in 1633. Bow Street, WC2E Bow Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Brewer Street, W1D Brewer Street runs west to east from Glasshouse Street to Wardour Street. Broad Court, WC2B Broad Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Buckingham Street, WC2N Buckingham Street is named after George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, 17th century courtier, who acquired York House which formerly stood on this site; his son sold the area to developers on condition that his father and titles were commemorated on the new streets. Bury Place, WC1A Bury Place is one of the streets of London in the WC1A postal area. Carlton House Terrace, SW1Y Carlton House Terrace consists of a pair of terraces - white stucco-faced houses on the south side of the street overlooking St. James’s Park. Charing Cross, SW1A Charing Cross, long regarded as London’s central point, as an address is an enigma. Ching Court, WC2H Ching Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Clare Court, WC1H Clare Court is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area. Cockspur Street, SW1Y Cockspur Street is possibly after the cock fighting that formerly occurred here, cocks often having spurs attached to their feet during fights. Colonnade, WC1N Colonnade is one of the streets of London in the WC1N postal area. Cosmo Place, WC1N Cosmo Place is one of the streets of London in the WC1N postal area. Covent Garden, WC2E Covent Garden, is the name of a district, but also the name of the central square which formerly hosted a fruit-and-vegetable market. Coventry Street, W1D Coventry Street is a short street connecting Piccadilly Circus to Leicester Square. On the London Monopoly board, it was named after the politician Henry Coventry, secretary of state to Charles II. Cranbourn Street, WC2H Cranbourne Street was named after local landowner the Earl of Salisbury, Viscount Cranbourn (Cranbourne) after the town in Dorset. Craven Passage, WC2N Craven Passage is named after William Craven, 3rd Baron Craven, who owned the land when the street was built in the 1730s. Craven Street, WC2N Craven Street is named after William Craven, 3rd Baron Craven, who owned the land when the street was built in the 1730s. Cromer Street, WC1H Cromer Street originally gave access from Gray’s Inn Road to Greenland Place and a bowling green. Dansey Place, W1D Dansey Place is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Dean Street, W1D Dean Street is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Derby Gate, SW1A Derby Gate is one of the streets of London in the SW1A postal area. Dn, SE1 A street within the postcode Downing Street, SW1A Downing Street has been the home of British Prime Minsters since the eighteenth century. Duck Lane, W1F Duck Lane is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Duke Street, SW1Y Duke Street is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Dukes Road, WC1H Dukes Road is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area. Durham House Street, WC2N Durham House Street was the former site of a palace belonging to the bishops of Durham in medieval times.
East Street, TW8 East Street is one of the streets in the Twickenham postal district. Endell Street, WC2H Endell Street, originally known as Belton Street, is a street that runs from High Holborn in the north to Long Acre and Bow Street in the south. Euston Road, NW1 Euston Road runs from Marylebone Road to King's Cross. The road is part of the London Inner Ring Road and forms part of the London congestion charge zone boundary. Excel Court, WC2H Excel Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Galen Place, WC1A Galen Place is one of the streets of London in the WC1A postal area. Gordon Square, WC1H The completion of Thomas Cubitt’s Gordon Square in 1860 marked the final development of Bloomsbury. Gower Street, WC1E Gower Street is named after Gertrude Leveson-Gower, the wife of John Russell, the 4th Duke of Bedford. Great Russell Street, WC1A Great Russell Street commemorates the marriage of the daughter of the 4th Earl of Southampton to William Russell in 1669. Great Windmill Street, W1F Great Windmill Street has had a long association with music and entertainment, most notably the Windmill Theatre. Greens Court, W1F Greens Court is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Ham Yard, W1D Ham Yard is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Hanway Place, W1T Hanway Place is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Haymarket, SW1Y Haymarket – site of a former market selling hay until the 1830s. Herbrand Street, WC1N Herbrand Street is in the east of Bloomsbury, running south from Tavistock Place to Guilford Street. High Holborn, WC2B High Holborn is a road which is the highest point in the City of London - 22 metres above sea level. Hobhouse Court, WC2H Hobhouse Court is named after Sir John Cam Hobhouse, Victorian MP and arts patron. Hog Lane, WC2H Hog Lane was a lane that went from St Giles’ leper hospital (set up in the 12th century) to the monument to Eleanor at Charing Cross. Hop Gardens, WC2N Hop Gardens is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Ivybridge Lane, WC2R Ivybridge Lane is named after a former ivy-covered bridge that crossed an old watercourse on this spot; the bridge was demolished sometime before 1600. John Adam Street, WC2N John Adam Street is named after John Adam, who built the Adelphi development with his brother Robert in the 1760s. Judd Street, WC1H Judd Street is one of the streets of London in the WC1H postal area. Kemp’s Court, W1F Kemp’s Court is situated in the heart of Berwick Street Market where a line of stalls stretch down both sides of the road. Keppel Street, WC1E Keppel Street links Store Street and Gower Street in the west to Malet Street in the east. King Street, WC2E King Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Little Guildford Street Little Guildford Street was the middle part of what is now Herbrand Street, between Great Coram Street and Bernard Street, on the western edge of the Foundling estate. Long Acre, WC2E Long Acre is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Maiden Lane, WC2E Maiden Lane is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Malet Street, WC1E Sir Edward Malet was married to Lady Ermyntrude Sackville Russell, daughter of Francis Russell who owned much of the surrounding area. Manette Street, W1D Manette Street in Soho is named after the character from Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities. Meard Street, W1F John Meard, the younger was a carpenter, later a landowner, who developed the street. Moor Street, W1D Moor Street is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Museum Street, WC1A Museum Street is so-named since it approaches the main entrance of the British Museum. Neal Street, WC2H Neal Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Neals Yard, WC1N Neals Yard is one of the streets of London in the WC1N postal area. Neals Yard, WC2H Neals Yard is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. New Row, WC2N New Row is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. Newport Court, WC2H Newport Court was laid out approximately on the site of the courtyard of Newport House. Newport Place, W1D Newport Place was named after Mountjoy Blount, Earl of Newport (Isle of Wight), who owned a house on Newport Street in the 17th century. Northumberland Avenue, WC2N Northumberland Avenue runs from Trafalgar Square in the west to the Thames Embankment in the east. The road was built on the site of Northumberland House and on part of the parallel Northumberland Street. Northumberland Street, WC2N Northumberland Street commemorates the former Northumberland House, built originally in the early 17th century for the earls of Northampton and later acquired by the earls of Northumberland.
Odhams Walk, WC2H Odhams Walk is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Orange Street, WC2H Orange Street gets its name from William III, Prince of Orange - the reigning king when the street was built. Oxendon Street, W1D Oxendon Street, after Sir Henry Oxendon, husband of Mary Baker, daughter of Robert Baker who built the former Piccadilly House nearby. Pall Mall, SW1Y Pall Mall is one of the streets of London in the SW1Y postal area. Panton Street, W1D Panton Street was named after Colonel Thomas Panton, local property dealer of the 17th century. Parker Mews, WC2B Parker Mews is one of the streets of London in the WC2B postal area. Percy Street, W1T Percy Street is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Peter Street, W1F Peter Street is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Rathbone Place, W1T Rathbone Place honours Captain Rathbone who was the builder of the road and properties thereon from 1718 onwards. Robert Street, WC2N Robert Street is named after Robert Adam, who built the Adelphi development with his brother John in the 1760s. Rose Street, WC2E Rose Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Royalty Mews, W1D Royalty Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Rupert Court, W1D Rupert Court was named for Prince Rupert of the Rhine, the First Lord of the Admiralty when the court was built in 1676. Rupert Street, W1D Rupert Street – after Prince Rupert of the Rhine, noted 17th century general and son of Elizabeth Stuart, daughter of King James I. Russell Square, WC1B Russell Square was laid out from 1800 by James Burton following the demolition of Bedford House, which originally stood on the site surrounded by gardens and fields. Scala Street, W1T Scala Street is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Shaftesbury Avenue, W1D Shaftesbury Avenue is a major street in the West End of London, named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. Shaftesbury Avenue, WC2H Shaftesbury Avenue was named after Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury, Victorian politician and philanthropist. Silver Place, W1F Silver Place is one of the streets of London in the W1F postal area. Smiths Court, W1D Smiths Court is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Soho Square, W1D In its early years, Soho Square was one of the most fashionable places to live in London. Soho Street, W1D Soho Street is one of the streets of London in the W1D postal area. Spring Gardens, SW1A Spring Gardens derives its name from the Spring Garden, formed in the 16th century as an addition to the pleasure grounds of Whitehall Palace. Stephen Mews, W1T Stephen Mews is one of the streets of London in the W1T postal area. Suffolk Place, SW1Y The Earl of Suffolk (Thomas Howard) was the reason for the naming of Suffolk Place. Suffolk Street, SW1Y Suffolk Street was named after Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, who owned a stable yard attached to Northumberland House which lay on this site. Tavistock Square, WC1H Tavistock Square was built by property developer James Burton and the master builder Thomas Cubitt for Francis Russell, 5th Duke of Bedford. The Arches, WC2N The Arches is one of the streets of London in the WC2N postal area. The Market, WC2E The Market is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. The Piazza, WC2E The Piazza is one of the streets of London in the WC2E postal area. Third Floor, WC1E Third Floor is one of the streets of London in the WC1E postal area. Torrington Square, WC1H Torrington Square was originally laid out as part of the Bedford Estate development in 1821-25, named after the father-in-law of the 6th Duke of Bedford. Tottenham Court Road, W1T Tottenham Court Road is a major road running from the junction of Oxford Street and Charing Cross Road, north to Euston Road - a distance of about three-quarters of a mile. Tower Court, WC2H Tower Court is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Trafalgar Square, SW1Y Trafalgar Square commemorates Horatio Nelson’s 1805 victory at the Battle of Trafalgar. Walker’s Court, W1D Walker’s Court is one of the many passageways which in past years was known as ’Paved Alley’. Wardour Street, W1D The part of Wardour Street south of Shaftesbury Avenue runs through London’s Chinatown. Wardour Street, W1F Wardour Street is a street that runs north from Leicester Square, through Chinatown, across Shaftesbury Avenue to Oxford Street. Watergate Walk, WC2N Watergate Walk is named after a former watergate built in 1626 for George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham as an entrance for the former York House. Waterloo Place, SW1Y Waterloo Place, a broad extension of Regent Street, is awash with statues and monuments that honour heroes and statesmen of the British Empire. It is framed by palatial buildings designed by John Nash, the famed Regency-era architect and Decimus Burton, his protégé. West Street, WC2H West Street is one of the streets of London in the WC2H postal area. Whitcomb Street, WC2H Whitcomb Street - named after William Whitcomb, 17th century brewer and property developer. Whitehall, SW1A Whitehall is recognised as the centre of the government of the United Kingdom. Woburn Mews, WC1H Woburn Mews ran parallel between Woburn Place and Upper Bedford Place to the west of Woburn Place. Woburn Place, WC1H Woburn Place is situated on the Bedford estate, running north from the east of Russell Square to the east of Tavistock Square. York Buildings, WC2N York Buildings marks a house was built on this site in the 14th century for the bishops of Norwich.
St Giles is a district of London, at the southern tip of the London Borough of Camden.
There has been a church at St Giles since Saxon times, located beside a major highway. The hospital of St Giles, recorded c. 1120 as Hospitali Sancti Egidii extra Londonium
was founded, together with a monastery and a chapel, by Queen Matilda, wife of Henry I. St Giles (c. 650 – c. 710) was the patron saint of lepers and the hospital was home to a leper colony, the site chosen for its surrounding fields and marshes separating contagion from nearby London.
A village grew up to cater to the brethren and patients. The crossroads which is now St Giles Circus, where Oxford Street, Charing Cross
Road, Tottenham Court Road
and New Oxford St meet, was the site of a gallows until the fifteenth century. Grape Street
, in the heart of the St Giles district, runs beside the site of the hospital's vineyard.
The monastery was dissolved during the Reformation and a parish church created from the chapel. The hospital continued to care for lepers until the mid sixteenth century, when the disease abated and the hospital instead began to care for indigents. The parish was known as St Giles in the Fields and it is recorded in 1563 as Seynt Gyles in the Field.
The first post-Catholic parish church was built in 1631 and from the mid-seventeenth century church wardens note "a great influx of poor people into this parish".
The 1665 Great Plague started in St Giles and the first victims were buried in the St Giles churchyard. By September 1665, 8000 people were dying a week in London. By the end of the plague year there were 3216 listed plague deaths in St Giles parish, which had fewer than 2000 households. After the Restoration, the area was populated by Huguenot refugees who had fled persecution and established themselves as tradesmen and artisans, particularly in weaving and the silk trade.
The southern area of the parish, around present day Shaftesbury Avenue
, was a wasteland named Cock and Pye Fields. Houses were not built there until 1666, after the Great Fire, and not fully developed until 1693, becoming known as Seven Dials. Thomas Neale built much of the area, giving his name to Neal Street
and Neal's Yard. St Giles and Seven Dials became known for their astrologers and alchemists, an association which lasts to this day. The village of St Giles stood on the main road from Holborn to Tyburn, a place of local execution. Convicted criminals were often allowed, in tradition, to stop at St Giles en route to Tyburn for a final drink - a St Giles Bowl
- before hanging.
The ancient parish of St Giles in the Fields formed part of the Ossulstone hundred of Middlesex. The parish of St George Bloomsbury was split off in 1731, but the parishes were combined for civil purposes in 1774 and used for the administration of the Poor Law after the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834.
As London grew in the 18th and 19th centuries, so did the parish's population, rising to 30 000 by 1831. The Rookery stood between the church and Great Russell Street
, and Seven Dials near where Centre Point stands today, now home to the Centrepoint homeless charity. It was of one of the worst slums within Britain, a site of overcrowding and squalor, a semi-derelict warren. From Georgian affluence in the 18th century, the area declined rapidly, as houses were divided up, many families sharing a single room. Irish Catholic immigrants seeking to escape desperate poverty took up residence and the slum was nicknamed 'Little Ireland' or 'The Holy Land'. The expression "a St Giles cellar" passed into common parlance, describing the worst conditions of poverty. Open sewers often ran through rooms and cesspits were left untended. Residents complained to the Times in 1849 : "We live in muck and filth. We aint got no priviz, no dust bins, no drains, no water-splies, and no drain or suer in the hole place." The rookery was a maze of gin shops, prostitutes' hovels and secret alleyways that police had little of hope navigating. William Hogarth, Thomas Rowlandson and Gustav Dore, among others, have drawn the area, novelists Henry Fielding and Charles Dickens have written about it extensively. Peter Ackroyd writes "The Rookeries embodied the worst living conditions in all of London's history; this was the lowest point which human beings could reach".
From the 1830s to the 1870s plans were developed to demolish the slum as part of London wide clearances for improved transport routes, sanitation and the expansion of the railways. New Oxford Street
was driven through the area to join the areas of Oxford Street and Holborn. The Rookery dwellers were not re-housed by the authorities. 5000 were evicted and many just moved into near by slums, such Devil's Acre and Church Lane making those more overcrowded still. The unchanging character of the area, failing investment schemes and inability to sell new properties ensured that plans for wholesale clearance were stymied until the end of the century.
Upon the creation of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855 the combined parishes became the St Giles District and were transferred to the County of London in 1889.
The local government of London was reorganised in 1900 and St Giles became part of the Metropolitan Borough of Holborn.
The Central London Railway opened Tottenham Court Tube Station, between the Church of St Giles in the Fields and St Giles Circus on 30 July 1900. Tottenham Court Road
underwent improvements in the early 1930s to replace lifts with escalators.
In 2009, Transport for London began a major reconstruction of large parts of the station. Much of the St Giles area alongside St Giles High Street
was cleared to make way for the new development including Crossrail expansion.
Since 1965. St Giles has been part of the London Borough of Camden.