East End Churches

Much of this section  derives from the research of Prebendary Arthur Royall
(13 October 1919 – 17 June 2013).

East London Churches with dates of Consecration

The Parish Churches Of Bethnal Green
St. Matthew 1746

St. John on Bethnal Green 1823

St. Philip 1840

St. Peter 1841

St. Andrew 1841

St. James the Less 1842.

St. James the Great. Bethnal Green Rd 1844 (The Red Church)

St. Jude 1844.

St. Bartholomew 1844.

St. Simon Zelotes 1847.

St. Matthias 1848.

St. Thomas 1850.

St. Paul 1864.

St. Barnabas. Grove Road 1870,

Ten churches built in 10 years 1840-1850.

The Parish Churches Of Poplar
St. Mary the Virgin Bromley-St. Leonard. 12 century

St. Mary Stratford atte Bow. 1719

All Saints Poplar. 1823

St. Stephen, North Bow. (Tredegar Rd) 1827

Christ. Church, Isle of Dogs. 1857

St. Michael & All Angels. Bromley by Bow. 1864

St. Matthias, Poplar (formerly E. I. Co. Chapel) 1867

St. Stephen, Poplar. 1867

St. Gabriel. South Bromley. Chrisp Street. 1869

St. Luke, Millwall. 1870

St. John, Isle of Dogs. 1872

St. Mark. Victoria Park 1872

St. Saviour. Poplar. 1874

All Hallows. Bromley by Bow (Devons Rd) 1874

St. Paul. Old Ford. 1878

All Hallows. East India Dock Road. 1879

St. Peter. Garford St. Limehouse. 1885

St. Andrew. Bromley by Bow. 1901

St. Frideswide. Lodore St. Poplar 1904 (Mission 1884)

Several of these churches had existed as District Mission Churches before being consecrated and given parochial status.

There were also Mission churches which were never given parochial status such as St. Nicholas, Blackwall Stairs in the parish of All Saints Poplar.

Stepney Churches
St. Dunstan & All Saints Stepney Green. 13 & 15c

Holy Trinity. Minories . 14c

St. Mary Matfelon. Whitechapel 13c & 1877

St. John at Wapping. Wapping. 1617 & 1760

St. Paul. Shadwell 1670 & 1820

Christ. Church. Spitalfields. 1729

St. George in the East. Cannon Street Road. 1729

St. Anne. Limehouse. 1730

St. Philip. Newark Street. 1823 & 1892

St. James Ratcliff. 1838

St. Peter. Cephas Street 1838

St. Thomas. Arbour Square 1838

Holy Trinity. Mile End Old Town 1839

St. Mark. Goodmans Fields. 1839

All Saints. Buxton Street. 1839

Christ. Church. Watney Street. 1841

St. Mary (Wheler Chapel 1670) Spital Square. 1842

St. Paul. Dock Street. 1847

St. Jude. Whitechapel 1848

St. Mary. Cable Street. 1850

St. John-the-Evangelist. Halley Street 1853

St. Paul. Bow Common. 1858 & 1960

St. Matthew. Pell Street. 1859

St. Stephen. Commercial Street 1861

St. Peter. London Dock. 1861

St. John-the-Evangelist Grove Street. 1869

St. Luke. Burdett Road. 1869

St. Matthew. Commercial Road 1871

St. Benet. Mile End Road. 1872

St. Olave. Hanbury Street. 1875

Christ. Church. Jamaica Street 1877

St. Anthony. Globe Road. 1879

St. Augustine. Settle Street. 1879

St. Faith. Shandy Street Opened 1891

Blitzed (bombed) Churches In Poplar and Stepney

St. Benet. Mile End. Bombed August. 1940

St. Augustine Settle Street, Stepney Bombed 1940

St. Matthew Commercial Road gutted by incendiaries. April 9 1941

St. George in the East. gutted by incendiaries May 1941

St. James Butcher Row Shadwell gutted by incendiary bombs Sept 1940

St. John Ev. Halley Street, Stepney. Bombed 16 September 1940

St. Nicholas Blackwall Stairs, Poplar. Bombed Sept 1940

St. Thomas Arbour Square, Stepney.
Severely damaged by incendiaries 1941

St. John. Halley Street.
Severely damaged by incendiaries September 11 & 13 1940

St. Faith. Shandy Street. Stepney. Badly damaged by bomb blast. 1940

St. Cuthbert Isle of Dogs bombed 1940

St. Luke Isle of Dogs bombed 1940

St. Frideswide. Lodore St. Poplar

All Hallows East India Dock Road

St. Andrew Bromley by Bow. Bombed September 1940

St. Gabriel Chrisp Street

St. Stephen. East. India Dock Road



Poplar

Much of this section about Poplar derives from the writings of Prebendary Arthur Royall
(13 October 1919 – 17 June 2013). Many of his articles became part of the Royall family website at http://www.royall.co.uk/. His street names of Poplar was mostly in turn derived from The Streets of London by S.Fairfield, an out-of-print book published by Macmillan in 1983.


Abbott Road

The developer and builder was a Mr. John Abbott who is commemorated in Abbott Road the longest street through this part of Poplar.

Aberfeldy Street

The area of Poplar bounded by the East India Road on the south, the North London Railway on the west, the Limehouse Cut on the north and the River Lea on the east contains a large number of streets with Scottish names. The initial letters of the street names spanned the alphabet from A to Z.

Adderley Street

Adderley Street is a reminder of the Reverend and Honourable James Adderley who was the Priest in Charge of St.Frideswides, Poplar 1888-1893. It is said that he came to Poplar like a whirlwind, his social conscience involving him in activities considered by many in the hierarchy to be dangerously radical. He excelled in outdoor preaching and speaking, this he did frequently at the Dock Gates and not always on religious themes. At St. Frideswides he had succeeded his brother the Honourable Reginald.

Ailsa Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Amoy Place

A reminder of Poplar’s old “Chinese” quarter, which centred on the West India Dock Road.

Bartlett Park

Prebendary Phillip Bartlett served as Vicar of St. Saviour’s, Northumberland Street for almost forty years. He came to the parish in 1919 a notable Anglo-Catholic Priest of the old school. He was generous (some would say too generous) to parishioners in need, having substantial private means.

Bazely Street

This was formerly part of Bow Lane on the east side after The Revd. Thomas Bazeley who in the 1850s was the Rector. The Act of Parliament creating the parish, gave to the vestrymen power to “place or cause to be placed, bars or rails at the end of any street or place immediately leading or adjoining the said Parish Church to prevent noise during the time of Divine Service.”

Blackwall Way

Took its name from the ‘black wall’, an ancient embankment of earth along this portion of the Thames. Or Blackwall could come from the “bleak wall,” the bleak east wind sweeping over the river wall here.

Blair Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Brabazon Street

Brabazon Street commemorates the Metropolitan Gardens Association’s founder, Lord Brabazon the 12th Earl of Meath.  The society was founded in 1882 to provide gardens and playgrounds in Inner-London. The Earl was an Alderman of the London County Council in the last decade of the 19th c. Brabazon Street, was formerly named Walker Street. There was an extensive re-naming of streets in inner London after 1856, when the Metropolitan Board of Works began to operate. Perhaps this was one of the changes made at that time. Not all the changes met with popular approval, later in the century some authorities and old local authorities changed their policies; personal names and others associated with the local history were revived for new streets.

Bromley Hall Road

Bromley Hall Road is close to Bromley Hall the Manor House of the Lower Manor, this house existed as early as the 12th century. The present house was entirely remodelled in the later half of the 18th century.

Broomfield Street

In many urban areas early field names have been preserved when naming newly built residential roads, Broomfield Street is an example of that in Poplar.

Brunswick Road

All but a short section has now been swallowed up in the Northern Approach Road to Blackwall Tunnel, originally approached the Brunswick Dock. Based on the old well established Blackwall Yard, the dock was built in 1789 by John Perry, a noted ship-owner and builder, who was a staunch friend and supporter of William Pitt. The road was named as a compliment to the reigning Royal House. King George III paid a visit to the Blackwall Yard. Later this Dock was incorporated into the East India Dock system.

Burdett Road

The natural western boundary of Poplar. The street was renamed in honour of Baroness Burdett Coutts, the Victorian millionairess and philanthropist and of her work for the poor of London.

Canton Street

A reminder of Poplar’s old “Chinese” quarter, which centred on the West India Dock Road.

Coborn Road
Coborn Street

Recall one of Bows most generous benefactors Priscilla Coborn a wealthy widow. She provided money for the support of seamen?s widows and it was her generosity that provided for the foundation of the Coborn Girls School that was situated in the Bow Road until sadly together with the Coopers Company School it moved in the 1970?s into Essex. The name Coborn enjoyed widespread fame of a popular kind in late Victorian days when it was adopted by a Music Hall artist named Colin McCallum as his stage name. As Charles Coborn he was Top of the Bill for many years, and is credited with having imortalised two particular popular songs Two lovely Black Eyes and the Man who Broke the Bank at Monte Carlo. Before the road was built up it was known as Berribinder Lane.

Coldharbour

Coldharbour, runs parallel to the riverside and leads off Preston Road. It is so named for a house called Coldharbour in Blackwall, and thought to have belonged to Sir John Poultenay of Coldharbour, in the City of London’s, Upper Thames Street. This knight was Lord of the Manor of Poplar in the 14th century. Coldharbour boasts a popular riverside pub, “The Gun”, which in the 1960-70s was a hostel favoured by the then Rector of Poplar. Horatio Nelson is reputed to have had a house, No 3, in this riverside street.

The name Coldharbour is one which first appears on maps in 1617 as Coleharbor. It is a name often associated with parts of a river used for accommodating coastal vessels and noted for providing few amenities ashore. Fortunately by the time I was Rector of Poplar it provided excellent facilities in the well known riverside public house The Gun.

Joseph Cotton was deputy master of Trinity House from 1803, a director of the East India Company 1795-1823 and chairman of the newly-formed East India Company.

Chrisp Street

Chrisp Street itself was named after Sir Nicholas Chrisp or Crisp who lived at the nearby Bromley Hall manor house in the 17th. Century.

Any prolonged conversation about Poplar will inevitably produce a mention of Chrisp Street, which because of its street market in days past is at the heart of the district. East London had many such markets. Writing in his book ” East London” Robert Sinclair says ” In Chrisp Street, nearly opposite Poplar church, is a street market that is local and genuine. It lacks the degrading squalor of some of Bethnal Green’s week-end pavement huckstering, the entertaining Jewish oratory of Middlesex Street, and the visitation of the curious from other parts of London”. Blocked with barrows and carts it was the lively shopping centre for South Poplar and the Isle of Dogs. Badly damaged during the war, the market was incorporated into the post war development named the Lansbury Estate. George Lansbury was one of the greatest of the Labour champions of working class London.

Cotton Street

Culloden Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Dee Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Driffield Road

Driffield Road along which ran the boundary with Bethnal Green is named for the Reverend G.T. Driffield who became Rector of Bow in 1844. The population of Bow was at that time 7,000 and rising rapidly. The Rector was convinced that a church was needed in North Bow, finding great difficulty in raising the money necessary, he took the rash step of transferring to the building account a large sum from the endowment of his own living and later of borrowing ?2,000 on the security of his own life insurance. The Church of St. Stephen was built and Mr. Driffield’s self sacrifice caused him to live in straitened circumstances for the remainder of his life. The new church was situated in Tredegar Road on a plot of land given by Lord Tredegar.

Ettrick Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Fairfield Road

On June 11th 1664 Samuel Pepys accompanied by his wife. feeling in need of some fresh air, took a ride into the countryside his first stop being at Bow. It seems likely that it was the day of the annual Fair which continued to be held until the mid-nineteenth century. The ground on which the fair was held was crossed by a road which later became Fairfield Road and along which Pepys and his wife would have continued their journey to Old Ford and Hackney.

Findhorn Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Glengall Grove
Glengall Road

Recall the Second Earl of Glengall born in 1794 who married the daughter of William Mellish an extensive land owner on the Isle of Dogs.

Glengarnock Avenue

Glengarnock Avenue takes its name from a former steelworks in the area.

Grundy Street

Cows were  kept behind a dairy in this street almost up to W.W.2 The origin of the name is as they say “uncertain”. It is suggested that one Thomas Grundy of Poplar was working locally as a carpenter and joiner in the area in 1805 and may have begun the first houses in the street.

Kitcat Terrace

Runs alongside the railway line where it crosses Bow Road is named after the Reverend Henry Kitcat who was Rector of Bow 1903-1921. During his incumbency the Parish Hall was built at end of this street.

Lax Street

Lax of Poplar was the long serving Minister of the Poplar Methodist Mission in the East India Dock Road (1903-1937) who was Mayor of Poplar 1918-19. He wrote an account of his work in an autobiography “Lax of Poplar”.

Leamouth Road

Mouth of the River Lea.

Leven Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Lochnagar Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Managers Street

In Coldharbour was a wharf belonging in the 19th.c to the Managers of the Metropolitan Asylum District, the street leading to the wharf, was rather unimaginatively named Managers Street.

Manorfields School

Manorfields School like the houses in Uamvar Street and others around it was built on fields belonging to the Lower Manor of Bromley.

Ming Street

A reminder of Poplar’s old “Chinese” quarter, which centred on the West India Dock Road.

Morris Road

Commemorates the name of a local landowner.

Mountague Place

On the south side of the church was named after a Churchwarden and Treasurer of the parish.

Nanking Street

A reminder of Poplar’s old “Chinese” quarter, which centred on the West India Dock Road.

NEWBY Place in which stands the Parish Church of All Saints, the Rectory and at one time the Town Hall, was part of a plot of land consisting of a house, garden and field owned by a Mrs.Ann Newby. The Vestry had advertised for a building site and had been offered three. The road originally opened out of Poplar High Street and was not carried through to the East India Dock Road, until the church was completed in 1823.

Oban Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Old Ford Road

Old Ford, upstream from Bow, was an early crossing of the River Lea, the lowest point on the river where it was possible to cross regularly on foot. It was thought to be the point used by the Romans making their way from the City to Colchester. After Bow Bridge was built was built this ford quickly fell into disuse. Old Ford Road approached the Ford along a line further north which also led to the hamlet that grew up around it.

Orchard Place

Its name it seems was taken from “Orchard House Inn”. It became populated in the 1840s when 100 two-storey cottages and several factories were built. Tides could flood the cottages up to the ninth stair level, and the banks had to be raised to overcome this inconvenience. The late Henry Wilks, in his study of the locality says “Bow Creek Junior School had 160 children on roll in 1932; 100 pupils bore the surname of Lammin, the rest were largely of the names Jeffries and Scanlan.

Oriental Street

A reminder of Poplar’s old “Chinese” quarter, which centred on the West India Dock Road.

Parnell Street

Parnell Street recalls the first Vicar of St. Stephens, North Bow 1857-1851.

Pekin Street

A reminder of Poplar’s old “Chinese” quarter, which centred on the West India Dock Road.

Pennyfields

Pennyfields was at one time a well known street. This name was recorded as long ago as 1663.It is thought to have originated from what we might refer to as a peppercorn rent. However another theory is that it is a corruption of Pennygntons Fields, land owned by Isaac Penyngton, Lord Mayor of London in 1642.

Plimsoll Street commemorating as it does Samuel Plimsoll, who was responsible for the Merchant Shipping Act of 1876 is a reminder of Poplar’s maritime links. The Plimsoll line painted on the hull of a ship indicated the safe waterline when loaded. This innovation greatly increased the safety of those who manned merchant ships.

Poplar High Street

With the building of the East India Dock Road, Poplar High Street became a little used back street. When it was indeed the local High Street leading to Blackwall it was “a quaint straggling length of gabled houses, many built of wood, little gardens and trees in front of many of them, almost every second house an inn, beer house or place of refreshment”. In this somewhat low profile High Street was St. Matthias Church the old East India Company chapel and also ” a quaint building, Poplar Hospital, a home of refuge or hostel for the East India Company’s aged seaman.” Much later at the narrow end of the street there was The Queens Theatre a very popular Music Hall and one of the last theatre buildings to survive in East London.

Prestons Road

Built across land belonging to Sir Robert Preston.

Priory Street

Several streets derive there names from an association with the Convent of St. Leonard Bromley by Bow. Priory Street is built on part of the site of the old Priory which was dissolved in 1535.

Releana Street

Sir Walter Raleigh had a house at Blackwall and RALEANA Street serves to remind us of this fact.

Saunders Ness Road

Saunders Ness is the name of a portion of the foreshore of the Thames at the south-east corner of the Isle of Dogs from which the name of Saunders Ness Road is taken.

George Green School which began life in the East India Dock road in occupies a site between Saunders Ness Road and Manchester Road.

St Leonard’s Road

St Leonard’s Road leads to St Leonard Bromley by Bow.

St Leonard’s Street

St Leonard’s Street leads to St Leonard Bromley by Bow.

Spey Street

One of the “Scottish street names” of Poplar derived from the estate which had been bought by the McIntosh family in 1823.

Stainsby Road

Jerome.K.Jerome, the humorous writer who achieved instant fame with his novel “Three Men in a Boat”, although born in Walsall grew up in this Poplar Street. Renamed in 1860 from Stainborough Road the name seems to have come from the fact that a Conant Stainsbury owned land along Burdett Road.

Teviot Street

One of the “tartan” streets of Poplar.  A large portion of freehold the freehold land bought by Mr. Abbott from the Scottish McIntosh estate was formerly known as Bromley Marsh.

Tredegar Road

Tredegar Road was a plot of land owned by Lord Tredegar formerly Sir Charles Morgan who is also commemorated by several street names in Stepney.

Upper North Street

Cows were kept behind a dairy in Upper North Street until the late 1930s. From time to time the animals were taken for a walk along the local streets.

Wade Place

Commemorates the name of a local landowner.

Waterman’s Arms

Island Gardens front the river giving a fine view of the former Royal Naval College, Greenwich directly opposite. Occupying a site facing the river is the well know public house is the Waterman’s Arms (formerly the Newcastle Arms) which in the swinging sixties was a celebrity spot.

 

The Welsh Harp

The Brent Reservoir, or “Welsh Harp”, is not a reservoir for drinking water, but a relic of the Canal Age. Soon after the Paddington Branch of the Grand Junction Canal opened in 1801, the River Brent was identified as a source of extra water for it. In 1810/11, a narrow “Feeder” was built to channel water more than three miles, from a bend in the river north of Kingsbury Bridge to join the canal at Lower Place. By the 1830’s the Regent’s Canal Company, which now owned the branch, proposed a dam across the River Brent to provide a 61 acre reservoir, which would ensure a more reliable supply for their “Feeder”. The dam and associated works were built in 1834/35 by William Hoof of Hammersmith for £2,747- 6s.

The fact that the reservoir existed by 1835 is confirmed by a memorial in a nearby church to the first deaths by drowning in it.

Heavy rain in January 1841 caused a partial collapse of dam, and flooding down the Brent valley which left several people dead and considerable damage in the Brentford area. When the dam was rebuilt by 1843, an attendant’s cottage was added at the Kingsbury end. For the next decade the reservoir appears to have had a quiet time, being used by anglers and visited by naturalists keen to see (and shoot) the rich variety of visiting birdlife. One of these was James Edmund Harting, who lived at St Mary’s Lodge, close to Kingsbury Green.

Much of the field work for his 1866 book, “The Birds of Middlesex”, was carried out on or near this Kingsbury reservoir.

An increase in traffic on the Regent’s Canal meant that by 1850 more water was needed to replace the loss from its locks. An Act of Parliament was passed allowing the company to acquire more land, and increase the height of the dam. This expanded the reservoir’s area to 400 acres by 1854, the largest it has been in its history. The 1873 map (aside) shows the Brent Reservoir when it extended that far (the water would have
covered much of the present day Brent Cross Shopping Centre, and Sainsbury’s at West Hendon on the northern arm).

The work to expand the reservoir included raising a new embankment to protect the Old Welsh Harp tavern, on the west side of the Edgware Road, just north of the Brent Bridge, from flooding. In 1858 the lease of this pub was taken over by William Perkins Warner, who had grown up at Blackbird Farm in Kingsbury. He set about creating a large pleasure gardens behind the pub, obtaining the rights to use the reservoir for recreational purposes, and for the next 30 years the “Welsh Harp” became a very popular leisure destination. Part of Warner’s legacy is the name by which the reservoir is generally known today.

Warner used the reservoir’s potential to the full, with fishing and boat hire, and competitions for swimming  in the summer and ice skating in the colder winters. A variety of sports and pastimes were also available,  from bowls to cricket, with horse racing events very popular (until banned in 1879 for promoting vice). A Welsh Harp station was opened on the new Midland Railway in 1870, at Warner’s request, and special trains on bank holidays brought thousands of people from the crowded areas of the City and Camden to “fairs” in the Welsh Harp’s grounds. Warner even built a music hall and restaurant beside the pub as all year round attractions.

The opening of Hendon station on the Midland Railway saw the development of housing and shops in West
Hendon during late Victorian times. The reservoir was a popular place for country walks and bicycle trips by then, not solely for the Old Welsh Harp’s attractions, and some of the residents made a little extra money by serving tea to visitors in their living rooms at weekends.

By the end of the century, Warner had died and the popularity of the tavern and its pleasure gardens declined, with Welsh Harp station closing in 1903. From 1914 the First World War saw nearby neighbourhoods such as Hendon and Kingsbury become centres for the new aircraft industry. The reservoir played its part in the war effort, and was used in 1917 for the test flight of a Handley Page seaplane, built in Cricklewood. From the summer of that year the fields between the reservoir and the top of Dollis Hill became a testing ground for tanks, with the world’s first amphibious tank trialled on the Welsh Harp just as the war ended in November 1918. Peace meant that manufacturers were left with spare aircraft, and one Hendon company used these to offer pleasure flights over the reservoir, priced at one guinea (£1–1s).

The 1920s saw the building of the North Circular Road just south of the reservoir, and the development of factories near Staples Corner and housing on the slopes of Dollis Hill. It also saw the reservoir being used for motor boat racing, while by 1930 its first sailing club had been set up and its banks attracted naturists. While this newly fashionable pastime was popular with its followers, it did not go down well with many local people.

The reservoir was sometimes used by seaplanes for pleasure flights during the inter-war years, and during the Second World War it was rumoured that a seaplane was kept there to evacuate Churchill or other senior figures from the underground bunker on Dollis Hill in the event of a German invasion. The distinctive shape of the reservoir was a landmark for enemy bombers, and West Hendon suffered a terrible attack in February 1941 when a single experimental high explosive bomb flattened homes in three streets near the Silk Stream
arm, killing around 80 people and making 1,500 homeless. At the other end of the Welsh Harp, two families were wiped out by a direct hit on a pair of semi-detached houses in Birchen Close in February 1944, while a V2 rocket which hit Wykeham School in March 1945 killed 7 people and injured 40 in nearby houses.

Both before and after the Second World War some infilling of the reservoir took place, particularly where the Edgware Road crossed both arms of it and near the Cool Oak Lane bridge. Some of this new land was developed, but some of it provided new habitats for wildlife, and in 1950 the Welsh Harp and the land around it was designated a Site of Special Scientific interest.

Although this new status meant some restrictions on the reservoir’s recreational use, rowing and sailing remained popular activities, with the Willesden (later Brent) Regatta a popular event up until the early 1970’s. Willesden also hosted the European Women’s Rowing Championships here in August 1960. The various clubs using the reservoir came together around this time to form the Welsh Harp Sailing Association at Birchen Grove, and for 40 years from 1964 there was a Youth Sailing Base at Cool Oak Lane.

Recent decades have seen increasing pressure for development, and the Welsh Harp Conservation Group was set up in 1972 to look after the reservoir and areas around it. The Group has undertaken practical work to improve habitats, encouraging a wide variety of birds and other wildlife to visit. Their work has helped to highlight how valuable the reservoir is for both people and the natural environment, but there are still big
challenges ahead, to stop inappropriate schemes such as the proposed waterside high-rise flats in West Hendon.

Source: https://www.brent.gov.uk/media/2935808/The%20Welsh%20Harp%20Reservoir.pdf (Philip Grant)

Theobald Street, WD6

Theobald Street was, until the twentieth century, the high street of Borehamwood. Shops ran along the street between the Crown pub and Brickfield Cottages but only with the arrival of the film industry did Shenley Road begin to take over this function.

The “street” part of the name is derived from an often-used Hertfordshire term for a hamlet which lies on a long road – other examples are Colney Street and, more locally, Green Street. In modern times the street was named after that of the hamlet – this is the reason it is a ’street’ rather than a ’lane’, despite its rural setting.

Theobald Street was, were created as a result of the Enclosure Act of 1776, whereby Boreham Wood Common was divided up amongst various landowners.

While associated more now with Borehamwood, the hamlet of Theobald Street lay nearer what is now Radlett and indeed was a former alternative name for Radlett. In 1718 the bridge over a stream between Radlett and Colney Street – called High Bridge – was sometimes described as being in the hamlet of Theobald Street. The line of Theobald Street south from Radlett was at first just a footpath.

Before the name settled into the modern form, Theobald Street was also called Tiberstreet, Tibure Street, Theebald Street, and Tyteburst Street. In the Domesday Book it was called Titeberst.

Elstree, the oldest part of the parish, came into the possession of St Albans Abbey in 1188, when it was known as Tidulfes Treow and Borehamwood as Bosci di Borham. Both names have undergone various changes and spellings over the centuries, and many older residents still prefer to spell Boreham Wood as two words.

Older local roads, including Barnet Lane, Furzehill Road, Shenley Road, Allum Lane and the Borehamwood end of Theobald Street, were created as a result of the Enclosure Act of 1776, whereby the 684 acres of Borehamwood Common were divided up amongst various landowners, including the Church, and in return new roads were laid out which were to be sixty feet wide including verges.

By Victorian times this part of the Parish consisted of little more than a hamlet, clustered around Theobald Street, north of the junction with Shenley Road, and surrounded by farms.

A shopping parade on the east of the street was built in 1871, and once known as Robinson’s Folly. Its builder, Robinson – the footbridge over the railway was also named after him – was ridiculed at the time for his ’follies’ but some 150 years later, his shops are still here.

A small school opened at 27a Theobald Street in 1896. Since the introduction of the Education Act in 1870, making it compulsory for children under the age of ten to go to school, another building down the road at number 35 had been used as a temporary infants’ school for the area. Older pupils had to walk to the Elstree National School or Medburn Boys’ School, which was on the route to Radlett.

In 1896, 27a Theobald Street was erected. It is thought to have been constructed using bricks mined from a quarry off Deacons Hill Road, in Elstree. The building was also used by Elstree and Borehamwood Town Council, for meetings in the early 20th century.

The Old Crown – north of the later Crown pub – dates back to at least 1769 although rebuilt in the late 1800s.

A war memorial was placed at the junction of Theobald Street and Shenley Road. It was dedicated on 20 October 1921. Before that, an animal pound with a pond stood close to the site and stray farm animals would be left there for collection by their owners.

Before World War Two, there were Nissen Huts which housed troops from the Royal Ordinance Corps on the site later occupied by the Kinetic Business Centre. The troops did some of their training in the film studios.

The growth of Borehamwood proceeded rapidly in the 1940s and 1950s. It was reported that Elstree Rural District Council built 1500 homes between 1945 and 1956, the London County Council 2700 homes, and 550 private dwellings were constructed. In 1957-8, the War Memorial moved from Theobald Street to the Elstree Way end of Shenley Road. A number of residential properties still remained in Shenley Road and some residents still talk of ‘going down the village’ when referring to this shopping centre. Shenley Road by then had taken over completely from Theobald Street as the centre of the growing town.

Pitt House

From “Hampstead, its historic houses, its literary and artistic associations”
Anna Maxwell (1912)

Pitt House, known in the eighteenth century as Wildwoods and North End Place, has now attained its due name of honour, for here once lived the great statesman. It was during the retirement of the first Earl of Chatham, from 1766 to 1769, that he sought here perfect seclusion, owing to the diseased melancholy of his mind. This Prime Minister, who had previously infused his fiery energy into every department of the Government, now shut himself up in one room at Wildwoods, and refused to see any man, even causing his meals to be served through a hatch- way, from which he was invisible ; the means for this arrangement still remain in the house. The King, however, saying that he could not do without him, forced his rough entrance into the bedchamber of this ” great Commoner,” of whom Lord Macaulay said that
” he made himself the first man in England, and England the first country in the world.”

A recent owner of this house, who bought it in 1899, was Sir Harold Harmsworth ; but the previous resident, one who was active for the public welfare, was Mr. Samuel Figgis. It was during Mr. Figgis’s time at Wildwoods that his neighbour, Sir Spencer Wells, died, and Golder’s Hill House and its grounds of unparalleled beauty were about to be sold to a builder.

The time-honoured oaks and trees of every variety, the homes of nightingales, thrushes, and blackbirds were to be cut down ; the velvet lawns, flower-gardens, meadows and orchards made into brickyards, desecrated by scaffold poles, and turned into terraces of small houses ! It was at this threatening moment, on the eve of the execution, June, 1898, that the master of Wildwoods opened his house for a meeting of alarmed residents, whose object was to preserve the thirty-seven acres for Heath extension. Sir Henry Harben acted as chairman of the committee ; Mr. Brodie Hoare, M.P., was one of the chief supporters ; so also was a former friend of Heath extension, the Right Hon. G. Shaw-Lefevre. In forty-eight hours the purchase-money was guaranteed ; in a month it was paid. The writer remembers that in July a garden-party was given in aid of the funds, and that the amazing loveliness of Golder’s Hill garden first broke upon the majority of the Hampstead residents then invited. On this occasion members of the Vestry
voted 10,000, the London County Council 12,000 ; the Duke and Duchess of Westminster were present, contributing 500 ; and many public bodies, as well as private persons, subscribed generous sums, thus completing the necessary amount. The first purpose for which the house was used was that of a convalescent home for the invalided soldiers from South Africa, alter which it was devoted to the use of the general public.

Shoreditch

A GENERAL HISTORY OF SHOREDITCH AND SOUTH HOXTON

The history of Shoreditch has been largely dictated by its location outside the
City walls of London. The origin of the name is unknown, but it has a Saxon
origin and may come from the “Sewerditch”, a stream, which ran east of St
Leonard’s to near Holywell Lane. Shoreditch was a settlement where the
Roman roads of Kingsland Road and Old Street met. Kingsland Road was
part of Ermine Street, and Old Street linked this with Watling Street.
In the Middle Ages, the Augustinian Priory of St. John the Baptist in Haliwell
dominated the eastern area. It was built near a sacred or holy well. The
Church was south of New Inn Yard. Holywell was founded by 1158, covered 8
acres, and was the richest Augustinian nunnery in the country. The street
pattern round the walls largely survives, being Shoreditch High Street,
Holywell Lane, Curtain Road and Batemans Row. The Priory site was split up
at the dissolution of the monasteries in 1539. Several stone finds have been
made. Curtain Road was named after the curtain wall there. At the north end
of Shoreditch High Street was an ancient stone cross.

There were a number of religious foundations who were endowed by city
merchants and the gentry, including St Mary Spital to the east, the
boundaries to which dictated the borough boundary. Shoreditch’s oldest
buildings were by the High Street near the Priory site. South Shoreditch
remained largely rural in the Medieval period and on until the seventeenth
century, and was considered useful for institutions because of relatively good
road links. Ribbon development grew up along Old Street and Shoreditch
High Street.

It is perhaps not widely known that the first two London theatres were built in
Shoreditch. The first playhouse, called simply “The Theatre” of 1576 was on
Curtain Road at the junction with New Inn Yard, the first permanent
playhouse in Britain. James Burbage, the head of the Earl of Leicester’s
Company of players, needed a permanent home for players to perform in, as
the Lord Mayor had prohibited plays from being performed within the City
walls. Previously plays were held in places like inn yards. The Theatre was a
large polygonal building and was demolished in 1598 under the terms of its
lease. The Curtain Theatre, on the site of Hewett Street, eventually came
under the same management as the Theatre. Centrally theatre was centred
round the Globe at Bankside. William Shakespeare came to Shoreditch as an
actor and lived in Bishopsgate and possibly in Holywell Street. The first of his
plays were performed in Shoreditch and it is possible that at least one
Shoreditch character inspired a Shakespeare character.

Hoxton held several almshouses, the first being in Old Street. Wealthy city
companies built their own almshouses.

Industries have existed in Shoreditch since Medieval times much as brick
making along Kingsland Road. Others were there because they were not
allowed to operate within the City walls, such as tanning. A sixteenth century
forerunner of the clothing industry was a Master John Tyre, who lived near
Shoreditch Church and made clothes of the highest quality.

The wealthy started to move out of London to Shoreditch, including Masters
of City companies and rich foreigners. This was in response to the growth of
the City’s population. Newcomers built on fields and gardens, between Old
Street and Shoreditch High Street along which the population had been
concentrated. The newcomers were mostly tradesmen supplying the needs of
the City, and were for example, ironmongers, saddlers and tailors.

Hoxton comes from the Saxon word Hochestone, meaning a farm or fortified
enclosure belonging to Hoch or Hocg. In 1415 the Lord Mayor of London
“caused the wall of the city to be broken towards Moorfields, and built the
postern called Moorgate, for the ease of the citizens to walk that way upon
causeways towards Islington and Hoxton”. Hoxton inhabitants responded by
enclosing the fields and harassing walkers from the City and archers on
Hoxton Fields. In 1514 an uproar led to the hedges and ditches being
destroyed so that Londoners could enjoy the drained farmland of Hoxton.

In the late sixteenth century there were “enclosures for gardens, wherein are
built many fair summer houses, some of them like midsummer pageants, with
towers, turrets and chimney tops, not so much use or profit, as for show and
pleasure”.

Hoxton has been an area of entertainment and refreshment for centuries,
being on a main route for travellers. In 1598 Hoxton Street was “a large
street, with houses on both sides”. A notorious alehouse was “The Pimlico”.
Part of a poem of 1609 called “ ‘Tis a Mad World at Hogsdon” went “Doctors,
Protors, Clerks, Attornies, To Pimlico make sweaty journies”. The playwright
Ben Jonson killed an actor in a duel at the rear of the pub.

Hoxton was a centre of Catholic resistance to the Reformation and Edmund
Campion, the martyr, was hidden in Hoxton.

In 1675 local weavers protested against multi shuttle looms, which would do
the work of 20 people. For three days, mobs went through Shoreditch and
Hoxton, removing looms from premises and burning them in the street. The
mobsters were caught, pilloried and fined.

In the seventeenth century Hoxton was renowned for the quality of its market
and nursery gardens, supplying the city. There were a number of private
mad-houses.

Maps from the mid to third quarter of the eighteenth century show that the
land north of Bateman’s Row was used as gardens and cultivated land. The
land west of the late Great Eastern Street had a few estates with large
houses. The estate field and land patterns can still be seen in the street
pattern of today. By contrast, there was development along most of
Shoreditch High Street, with tensely populated lanes, alleys and courtyards.
Shoreditch High Street was called Holywell High Street; it was wider to the
south and was called Church End to the north. The eastern parish and
borough boundary was Lock Street, where Boundary Street is now. Curtain
Road and a pathway to the north existed, as did a path forming the later
Holywell Row and east part of Scrutton Street. Old Street was Old Street
Road; Worship Street already existed in name. There was a mound called
Holy-well Mount west of the Priory, said to have been the site of plague
burials.

There was a vinegar yard, and tenter grounds (where cloth stretched on
frames and clothes were laid out); their boundaries exist today as Luke
Street, Phipp Street, Scrutton Street and Clifton Street. South of Worship
Street was a large tenter ground where the Finsbury Market, Pindar Street
and Clifton Street area is. Appold Street existed as Long Alley and was fully
built around.

The Hoxton area, in contrast to Shoreditch, was laid out by this same period
to a more formal street pattern. Hoxton Square was laid out shortly after
1683. Pitfield Street existed by name. Hoxton Market was simply called the
Market Place. Hoxton and Charles Squares, were the most fashionable
residential areas, Shoreditch included. One of the earliest Academies (of
1669) was in Hoxton Square. The squares were centres of illegal nonconformist sects.
There has been a church on the site of St Leonards since at least 1140. The
previous church had four aisles and a tower seventy-foot high, with five bells.
The bells are famous for being in the nursery rhyme “Oranges and Lemons:
when I grow rich/say the bells of Shoreditch”. Queen Elizabeth l was “much
pleased with Shoreditch bells”. The old church fell into disrepair and some of
it actually fell down during divine service in 1716. The new church was built in
1736-1740 by George Dance the Elder in a neo-classical style. Dance also
designed Mansion House. There are several memorials to prominent people.
The Church was the first in London and probably in the country to be lit by
gas, in 1817. The stocks, whipping post and pump remain. The walls, gates
and railings are nineteenth century. 118 ½ Shoreditch High Street, the
Clerk’s House, by the Church, was the watch house. It dates c1735 and is
one of the very oldest in the area.

In 1736 there was a large protest against the use of cheaper Irish labourers
brought in to build the new church. The unemployed English workers
attacked the Irish and the mob grew to 4,000. The militia were brought in and
crowds dispersed peaceably.

An unusual engraving of 1845 shows Shoreditch High Street lived with
Georgian shopfronts with shops and trades of all descriptions. Early Victorian
pubs and warehouses were beginning to be built. Trades included: drapers,
tailors, clothiers, mercers, boot and shoe maker, chemists, butcher,
ironmonger, jeweller, oil and colour warehouse, and etc. Clothing, furniture
and printing were the three main trades in Shoreditch.

South Shoreditch and Hoxton were well placed to counter the greater effects
of the Industrial Revolution. The factory system was set up and concentrated
in the Midlands and the North of England. However, the cheap labour in the
east of London made this still a profitable industrial area. Semi-skilled
workers there concentrated on specialised trades, especially those, which
had to be close to warehouses, which retained a working pattern, which was
pre Industrial Revolution.

South Shoreditch was the centre of the London furniture trade in the Victorian
period. The opening of the Regents Canal in 1820 made timber
transportation cheaper and easier. South Shoreditch and Hoxton were near
enough to trade with the City yet far enough from it to keep lower rents. By
1861 about 30 per cent of all London furniture makers worked in the East
End. London’s large population and housing growth led to a greatly increased
demand for furniture. A wide variety of historic and modern styles were made.
Curtain Road, Old Street and Great Eastern Street laid out in 1872-6, were
centres of the trade. There were many specialist workshops close to each
other. The various stages of construction and finishing were therefore carried
out on different premises. Although there were workers who could make a
whole piece of furniture, many were only trained to make one component, for
example, the drawers. The largely unskilled were lowly paid. The trade was a
“sweated” trade and many worked long hours for little pay and were
exploited. It was quite easy to set up in trade for a little money specialising in
one product. A number of Unions were active within the trades.

Several Jewish and some Dutch and French names occur. Jewish people
played a key role in commerce and manufacturing. Jewish people fled
persecution in Russia, Lithuania and Poland, and came in large numbers to
the East End, spreading to Shoreditch from the 1880s. Jewish firms were
involved in all aspects of trade and specialised in cabinet making and other
pieces. They also worked in tailoring. Jewish people were the chief ethnic
group to come to the area in search of work and cheap housing. Huguenots
largely stayed further to the East. French names exist in Fleur de Lis Court
and Sclater Street.

Many former residential properties in South Shoreditch were converted into
industrial use, but increasingly in the Victorian period, premises were
purpose built. This mix of small workshops with large warehouses and
showrooms can be seen today.

Shoreditch’s population grew faster than any other London parish in the first
half of the nineteenth century. By 1851 there were up to 130,000 residents.
(In 1801 there were 35,000 people). It was greatly overcrowded, with
resulting problems. The building of warehouses, workshops and the railway
destroyed many areas and alleys such as Swan Yard and Leg Alley. The
4,000 dispossessed people were not given other homes and this worsened
the severe overcrowding. The population had almost doubled between 1800
and 1830 and did so again between 1830 and 1860. By 1850 Hoxton New
Town was built and Hoxton was part of London. Shoreditch Station was
opened in 1840 and became Bishopsgate Goods Station in 1874 when the
railway was extended to Liverpool Street.

There were a number of theatres in and around Shoreditch and Hoxton, for
example the Britannia Theatre of 1858 housing 4,000; Macdonald’s (Hoxton
Hall) of 1864, and the Varieties of 1870 in Pitfield Street. When the Britannia
Theatre’s Sara Lane “the Queen of Hoxton” died in 1899, the crowds at her
funeral were so thick that people could not get through Hoxton Street.
The centre of London’s wholesale cabinet trade had to move from the site of
Broad Street Station when this was built, to the Curtain Road area in the
early 1860’s. By the late nineteenth century, the trade there was “where they
have settled and grown into the wonderful proportions they have today”
(1898). Long Alley (now Finsbury Avenue/Appold Street), was described then
as one of the busiest foot thoroughfares in the parish and a busy marketing
centre for the nearby alleys and courts. Finsbury Market was in 1898 a block
of two storey shops, mostly greengrocers. In the late nineteenth century, the
area was described as “that blend of small tenement houses and modern
business premises which is characteristic of Shoreditch”. Shoreditch High
Street had many coster’s stalls and barrows and needed a street keeper in
uniform.

The gridiron street pattern was possibly due to the ancient North-South street
pattern of trade routes, with square or rectangular field and plot patterns
having been built on. Off the main roads were many courts and alleyways
where the worst overcrowding was. Census returns in the nineteenth century
show a man and wife living with 14 lodgers in 2 bedrooms, in order to pay the
high rents. As rents were raised, householders took in several lodgers.
Workers could not afford to travel far to work.

Hoxton Square was by the mid nineteenth century a centre of the furnishing
trade. By the end of the century, several areas were considered to have
become run down. Hoxton Square was “with numerous broken pavements
and many dilapidated houses, presents and intolerably dreary aspect”.
Hoxton Street “is of great poverty and squalor; it is one of the open-air
markets of the poor and is lined by perpetual barrows and stalls”. Georgian
buildings can still be seen. No.32 Hoxton Square is late seventeenth century
or early 18th and is a rare survival. No. 56 is early to mid 9th century on a
possibly earlier house. No. 10 was the church vicarage. 125 – 130
Shoreditch High Street was a purpose-built foundary and showroom of c
1880. Many Victorian houses were prestige premises. Some reflected the
Italianate and classical fashion. Wall cranes and loading bays for furniture to
be hoisted up can be seen. The increased production skills, larger cast iron
beams and rolled steel joists meant larger factories and warehouses could be
built, with metal frames. 91-101 Worship Street is a valuable survival of a
Phillip Webb industrial terrace, designed in 1863. Webb was a close friend of
William Morris and was instrumental in the Arts and Crafts movement; this
emphasised the need for honesty of construction and materials. There were
workshops, with living accommodation above.

Other historic buildings include 17-21 Pitfield Street, early 19th century with
earlier building behind. 2 and 4 Paul Street are mid 19th century. The Church
of St Michael, Mark Street, was designed by the eminent architect James
Brooks in 1863-65, with clergy house and Sunday school of 1870. No. 87
Great Eastern Street is third quarter of the 19th century. 6-8 Garden Walk
including 32 Rivington Street was the Shoreditch electricity generating
station, 1905-7 by the London County Council to serve the LCC tramway
system.

15-23 Christopher Street is an early 19th century terrace of four storeys and
basement. 24 Curtain Road is early 18th century. 128 and 132 Curtain Road
are late 18th– early 19th century. 180-2 Shoreditch High Street 1865-80,
Italianate, partly of steel-framed construction.

190 Shoreditch High Street is an early 18th century house and No. 91 has an
early 19th century front on an earlier building. No. 196 is early 18th century.
They are examples of premises where tradesmen lived, manufactured and
retailed in the same building.

The Police Court opposite the Town Hall was built in 1903 by J. Dixon Butler.
Shoreditch Town Hall was built in 1866 by C.A. Long with 1902 extension.
340 and 342 Old Street are early 18th century.

Charles Booth in “Life and Labour of the People in London” of 1902 gave the
following description:

“The character of the whole locality is working-class. Poverty is
everywhere, with a considerable admixture of the very poor and
vicious … Large numbers have been and are still being displaced by
the encroachment of warehouses and factories … Hoxton is known for
its costers and Curtain criminals, for its furniture trade … No servants
are kept except in the main Road shopping streets and in a few remaining middle class squares in the
west”.

Booth said there were areas of high poverty, prostitution and thieves. Many
women were home-workers and many came from outside to work. There were
many lodging houses, “even though the advantages of the situation are
largely counter balanced by an evil reputation for poverty and vice and the
absence of open spaces”. There were some model dwellings, taller than the
typical Shoreditch dwellings of 2 storeys. “The great change during the last
10 years has been the displacement of dwelling houses by warehouses and
factories, the last to leave the more central parts being the very poor or the
inhabitants of model dwellings. (They) have been forced further afield, often
going as far as Tottenham or Walthamstow”.

Charles Dickens knew the area and visited it sometimes when he walked the
streets for inspiration for this works. Mr Micawber lived at Windsor Terrace,
City Road (now demolished) and Oliver Twist lived in South Shoreditch.
In the twentieth century, the population of Shoreditch decreased to 119,000
in 1901, going to 80,000 in 1939. The Metropolitan Line opened from the
1860s and the Northern Line from the 1890s (under different names) and
were later extended. Cheaper tram and railway fares meant workers could
live in the Lea Valley, for example. Before and during the inter-war period,
there was great demand for cheaper mass-produced furniture. Firms moved
north and south of Shoreditch in order to build larger premises. Workers
moved with them, and those that stayed tended to specialise in higher quality
work. The furniture trade declined from the 1960s.

However, even in the 1930s a survey found that 10.2 per cent of people lived
more than three to a room. Birth, death rates and infant deaths were amongst
the highest in East London. However, the area had not attracted voluntary
social effort as other deprived Boroughs.

In recent years, office developments associated with the City of London have
grown into the Shoreditch area, due to the pressure of space and lower
overheads. The Broadgate development was the largest of such
developments in Europe.

Kay Owen
Planning Division
London Borough of Hackney

August 1991

Curiosities of London: T-Z

This was scanned in from an old document which has caused numerous misreadings of words. As time moves on, this will be improved.


TATTESHALL’S,

THE celebrated sporting rendezvous and auction mart for horses, known as the ” Corner” (i.e., at Hyde Park Corner), in the rear of St. George’s Hospital, and approached from Grosvenor-place, was established by Richard Tattersall, in 1766, who leased the ground, then an open place between Piccadilly and the hamlet of Knightsbridge, from Earl Grosvenor. Tattersall, who had been stud-groom to the second and last Duke of Kingston, in 1779, founded his fortune by purchasing from Lord Bolingbroke, then in difficulties, the celebrated stud-horse, Highflyer. Tattersall had previously sold off the Duke of Kingston’s stud; and an injunction was applied for December 14, 1774, to restrain payment of the money to the Duchess, then under indictment. Tattersall is alluded to in the Belle’s Stratagem, first performed 1782 : ” Flutter : Oh, yes ! 1 stopped at Tattersall’s as I came by, and there I found Lord James Jessamy, Sir William Wilding,” &c. The Prince of Wales was a constant patron of Tattersall’s, where was a bust of his Royal Highness in his eighteenth year.

Here the Jockey Club erected their club-house, elaborately decorated by Italian artists : the Duke of Queensbury (” Old Q.”) and Selwyn were members of the club. Richard Tattersall, of whom two portraits exist, died January 20, 1795, aged 72 ; he was succeeded in his business by his only son Edmund, who carried it on until his death, Jan. 23, 1810 : his son, Edmund, who founded the foreign trade, then succeeded ; who, dying Dec. 11, 1851, the business came to its present proprietor. In 1852, Tattersall’s annual average of horses brought to the hammer was estimated at 45,000?. ; there were 97 stalls and 13 loose boxes, or standing for 110. In the counting-house hung the regulations, dated 1780. The owner of a Derby winner some few years back had to receive about 70,000?. from the Ring, and on the settling-day it was in the hands of his bankers, with the exception of very few hundreds. On show and sale days the display of horses was often very fine. The ” Book-making” before the Derby or St. Leger was crowded with peers and plebeians, butchers and brokers, betting-list keepers, insurers, guardsmen and prize-fighters, Manchester manufacturers, Yorkshire farmers, sham captains, ci-devant gentlemen, &c. In ” the Room,” which was regulated by the Jockey Club, was a cartoon of the race-horse ” Eclipse.” We have seen a clever painting, by Aiken, of the borse-auction at Tattersall’s. The lease of the old premises expired in 1865 ; fine fruit had been grown in the gardens, whence were supplied, for many years, the grapes and pines for the Waterloo Banquet, at Apsley House.

In 1864, Tattersall’s was removed to newly-erected premises between the junction of the Brompton and Knightsbridge roads, which is much nearer to the great quarter of fashion and wealth than Hyde Park-corner was at the beginning of the present century. The New Tattersall’s is described at p. 491.

Tattersall’s is the greatest mart for horses in the world. Sales take place here every Monday throughout the year, and in the height of the season on Thursday also. As many as 150 lots have been offered in one day ; the average number 100. The proprietors, the Messrs. Tattersall’s, also sell annually the produce of the Royal Breeding Establishment at Hampton Court Paddocks, and other thoroughbred produce ; also studs of race-horses at York, Doncaster, and Newmarket during the racing season ; and to them are usually entrusted the sale of packs of hounds. The highest price ever paid for a horse at Messrs. Tattersall’s of late years was 3100 gs. for Orlando ; and the highest price for a pack of hounds, the property of G. Osbaldeston, Esq., 3000 gs.

TELEGRAPHS, ELECTRIC.

THE Electric-telegraph system in London has been carried out by the Electric Telegraph Company, at their Central Office in Lothbury, which has thus become the metropolis of stations. Here the whole system was first clearly exhibited ; the Company having purchased all Cooke and Wheatstone’s patents, and adopted their peculiar features, — the suspended conducting wire and the Double Needle Telegraph ; and, in certain cases, Mr. Bain’s chemical Printing Telegraph. The Office is in Founders’ -court, on the north side of the Bank of England ; where anciently dwelt founders ” that cast candlesticks, chafing-dishes, spice-mortars,” &c, and ” turned them bright with the feet, making a loathsome noise, whence the name of loth-berie, or court ” (Stotv) ; all which is strikingly contrasted with the wonder-working silence of the Electric Telegraph operations.

The entrance to the office is bold and picturesque : above the doorway is a balcony ; and between two enriched Ionic pilasters, carrying an arched pediment, is the large transparent dial of an electric clock. You first enter a hall 42 by 32 feet, entirely lighted from the coved roof of plate-glass in panels. At the east and west ends is a screen of two stories j both communicating with the apartments in which are the electric-telegraph machines, and the two ends are connected by side- galleries, there being thus two railed stories or galleries throughout the hall ; at each end, below, are counters, where clerks, who receive the messages, enter them, and pass them to another set of clerks, who transmit them to those employed at the machines above by lifts or small trays, working by cords in square tubes, — a lift and bell to each desk.

Behind the counter is the ” translating office,” where all messages are transferred into the abbreviated code arranged by the Company. Such messages as descriptions of persons suspected of dishonesty are not translated, but sent in full : only the lists of prices in corn, share, and other markets are so abbreviated.

Several wires are laid to each terminus, lest any of them become defective, when the connexion can be carried on by other wires, as the expense of taking up the pavement would be enormous for so slight a cause. The wires are of copper, and are covered with gutta-percha, India-rubber, or some resinous substances, which, being non-conductors, prevent the escape of the electricity. The wires from the several railway termini are brought through iron pipes laid down under the pavement of the streets ; and meeting in Founders’-court, are continued through the south wall of the basement of the station, and descending into the ” test-box,” are fastened there to pegs fitted into the back of the box. At the bottom run a corresponding number of ” house-wires,” and these go to the machines in the galleries. Connexion is maintained between the line and house-wires by small wires running perpendicularly from one to the other. All the wires are numbered at the desks to correspond from batteries to machines, and from machines to the test-box, that the electric circle may thus be complete. In the galleries the wires are carried along the ceilings from the respective machines to the battery-chambers and the test-box ; the battery-wires running east and west, and the house-wires to test-box north and south. Several long and narrow chambers are devoted to the batteries, which are so numbered and arranged in reference to the wires, that any defect can be immediately rectified. Each railway has a division to itself, and thus all risk of confusion is avoided. The communications are spelt through letter by letter, and each word is verified by the receiver to the sender as the message proceeds.

In 1851, the Admiralty Semaphores were removed, and the Electric Telegraph substituted for them. By this means, despatches can be sent off and received by night or day, and in any kind of weather ; whereas, the Semaphores could only work by day, and that in fine weather : this was a great inconvenience to Government, especially the naval department, which had only one line, from the Admiralty, Whitehall, to Portsmouth ; whilst now, orders can be transmitted in a moment to the royal arsenals. In 1851, the Needle Telegraph of Wheatstone was carried round the Great Exhibition Building in Hyde Park, and thence to the Police Station, Great Scotland-yard, Whitehall. And in 1852, the exact Greenwich time was first conveyed by the Electric Telegraph to various parts of England.

Besides the private message department, there is a general intelligence office, in which the news published in the morning journals is condensed and transmitted to the Exchanges of Liverpool, Bristol, Manchester, Glasgow, and other chief provincial centres of business. During the day the London and other news is collected, condensed, and transmitted to the offices of upwards of 400 provincial papers, which thus receive, during the night before their publication, the most recent intelligence of every sort received by telegraph from all parts of Europe, besides the current news of the United Kingdom to the latest moment.

There are also curious special arrangements : thus, a wire is exclusively appropriated to communications between the Octagon Hall of the Houses of Parliament and the telegraphic station in St. James’s-street, the centre of the West-end clubs. This is a call-wire for Members. The Company employ reporters during the sitting of Parliament to make an abstract of the business of the two Houses as it proceeds; this is forwarded, at very short intervals, to the office in St. James’s-street, where it is set up and printed ; and this flying-sheet is sent to the principal clubs and to the Royal Italian Opera. The Government wires go from Somerset House to the Admiralty, and thence, in one direction, to Portsmouth and Plymouth by the South Western and Great Western Railways; and in the other to the naval establishments at Deptford, Woolwich, Chatham, Sheerness, and to the Cinque Ports of Deal and Dover.

They are worked by a staff provided by the telegraph companies, and the more important messages are usually sent in cipher, the meaning of which is unknown even to the telegraphic clerks employed in
transmitting it. In addition to the wires already spoken of, street branches run from Buckingham Palace to Scotland-yard (the head police-office), to the station at Charing Cross, and thence to the City; whilst the Post-office, Lloyd’s, Capel-court, and the Corn Exchange communicate directly with the central offices. — Abridged from Larduer’s Electric Telegraph, by Bright, 1867.

” The Nerves of London” is Wheatstone’s system of wires which may be seen stretching across the sky-line of great thoroughfares, and visibly triangulating the town in every direction ; and along which, by a simplified apparatus, messages are sent at the rate of 100 letters a minute. The system of fine copper is hung on the iron wires, strained from poles from the house-tops. At intervals carefully selected, the area of London is divided by a system of trianguhition, the posts that form the meeting-points of three series of cables becoming the points at which all these wires have to be distributed.

TEMPLE, INNER AND MIDDLE. TEMPLE BAR,

BETWEEN the east end of the Strand and the west end of Fleet-street, divides the City of London from the liberty of Westminster ; or rather, “it opens not immediately into the City itself (which terminated at Ludgate), but into the liberty or freedom thereof” (Hatton, 1708). The original division from the county (hence Shire-lane) was by posts and rails, a chain, and a bar (as at Holborn, Smithfield, and Whitechapel bars) placed across the street, and named from its immediate vicinity to the Temple. The bar gave place to ” a house of timber ” raised across the street, with a narrow gateway underneath, and an entrance on the south side under the house above. At the coronation of Queen Mary, ” the Temple-barre was newly painted and hanged” (Stow). This was taken down after the Great Fire, and it is shown in Hollar’s seven-sheet Map of London ; and in the Bird’s-eye View, about 1601. After the Great Fire, Charles II. insisted upon the citizens taking down the Bar, when
they, pleading their ” weak state and inability,” on account of the great expense of rebuilding public edifices consumed in the Great Fire, the King promised to assist them with funds ; the Corporation undertook the work j the old Bar was accordingly taken down, and the present Bar erected by Sir Christopher Wren, of Portland-stone, but the royal promise was not performed. The Bar basement is rusticated ; it has a large flattened arch in the centre for the carriage-way, and a smaller semicircular arch on each side for foot-passengers. Each facade has four Corinthian pilasters, an entablature, and arched pediment. On the west, in two niches, are statues of Charles I. and Charles II. in Boman costume ; and over the keystone of the centre arch were the royal arms : on the east, in similar niches, are statues of James I. and his queen, Anne of Denmark (often described as Elizabeth) j and over the keystone were the City arms. Inscription :

” Erected in the year 1670, Sir Samuel Starling Mayor; continued in the year 1671, Sir Richard Ford Lord Mayor ; and finished in the year 1672, Sir George Waterman Lord Mayor.”

The upper portion has two bold cartouches, or scrolls, as supporters j but the fruit and flowers sculptured in the pediment, and the supporters of the royal arms, which were placed over the extremities of the posterns (now widened), have disappeared ; the inscription is scarcely legible ; and the stone- work of the whole is weather-worn : in 1852 the Common Council refused to spend 1500Z. to restore the bar as Wren left it. The statues are by John Bushnell, who died in 1701 ; that of Charles I. has lost the baton. A scarce print shows the bar, and the adjoining gabled houses at the commencement of the 18th century. In the centre of each facade is a semicircular-headed window, lighting an apartment now held of the City, at the annual rent of 501., by Messrs. Child, the bankers, as a depository for their account-books. Above the centre of the pediment, upon iron spikes, were formerly placed the heads and limbs of persons executed for treason. The first of these revolting displays was one of the quarters of Sir Thomas Armstrong, implicated in the Bye-House Plot ; and next the quarters of Sir William Perkins and Sir John Friend, and Perkins’s head, who had conspired to assassinate William III.

“April 10, 1696.— A dismal sight, which many pitied. I think there never was such a Temple Bar till now, except in the time of King Charles II., viz. Sir Thomas Armstrong.” — Evelyn’s Diary.

After the Kebellions of 1715 and 1745, the heads of some of the victims were placed upon the Bar ; and in 1723, the head of Counsellor Layer, who had conspired for the restoration of the Pretender ; Layer’s head remained here for 30 years, till blown down in a gale of wind, when it was picked up in the street by an attorney. But the heads last set up here were those of Townley and Fletcher, the rebels, in 1746. Walpole writes, August 16, 1746 : ” I have been this morning at the Tower, and passed under the new heads at Temple Bar, where people make a trade of letting spying-glasses at a halfpenny a look •” and in 1825, a person, aged 87, remembered the above heads being seen with a telescope from Leicester Fields, the ground between which and Temple Bar was then thinly built over. (J. T. Smith.) In 1766 a man was detected discharging musket-balls, from a steel cross-bow, at tbese two heads ; which, however, remained there until March 31, 1772, when one of the heads fell down ; and shortly after, the remaining one was swept down by the wind.* The Bar was painted by Hooker in 1772. The last of the iron poles, or spikes, was not removed from the Bar until the
commencement of the present century. Mr. Rogers, the banker-poet, who died December 18, 1855, remembered “one of the heads of the rebels upon a pole at Temple Bar, a black, shapeless lump. Another pole was bare, the head having dropped.”

The old gates of Temple Bar remain : they are of oak, panelled, and are surmounted by a rudely carved festoon of fruit and flowers. These gates were originally shut at night, and guarded by watchmen ; and in our time they have been closed in cases of apprehended tumult. Upon the visit of the Sovereign to the City, and upon the proclamation of a new Sovereign, or of Peace, it was formerly customary to keep the gates closed, until admission was formally demanded; the gates were then opened; and upon the Royal visit, the Lord Mayor surrendered the City sword to the Sovereign, who re-delivered it to his Lordship.

At Temple Bar the above ceremony was observed when Queen Elizabeth proceeded to St. Paul’s to return thanks for the defeat of the Spanish Armada; when Fairfax and Cromwell and the Parliament went in state to dine with the City ; when Queen Anne went to St. Paul’s to return thanks for the Duke of Marlborough’s victories; when Queen Victoria dined at Guildhall in the year of her accession, 1837; and when her Majesty went to open the New Royal Exchange in 1841; but on the Queen’s visit in 1851, the ceremony at Temple Bar was entirely dispensed with. The custom at the Proclamation of Peace, or the Accession of the Sovereign, had been for a herald, attended by trumpeters, to knock with his baton at the closed gate, when the City Marshal inquired ” Who comes there ?” and the herald having replied, was admitted, and conducted to the Lord Mayor, who directed that the whole of the cavalcade should be admitted ; and the proclamation was read opposite Chancery-lane. Such was the observance upon the accession of George IV., William IV., and Queen Victoria. In 1841 the ceremony consisted merely of closing the gates just before the royal procession reached the Bar, and re-opening them upon the announcement of the Queen’s arrival.

At the funeral of the Duke of Wellington, November 18, 1852, Temple Bar was entirely covered with draperies of black cloth and velvet, and cloth -of-gold ; decorated with the armorial bearings and orders of the Duke in proper colours ; silvered cornices, fringe, urns, and a circle of flambeaux upon the pediment ; the whole presenting an impressive effect of solemn triumph and gloomy grandeur. The Bar was appropriately decorated and illuminated at the marriage of the Prince of Wales and the Princess Alexandra of Denmark, March, 1863.

THAMES EMBANKMENT.

TO the Romans we are indebted for the first embankment of the Thames; and, according to Tacitus, they pressed the Britons into the work. The maintenance and repair of these embankments have been traced to the reign of Edward I. ; but the encroachments of wharfs and other buildings have materially contracted the water-way immediately through the centre of the metropolis ; so that the only relic of the old line is to be seen adjoining Waterloo Bridge. For example : the distance of the river front from Westminster Hall, in an old plan, is 100 feet ; it is now 300 feet. Several plans were proposed for the embankment of the Thames ; some including railways, arcades, terraces, promenades, &c. Tbe portions already embanked are the terraces of the Custom House, Somerset House, the Adelphi, the New Houses of Parliament, Thames Bank ; although, more than a century and a half since, Wren designed ” a commodious quay on the whole bank of the river, from Blackfriars to the Tower.” A showy architectural plan was published by Colonel Trench; and in 1845, John Martin, the painter, designed a railway along both sides of the Thames, with an open walk from Hungerford to the Tower, and from Vauxhall to Deptford. The next portion was the embankment above Vauxhall Bridge, to be continued to Battersea Bridge.

The Embankment, J. W. Bazalgette, engineer, is now in course of construction by the Metropolitan Board of Works, on the north side.

The foundations are laid upon a connected line of iron caissons and concrete, upon which is built the brick granite-faced embankment-wall ; behind which, and underneath the roadway, it is proposed to construet the subways and sewers, an arrangement which will add much to the stability of the embankment wall. The total length of the embankment is about 7000ft., but it is completely divided by the bridges into three sections : the first section from Westminster to Hungerford bridge, the second from Hungerford bridge to Waterloo, and the third from Waterloo to Blackfriars bridge.

At Westminster-bridge the roadway, which rises at an inclination of 1 in 80 to the level of the bridge, is set back some 30 or 40 feet from the face of the embankment-wall, and the intervening space reserved as a promenade and steamboat-pier, having access from the bridge by a wide and imposing flight of steps opposite the Houses of Parliament. Between Westminster and Hungerford bridges will be landing-stairs for smaller craft, and here it is proposed to introduce the beautiful water-gate now situate at the end of Buckingham-street. On either side of Hungerford and Waterloo bridges, will be steam-boat landing-places, massive granite piers with moulded pedestals rising about 30 ft. above the roadway, to be enriched with bas-reliefs and surmounted by groups of statuary. Half way between Hungerford and Waterloo bridges, will be a flight of landing steps 60 ft. wide, projecting into the river, and flanked at each end with massive piers, rising to the level of a few feet above the roadway, and to be surmounted with colossal figures of river deities, or other appropriate groups. The central feature will be an approach for foot-passengers from the high level roadway to the river by a second flight of steps, descending to the level of the lower or embankment roadway. On either side of this approach a line of shops is to be erected on the land side of the embankment roadway, the backs of which would form a retaining wall to the ornamental crescent and promenade above them. Between Waterloo and Blackfriars bridges, and in front of Arundei-street, a steamboat pier will be constructed, in lieu of the present Essex-street pier, designed upon the same principle as those adjoining the bridges. The embankment-wali itself is to be enriched with mouldings of a simple character down to the level of high-water mark, the continuous line of moulding being broken by the introduction, at intervals, of massive blocks of granite to carry ornamental lamps, and by occassional recesses for promenade seats.

The section between Temple Gardens and Blackfriars bridge will be constructed on arches, so as to admit of the passage under it to docks between the roadway and the shore of barges and lighters;
besides a subway for gas and water pipes and electric telegraphs. The embankment will pass by an easy curve to the level of Bridge-street, Blackfriars, where the line of roadway will be continued by the new street to the Mansion House.

The Embankment on the south side, between Westminster bridge and Vauxhall, was commenced in 1865 ; the foreshore of the first section being the site of the new St. Thomas’s Hospital ; the new embankment here redeeming six acres from the Thames. There will also be a new road, 60 feet wide, in the rear of the Hospital, continuing Stangate to Lambeth Palace.

THAMES RIVER, THE.

THE metropolis, extending about 15 miles along the Thames, although occupying little more than one-thirtieth of its entire course, renders it the most important commercial river in the world. The name is inferred to be of British origin : Caesar writes it Tamesis, evidently Tames or Thames with a Latin termination. The river rises in the south-eastern slopes of the Coteswold Hills ; for a short distance it divides Gloucestershire from Wiltshire; next Berkshire from Oxfordshire, and then from Buckinghamshire ; it then divides Surrey and Middlesex, separating the cities of Westminster and London from Lambeth, Southwark, Bermondsey, and Kotherhithe ; thence to its mouth, it divides Kent and Essex, and falls into the sea at the Nore, about 110 miles nearly due east from the source, and about twice that distance measured along the windings of the river. From having no sand-bar at its mouth, it is navigable for sea-vessels to London Bridge, about 45 miles from the Nore, or nearly one-fourth of its entire length ! In its course through the metropolis, it varies from 800 to 1500 feet in breadth ; gradually expanding, as it approaches the Nore, to seven miles broad.

Drayton describes, as renowned for ” ships and swans, Queen Thames.” Cowley thus refers to Old London Bridge impeding the prospect :

“Stopp’d by the houses of that wondrous street,
Which rides o’er the broad river like a fleet.”

“London with Westminster, by reason of the turning of the river, much resembles the shape (including Southwark) of a great ickale: Westminster being the under jaw; St. James’s Park the mouth; the
Pall Mall, &c., northward, the upper jaw: Cock and Pye Fields, or the meeting of the seven streets, the eye; the rest of the City and Southwark to East Smkhfield, the body; and thence eastward to Limehouse, the tail : and ’tis, probably, in as great a proportion the largest of towns, as that is of fishes.” —

Hatton, 1708.

The very bold reach made by the Thames adds greatly to the effect of the prospect ; and by this means, before the addition of the present front of Buckingham Palace, the Sovereign, when seated upon
her throne, commanded a view of the dome of St. Paul’s, and the spires and towers of the City churches.

The Tide ascends about 15 miles above London Bridge to Teddington (Tide-end-town) : here an immense volume of fresh water, derived from the arc of the drainage of the Thames (calculated at 800,000,000 gallons a day, or about 16 square miles, 90 feet deep), flows over Teddington Lock, and mixes with the water below. Even at ebb-tide there are 12 or 13 feet of water in the fair way of the river above Greenwich ; the mean range of the tides at London Bridge is about 17 feet ; of the highest spring-tides about 22 feet. Up to Woolwich the river is navigable for ships of any burden ;
to Blackwall for those of 1400 tons.

Thames Sports and Pageants. — Fitzstephen chronicles the water tournament and quintain. Richard II. was rowed in his tapestried barge, probably the first royal barge upon the Thames : and here the king, seeing the poet Gower, called him on board, and commanded him ” to make a book after his best,” which was the origin of the Confessio Amantis. In the 15th and 16th centuries, and onward to very recent days, each palace on the north bank of the Thames had its water-gate, and its retinue of barge and wherries. The Thames was the royal road from Westminster and Whitehall to the Tower, and from thence to Greenwich. State prisoners were conveyed by the Thames to the Traitors’ Gate at the Tower, and the Star-Chamber victims to a similar gate at the Fleet. The landing-places on the Thames appear to have been even less changed than the thoroughfare itself; for in the account of the penance of Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester, in 1440, we find named Temple-bridge stairs), the Old Swan, and Queenhithe ; and in early maps of London, are Broken Wharf, Paul’s Wharf, Essex Stairs, and Whitehall Stairs; all which exist by the same names to the present day. Cardinal Wolsey, when he delivered up York Place, ” took his barge at his privy stairs, and so went by water to Putney,” on his way to Esher. Sir Thomas More kept his great barge at Chelsea, which he gave to Sir Thomas Audley, his successor in the chancellorship, with whom he placed his eight watermen. In the Aqua Triumphalis, in 1662, the City welcomed Charles II. from Hampton Court to Whitehall, the barges of the Twelve Companies being carried as far as Chelsea ; and mostly all ended with a pageant. James II., 1688, embarked at Whitehall : ” I saw him take barge,” says Evelyn ; ” a sad sight.” The last primate who kept his state barge at Lambeth was Archbishop Wake, who died 1737. Early in the 17th century, Howel numbered among the river glories, ” forests of masts which are perpetually upon her ; the variety of smaller wooden bottoms playing up and down ;” and Stow computes that there were in his time 2000. In 1630, the river had its own laureat, John Taylor “the Water-poet,” who thus sings : —

” But, noble Thames, whilst I can hold a pen,
I will divulge thy glory unto men ;
Thou, in the morning, when my coin is scant,
Before the evening doth supply my want.”
Taylor knew Ben Jonson ; and the Water-poet ” probably had the good fortune to ferry Shakspeare from Whitehall to Paris Garden.” — (C Knight.)

The Folly on the Thames was a floating ” musical summer-house” usually moored between Somerset-stairs and the Savoy ; the Queen of William III. once visited it.

The existing sports on the Thames consist of rowing, boat-racing, and yachting, or sailing, throughout the summer and autumn; by clubs, numbering several members of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and London ; the scholars of Westminster, St. Paul’s, and other academic foundations. The match for Dogget’s coat and silver badge is rowed for every 1st of August under the direction of the Fishmongers’ Company, of which Dogget was a member, as described at page 400.

The Thames Watermen formerly had their cant dialect, of which Ned Ward and Tom Brown give specimens ; and the ” Thames ribaldry” (Spectator) has lasted to our time, in which watermen’s disputes have been settled by Joe Hatch, ” the Thames Chancellor.” Strype was told by a member of the Watermen’s Company, that there were in his day, about 110 years ago, 40,000 watermen on the rolls of the Company, and that upon occasion they could furnish 28,000 men for tbe fleet, and that there were then 8000 in service ; but these numbers are questionable.

State Barges. — The first water pageant of the City of London dates from 1454, when John Norman, the Mayor, was rowed to Westminster in his barge ; but the Companies had their barges for water processions half a century before this; and the Grocers’ accounts, temp. Henry VI., mention the hiring of barges to attend the Sheriffs’ show by water. Hall chronicles the Mayor and citizens accompanying Anne Boleyn at her coronation, in 1533, from Greenwich to the Tower, in their barges.

The barge was retained in the Lord Mayor’s state until our time, and included the Water-bailiff, one of his lordship’s esquires, with a salary of 500?. a year, a shallop and eight men ; and in the suite were a barge-master, and thirty -two City watermen. The Lord Mayor’s barge was richly carved and gilt, and cost in 1807, 2579£. A few of the City companies maintained their state-barges ” to attend my Lord Mayor :” as the Fishmongers, Vintners, and Dyers, Stationers, Skinners, and Watermen. The Goldsmiths’ Company sold their barge in 1850, and have not replaced it. A capacious barge, built in 1816, named the “Maria Wood” (from the then Lord Mayor’s eldest daughter), cost 5000£. The Queen long maintained her river state ; and one of the royal barges, built more than a century and a quarter since, is a curious craft : the rowers wore scarlet state-liveries. The Lords of the Admiralty had likewise their state barge; and in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries is one of their old massive silver badges. This river-state has, however, been abolished ; and excursions are now made in steamers. The Dyers’ and Vintners’ Companies still keep swans on the river.

State Funerals by the Thames are rare : the remains of Anne of Bohemia, and Henry VII., who died at Richmond, were conveyed with great pomp by the river to Westminster ; and the body of Queen Elizabeth was ” brought by water to Whitehall.”

The remains of Lord Nelson, after lying in state in the Painted Hall of Greenwich Hospital, were conveyed by the Thames* to the Admiralty, Jan. 8, 1806, and next day were deposited in St. Paul’s Cathedral.

The Port of London is described at pp. 685-687.

The Bridges across the Thames at the metropolis are described at pp. 65-75.

The two churches immediately below London bridge attest the occupation of London by the Danes and Northmen : St. Olave’s Southwark, originally dedicated to the Norwegian king, Olaf the Saint ; and
St. Magnus the Martyr, from St. Magnus, a Norwegian jarl, killed in the 12th century in Orkney, where the cathedral in Kirkwall is also dedicated to him.

The Docks (which have cost more than 8,000,000?. in the present century) are described at pp. 309-312.

The earliest Water-supply was derived from the Thames, by direct carriage, or from the bournes or streams which flowed through the town, but are now covered sewers.

The water was laid from these springs in leaden pipes, as early as the reign of Henry III., to Conduits in various parts of the town (see pp. 287-289), whence it was conveyed in buckets and carts : from Tyburn in 1236 ; from Highbury in 1438 ; from Hackney in 1535 ; from Hampstead in 1543 ; and from Hoxton in 1546. Lilly, the astrologer, when a youth, went to the Thames, accompanied at times by City apprentices, to carry water in buckets from the river, for domestic purposes. In 1535, water was brought from six fountains in the town of Tyburn, this being the first instance on record of water being conveyed to the city by means of pipes. In 1581, Peter Morice threw a jet of the Thames over old St. Magnus’ steeple, before which ” no such thing was known in England as this raising of water.” Next year were formed London Bridge Waterworks, described at p. 67. In 1613 was opened the New River (see pp. 609-612), when commenced the modern systems of supply, now executed by eight Companies.

Fish. — Fitzstephen describes the Thames, at London, as ” a fishful river ;” and its fishermen were accustomed to present their tithe of salmon at the high altar of St. Peter, and claim on that occasion the right to sit at the Prior of Westminster’s own table. At this period the river, even below the site of the present London Bridge, abounded with fish. In 1376-77, a law was passed in parliament for the saving of salmon and other fry of fish ; and in 1381-^82, ” swannes” that came through the bridge, or beneath the bridge, were the fees of the Constable of the Tower. Howel says : —

” When the idler was tired of bowls, he had nothing to do but to step down to Queenhithe or the Temple,” and have an afternoon of angling. ” Go to the river : what a pleasure it is to go thereon in the summer time, in boat or barge, or to go a-floundering among the fishermen !”

In the regulations, too, of the ” Committee of Free Fishermen” is a provision that fishermen were not to come nearer London than the Old Swan, on the north bank of the river, and St. Mary Overies, on the south. Pennant describes the catch of lamprey of the greatest importance, immense quantities being exchanged with the Dutch fishermen for other descriptions of fish. Formerly Blackfriars and
Westminster bridges were anglers’ stations ; but the fish disappeared from the Thames At London. Blackwall is, however, still famed for its whitebait (see pp. 57-58), and fish are taken in the docks below London Bridge.

* The Author of this volume, born August 17, 1801, has a distinct recollection of having seen this Funeral Procession upon the Thames from a back window of a house at the south foot of London Bridge.

1749, June 7. — Two of the greatest draughts of salmon were caught in the Thames, below Richmond, that have been known for some years ; one net having thirty fine large salmon in it, and the other twenty-two, which lowered the price of fresh salmon at Billingsgate from Is. to 6d. per lb. — Gentleman’s Magazine.

Strange fish have strayed here. In 1391, a dolphin, ” ten feet in length,” played himself in the Thames at London to the bridge. Evelyn tells of a whale, fifty-eight feet in length, killed between Deptford and Greenwich in 1658 ; and nearer the mouth of the river (at Grays) a whale of the above length was taken in 1809, and another in 1849. ” In 1783, a two-toothed cachalot, 21 ft. long, was taken above London Bridge.”
— Pennant.

The Steam Navigation of the Thames exceeds that of any other river in the world.

The first steam-boat left the Thames, for Richmond, in 1814 ; the next for Gravesend, in 1815 ; and in the same year for Margate. The Gravesend steamers soon superseded the sailing-boats with decks, which, in 1737, had displaced the tilt-boats mentioned temp. Richard II. The Margate steamers, in like manner, superseded the sailing ” hoy.”

The steam traffic attained vast numbers. In the year 1861, 3,207,558 passengers landed and embarked at Old Shades-pier on board the penny boats of the London and Westminster Steamboat Company. This number has, however, been considerably reduced by railway competition.

Water. — In 1858, the water had become very impure by the sewer- water emptying itself into the Thames, and the sulphate of lime in it causing an insufferable stench, the chloride of sodium denoting its origin among the human habitations on the banks of the river ; added to which were the organic matters. Man pours into the Thames the refuse of a hundred towns and villages, besides the washings of manured lands, before it gets to Teddington Lock. The water, already impure, is taken at the rate of 100,000,000 of gallons a day, and after washing London and its inhabitants, inside and out, is again returned to the Thames, bearing with it the vegetable and animal refuse of dwelling-houses, mews, cow and slaughter-houses, and all sorts of manufactories in which organic matters are used. — (Dr. Lankester). In the following year, 1859, the cleansing of the Thames by disinfectants was commenced ; and during the season there were employed about 4281 tons of chalk-lime, 478 tons of chloride of lime, and 56 tons of carbolic acid, at a cost of 17,733/.

Notwithstanding the many early measures to purify the Thames, we read in the London chronicles of frequent and terrible ravages by the Plague, Sweating Sickness, and other disorders. The Thames was then a pure and pleasant stream : still the Plague raged, and carried off thousands, and that at a time when the population of London was probably under 300,000 persons — not many more than the population of St. Pancras at present. This shows that the purity of the Thames alone did not prevent the pestilence.

The Conservancy of the Thames by the Corporation of London dates from 1st Edward IV. j the Mayor acting as bailiff over the waters (in preserving its fisheries and channels), and as meter of marketable commodities — fruit, garden-stuff, salt, and oysters, corn and coal — from Staines to Yantlett Creek (80 miles). The Admiralty also claimed a certain jurisdiction ; and the Corporation of the Trinity House had authority to remove shoals, to regulate lastage and ballastage, to provide lighthouses and beacons, to license pilots, mariners, &c. The powers of the Corporation were
neither large nor well defined, and the result not being satisfactory, a Board of Conservancy was, in 1857, created by Act of Parliament, consisting of 12 members, of whom the City nominated six in addition to the Lord Mayor, who was ex officio chairman ; and the Admiralty, Board of Trade, and Trinity House nominated the other five members.

This Board has greatly improved the river, and done much to develope its capabilities.

Feosts and Peost Faies ox the Thames, see pp. 360-363.

The Isle of Dogs, the horse-shoe curve between Limehouse and Blackwall, is described at p. 475.

THAMES-STREET,

IN Stow’s time called StocJc fishmonger’s Row, extends from Puddle Dock, Blackfriars, to the Tower. The line abounds with archaeological interest.

Upper Thames-steeet. — Fuddle Dock was the wharf of one Puddle, and next Puddle Water, from horses watered there. Ben Jonson calls it ” our Abydos.” Shadwell, in his comedy of Epsom Wells, 1676, has ” the Countess of Puddle Dock,” and Hogarth, in 1732, met ” the Duke of Puddle Dock,” at the Dark-house, Billingsgate.

Upon the site of old Puddle Dock is built the City Flour Mill, by far the largest flour-mill in the world, and a gigantic example of mechanical skill. It is constructed entirely upon piles, and occupies rather more than an acre, or 250 feet long by 60 feet wide. The mill consists of eight stories ; two steam-engines, of the consecutive power of 300 horses, drive 60 pairs of enormous mill-stones, and work the Archimedean screws and buckets, by which the flour is conducted through the different processes.

This mill has stowage for 40,000 quarters of grain ; can prepare 4000 quarters per week, and requires only one-sixth of the number of hands which were employed by the old system.

Castle Baynard Wharf denotes the site of Baynard’s Castle.

Nearly opposite is Adel or Addle Hill, where stood the palace of the Anglo-Saxon kings, erected by Athelstan. Boss-court is so called (says Stow) from a spring-water boss, or mouth, put up by the executors of Sir Richard Whittington. From Lambeth-hill to Queenhithe have been excavated portions of the river-wall mentioned by Fitzstephen. Queenhithe, see p. 704. Oarlick-hill was of old the garlick hithe.

Loiogate, or Lownegate, was named from its steep descent to the river; or from its being the Dowe or Water gate to Watling-street (Maitland) ; near the church of St. Mary Bothaw (destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt), was the mansion of Sir Francis Drake. Here is the City Terminus of the South-Eastern Railway, described under Watling Street.

The Steelyard is named from its having been the place where the King’s steelyard, or beam, was set up for weighing goods imported into London (T. Hudson Turner). See a good account of the Steelyard, with historic details, by T. C. Noble, in the Builder, September 5, 1863.

Coldharbour-lane denotes the site of Coldharbour, a magnificent mansion, 13 Edward II. (Rymer’s Fcedera). It was next the property of Sir John Poultney; in 1397, John Holland, Duke of Exeter, entertained here Richard II.; Henry V. possessed it when Prince of Wales ; Richard III., in 1485, granted it to the College of Heralds ; Henry VIII. exchanged it for Durham House, Strand : it is shown in ruins, in Holland’s View of London after the Great Fire. The etymology of Coldharbour is a qucestio vexata. Sir John Poultney received for his mansion, yearly, a rose at midsummer, whence, or from the wars of York and Lancaster, the estate was named ” the Manor of the Rose.” Upon Laurence Pountney-hill are two elaborately-carved doorways ; and some of the houses have stone-groined vaults. Upon Laurence Pountney-hill lived Dr. William Harvey, with his brothers Daniel and Eliab, merchants; here Harvey made his researches on the circulation of the blood.

In Suffolk-lane is Merchant Taylors’ School (see p. 725).

Old Swan Stairs was a Thames landing-place in the 15th century. Here were the Old Wine Shades, established in 1697, beneath the terrace of the former Fishmongers’ Hall; the present Shades is the house built for Lord Mayor Garratt, who laid the first stone of London Bridge in 1825.

At Old Swan House, facing the river, three successive heads of the mercantile concern served the offices of Sheriff and Lord Mayor ; and it is stated that no such succession in the list of magistrates is to be fouud in the City. Here traded Mr. Richard Thornton, who died June 20, 1865, leaving more than two millions and three quarters of money, which he disposed of as follows :

To his nephew, Mr. Thomas Thornton, the testator left all his freehold, copyhold, and leasehold property for his absolute use. To his sister, 100,00(M.; to his nephew, Mr. William Thornton West, 300.000J. ; to two of his clerks, 20.000Z. each ; to his nurse, for her faithful services and attention to him in his illness, 10002. ; to each of his other domestic servants, 5002. ; to the Leathersellers’ Company, 60001. ; to Christ’s Hospital, 50002. ; and 10,0002. to Hetherington’s Charity for the Blind. To 24 other charities in London, 20001. each; to the schools at Merton, 10,0002.; and to the poor of Merton, 10002.

To the schools at Burton and Thornton, 10,0002. ; and to the poor of Merton, 5001. To Mr. E. N. Lee, one of the executors, the munificent legacy of 400,0002., on condition of his obtaining a licence within twelve months to take and use the surname of “Thornton.” To the wife of another executor, a life interest is devised in the sum of 300,0002. To the Misses Margaret and Eliza Lee, of Ventnor, Isle of Wight, there is a life interest in the sum of 200,0002. There are also liberal bequests to others of the testator’s nephews, nieces, and other persons.

At the upper end of Martin’ s-lane, Cannon-street East, lias been built a Rectory-house, with a handsome campanile, 110 feet high.

Some idea of the ancient commercial wealth of England may be gathered from a glance at the rapid increase of trade from about the middle of the 14th century. Thus, in 136S, Picard, who had been mayor some years before, entertained Edward III. and the Black Prince, the Kings of France, Scotland, and Cyprus, at his own house in the Vintry (Upper Thames-street), and presented them with handsome gifts.

Philpot, an eminent citizen in the reign of Richard II., when the trade of England was greatly annoyed by privateers, hired 1000 armed men and despatched them to sea, where they took 15 Spanish vessels with their prizes: Philpot-Lane, in Lower Thames-street, is “so called of Sir John Philpot (one of this family), ” that dwelt there, and was owner thereof.” — Stow.

The south side of Upper Thames-street is mostly occupied by wharfs, once the site of river-side palaces. In the lanes, upon the north side, are several merchants’ mansions, “which, if not exactly equal to the palaces of stately Venice, might at least vie with many of the hotels of old Paris. Some of these, though the great majority have been broken up into chambers and counting-houses, still remain intact.” — B. D’Israeli.

Upper Thames-street retains some old signs: as, a bas-relief of a Gardener with a spade, 1670; the Doublet (upon iron, once gilt), at Crawshay’s iron-wharf, No. 36 (originally the “Sir John Anvill” of the Spectator, No. 299). Upon Lambeth- hill, over Crane-court, is a crane carved in stone.

Thames-street has long been noted for its cheese-factors’ warehouses : ” Thames-street gives cheeses.” — (Gay’s Trivia.)

Lower Thames-street : Fish-street Hill ; the Monument (see pp. 570-571)

Here was the entrance to Crooked-lane, noted for its old fishing-tackle shops, handy for the anglers at London Bridge. At Pudding-lane (from butchers scalding hog’s puddings there) commenced the Geeat Fire (see pp. 338-340).

In Water-lane was the Old Trinity House, built by Wren ; and at the lower end of the lane was the finely-carved door-headway of the Ship Tavern. The Custom House is described at pp. 305-306.

At the east end of the street, in Stow’s time, were the remains of a stone mansion, Baid to have been the lodging of the Princes of Wales ; hence this part of the street was called Petty Wales. It was also called Galley Quay, from the galleys formerly lading and landing there. Tradesmen’s tokens in the seventeenth century were struck here, and were hence called, vulgo, ” Galley-quay halfpence.”

THAMES TUNNEL,

BRICK arched double roadway, under the Thames, between Wapping and Rotherhithe, is one of the grandest achievements of engineering skill.

In 1799 an attempt was made to construct an archway under the Thames, from Gravesend to Tilbury by Ralph Dodd, engineer; and in 1804 the “Thames Archway Company” commenced a similar work from Rotherhithe to Limehouse, under the direction of Vasey and Trevethick, two Cornish miners; and the horizontal excavation had reached 1040 feet, when the ground broke in, under the pressure of high tides, and the work was abandoned ; 54 engineers declaring it to be impracticable to make a tunnel under the Thames of any useful size for commercial progression.

The Thames Tunnel was planned by M. I. Brunel, in 1823 : among the earliest subscribers to the scheme were the late Duke of Wellington and Dr. Wollaston ; and in 1824 the ” Thames Tunnel Company ” was formed to execute the work. A brickwork cylinder, 50 feet in diameter, 42 feet high, and 3 feet thick, was first commenced by Mr. Brunei at 150 feet from the Rotherhithe side of the river; and on March 2, 1825, a stone with a brass inscription- plate was laid in the brickwork. Upon this cylinder, computed to weigh 1000 tons, was set a powerful steam-engine, by which the earth was raised, and the water was drained from within it ; the shaft was then sunk into the ground en masse, and completed to the depth of 65 feet ; and at the depth of 63 feet the horizontal roadway was commenced, with an excavation larger than the interior of the old House of Commons. The plan of operation had been suggested to Brunei, in 1814, by the bore of the sea-worm, Teredo navalis, in the keel of a ship ; showing how, when the perforation was made by the worm, the sides were secured, and rendered impervious to water, by the insect lining the passage with a calcareous secretion.

With the auger-formed head of the worm in view, Brunel employed a cast-iron ” Shield,” containing 36 frames or cells, in each of which was a miner who cut down the earth ; and a bricklayer simultaneously built up from the back of the cell the brick arch, which was pressed forward by strong screws. Thus were completed, from Jan. 1, 1826, to April 27, 1827, 540 feet of the Tunnel. On May 18 the river burst into the works ; but the opening was soon filled up with bags of clay, the water pumped out of the Tunnel, and the work resumed. At the length of 600 feet, the river again broke in ; six men were drowned ; and the rush of the water carried Mr. Brunel, jun., up the shaft. The Tunnel was again emptied; but the work was now discontinued, for want of funds, for seven years.

Scores of plans were next proposed for its completion, and above 5000Z. were raised by public subscription. By aid of a loan sanctioned by Parliament (mainly through the influence of the Duke of Wellington), the work was resumed, and a new shield constructed, March, 1836, in which year were completed 117 feet; in 1837, only 29 feet; in 1838, 80 feet; in 1839, 194 feet; in 1840 (two months), 76 feet; and by November, 1841, the remaining 60 feet, reaching to the shaft which had been sunk at Wapping. On March 24, 1843, Brunei was knighted by Queen Victoria ; on August 12 he passed through the Tunnel from shore to shore ; and March 25, 1843, it was opened as a public thoroughfare, lighted with gas, to passengers, day and night, at one penny toll; in each passage a carriage-road and footway. The opening was celebrated annually by a Fair held in the Tunnel.

The Tunnel cost about 454,000^. ; to complete the carriage-descents would require 180,000^. ; total, 634,000£. The dangers of the work were many : sometimes portions of the shield broke with the noise of a cannon-shot ; then alarming cries told of some irruption of earth or water ; but the excavators were much more inconvenienced by fire than water ; gas explosions frequently wrapping the place in a sheet of flame, strangely mingling with the water, and rendering the workmen insensible. Yet, with all these perils, but seven lives were lost in making the Thames Tunnel; whereas
nearly forty men were killed during the building of New London Bridge. In 1833 Mr. Brunel submitted to William IV., at St. James’s Palace, ” An Exposition of the Facts and Circumstances relating to the Tunnel;” and Brunei has left a minute record of his great work : it is well described and illustrated in Weale’s Quarterly Papers on Engineering. A Visitor’s Book is kept at the Tunnel, wherein are the signatures of the many illustrious persons who have inspected the works. It was visited by Queen Victoria, July 26, 1843. In 1838 the number of visitors was 23,000 ; in 1839, 34,000. A fine medal was struck at the completion of the work : obv. head of Brunel ; rev. interior and longitudinal section of the Tunnel.

Width of the Tunnel, 35 feet; height, 20 feet; each archway and footpath, clear width, about 14 feet; thickness of earth between the crown of the Tunnel and the bed of the river, about 15 feet. At full tide, the foot of the Tunnel is 75 feet below the surface of the water.

The Tunnel has been paralleled, as an engineering triumph, by Stephenson’s Tubular Railway-bridge.

THEATRES.

ADELPHI THEATRE, No. 411, Strand, was commenced in 1802 by John Scott, a colourman, and opened Nov. 27, 1806, as the Sans Pareil, with musical entertainments, and next year with dramas. In 1820-1 Scott sold the theatre to Rodwell and Jones, who named it the Adelphi ; in 1825 it was sold to Terry and Yates ; and after Terry’s secession, Yates was joined by Charles Mathews the elder, who gave here his later ” At Homes.” The compo front of the theatre was designed by Beazley, in 1840. Yates was succeeded by Webster, with Madame Celeste as directress. One of its chief attractions as the comic humour of John Reeve. The theatre was rebuilt in 1858 upon an enlarged plan, by Wyatt (from the Opera Comique in Paris) for Mr. Webster ; style, Italian ; decoration, French Renaissance ; illuminated by a sunlight.

Astley’s Amphitheatee, Bridge-road, Lambeth, is the fourth theatre erected upon this site. The first was one of the 19 theatres built by Philip Astley, and was opened in 1773, burnt in 1794; rebuilt 1795, burnt 1803; rebuilt 1804, burnt June 8, 1841, within two hours, from the house being principally constructed with old ship-timber.

It was rebuilt, and opened April 17, 1S43, and has since been enlarged. The theatre was built for equestrianism ; and the stud of trained horses usually numbered from 50 to 60. It has since been cleverly remodelled by Mr. Boucicault, for performances of the regular drama.

Philip Astley, originally a cavalry soldier, commenced horsemanship in 1763, in an open field at Lambeth : he built his first theatre partly with 601., the produce of an unowned diamond ring which he found on Westminster Bridge. Andrew Ducrow, subsequently proprietor of the Amphitheatre, was born at the “Nag’s Head,” Borough, in 1793, when his father, Peter Ducrow, a native of Bruges, was ” the Flemish Hercules” at Astley’s. The fire in 1841 arose from ignited wadding, such as caused the destruction of the old Globe Theatre in 1613, and Covent Garden Theatre in 1808. Andrew Ducrow died Jan. 26, 1842, of mental derangement and paralysis, produced by the catastrophe of the burning of his theatre and several favourite horses.

Bankside Theatres. The earliest was the Circus built for bull-baiting and bear-baiting, about 1520, in Paris Garden. In this theatre, plays were also performed temp. James I., when Henslowe and Alleyn were lessees. Nash, in his Strange Netves, 1590, mentions the performance of puppets there ; and Dekker asserts that Ben Jonson had acted there (Satiromastix). Aggas’s Map, drawn about 1560, shows two circi lower down on ” the Bank ;” but still lower were the Globe, the Mope, and the Rose. The Globe was built by agreement, dated Dec. 22, 1593, for Richard Burbage, the famous actor. In 1603 James I. granted a licence to Shakespeare and others to act ” at their now usuall house, called the Globe.” It was of wood, hexagonal in exterior form, and was occupied by Shakspeare as a summer theatre. At Dulwich College, in a paper, occurs ” Mr. Shaksper,” in a list of ” Inhabitants of Sowtherk, Jully, 1596 ;” he was assessed in the liberty of the Clink in 1609, though his occupation as an actor at the Globe did not continue after 1604:* his brother, Edmond Shakspeare, was buried in St. Saviour’s church, 1607. The Globe was destroyed by fire June 29, 1613, when Ben Jonson was present ; it was rebuilt in 1614, but is not mentioned after 1648 : it was built on the site of Globe-alley, which led from Maid-lane to ” the Bank,” and is now included in the premises of Barclay and Perkins’s Brewery (see the Map in Strype’s Stow, 1720). The Hope, used both for bear-baiting and as a playhouse, was situated near the Rose : in 1614 Ben Jonson’s Bartholomew Fair was first acted here ; later it was used for prize-fighting, and in 1632 again for bear-baiting. The Hose, probably the oldest theatre upon Bankside, except Paris Garden (Collier), was built long before 1597: it was held for some years by Philip Henslowe, afterwards Alleyn’s partner ; it occupied the site of Rose-alley, west of Globe-alley (see Strype’s Map). The Swan was in repute anterior to 1598. Both the Rose and Swan, after 1620, were only occupied occasionally by gladiators and fencers; and about 1648 all theatres were suppressed. (See the Antwerp View of London.)

Blackfriars Theatre was built in 1575, upon part of the site of the monastery of Blackfriars, between Apothecaries’ Hall and Printing-house-square, and upon Playhouse-yard. The first proprietors were James Burbage and his fellows, who, with other players, had been ejected from the City by an act of Common Council : it was a winter theatre, arranged like an inn-yard (the earliest theatre), but with a roof over it. Shakspeare was a sharer in the Blackfriars playhouse in 1589 ; it was rebuilt in 1596 ; and was leased by Edward Alleyn in 1618 (see his Diary, at Dulwich College).

It was taken down in 1655 (Collier’s Life of Shakspeare), and dwelling-houses were built upon the ground (see Blackfriaes, p. 56.)

Britannia Theatre, High-street, Hoxton, was commenced building soon after the destruction by fire, of the Rosemary Branch Equestrian Theatre, Islington Fields, July 27, 1853 when seven horses and eleven dogs were burnt. The Britannia (Finch and Paraire, architects), is provided with promenades and refreshment saloons. The auditory is very spacious, and elegantly decorated. The pit is nearly 80 feet wide and 60 feet deep. The stage is 76 feet wide by 50 feet deep ; opening at proscenium 34 feet wide by 37 feet high. The house is effectively ventilated by openings left in ornamental portions of the ceiling, in immediate communication with the internal area of the roof, and thence with the open air, by means of louvres extending from one extremity of the building to the other. The provisions against fire are well planned, and the extent of the theatre is considerable.

Brunswick Theatee was built upon the site of the Royalty Theatre, within seven months, by Stedman Whitwell, C.E. The facade resembled that of San Carlos

The Globe Theatre stood upon a spot of ground now occupied by four houses contiguous to the present Globe-alley, Maid-lane.— (Mirror, March 31, 1832). We remember a large tavern, the Globe, ia

Chaingate, destroyed by fire about 1812. Pennant, was told that the door of the Globe Theatre was very lately (1790) standing.— See Knight’s Stratford Shakspeare, vol. i. 1854. at Naples. It was opened Feb. 25, 1828 ; but witbin tbree nigbts, on Feb. 28, during a day rehearsal, tbe whole tbeatre fell to the ground, and killed ten persons, among whom was a proprietor, D. S. Maurice, the tasteful printer, of Fenchurch-street.

The catastrophe was caused by the unsafe iron roof and the great weights attached to it : the fall of the theatre was well described at the time by one of the company.

City of London Theatre, 36, Norton Folgate, was built 1837, for Mrs. Honey, the pretty actress, and first called the Norton Folgate-street Theatre.

City Theatre, Milton-street (Grub-street), was opened about 1830, with operatic performances. ” A new theatre has here arisen, where boards have been graced with a Tree and an Ayton ; and within these few months, its boxes have been graced with the presence of my Lords Brougham and Grey.” — (Mirror, Nov. 19, 1831.) The theatrical concern did not succeed, and the premises next became a chapel.

Cockpit or Phoenix Theatre (from its sign), Drury-lane, occupied the site of Cockpit-alley, now Pitt-place, opposite the Castle Tavern, St. Giles’s-in-the-Fields. It was altered from a cockpit, and when a theatre it was twice nearly destroyed by the London apprentices ; and was pulled down in 1649 by soldiers, instigated by sectarian bigots. At the Restoration, Rhodes, a bookseller, rebuilt the theatre, but soon vacated it ; and Sir W. Davenant, with Betterton and Kynaston in his company, performed here till 1662, when they removed to Portugal-row (see p. 687). At the Cockpit was performed the first play in print, The Wedding, by Shirley, printed in 1629, and expressly said to have been acted at Drury-lane.

Covent Garden Theatee, Bow-street, is the third theatre built here. The first theatre was built upon part of the Convent site, by Shepherd, architect of Goodman’s Fields Theatre. Covent Garden was opened Dec. 7, 1732, by Rich, the celebrated harlequin ; and Hogarth’s caricature of ” Rich’s Glory, on his Triumphant Entry into Covent Garden,” refers to his removal here : it shows one entrance, a magnificent Ionic archway, at the end of the eastern arcade of the Piazza. Here the Beefsteak Society was formed in 1735, by Rich, and Lambert the scene-painter. In 1746 Garrick played here for the season. In 1803 John Kemble became a proprietor and stage-manager.

On Sept. 20, 1808, the theatre was burned to the ground, and twenty persons killed in the ruins. It was rebuilt by R. Smirke, R.A. The first stone was laid by the Prince of “Wales, Dec. 31, 1808; and the theatre was opened Sept. 18, 1809, when the ” new prices ” caused the O. P. (old prices) riot of seventy-seven nights, since which ” a London audience has been found more captious than they previously had been” (C. Dibdin). In 1817 John Kemble here took leave of the public; and in 1840 retired his brother, Charles Kemble. The theatre was subsequently leased to Mr. C. Mathews and Madame Vestris, and Mr. Macready. In 1843-45 it was let to the Anti-Corn-Law League, who held a bazaar here in 1845 (see p. 42). In 1847 the auditory was entirely reconstructed, at a cost of 40,000£., by Albano, and opened as an Italian Opera House April 6. The exterior retained Smirke’s Grecian-Doric portico, copied from the Temple of Minerva at Athens ; statues of Tragedy and Comedy ; and two panels of bas-relief figures, by Flaxman.

The northern panel has figures of JEschylus, Aristophanes, and Mseander; Thalia, Polyhymnia, Euterpe, and Clio ; Minerva and Bacchus ; Melpomene, two Furies, and Apollo. In the southern panel are figures of Shakspeare summoning Caliban, Ferdinand, Miranda, Prospero, and Ariel ; Hecate and Lady Macbeth. Also Milton, with Urania and Samson Agonistes, an incident from Comus, &c.

This theatre was destroyed by fire, March 5, 1856, at the close of a masked ball.

The ruins lay uncleared for nearly fifteen months. The facade was saved, and Flaxman’s statues and bas-reliefs were adapted in the design for a new theatre, by E. M. Barry, which was opened as an Italian Opera House, in 1858. It is externally nearly 100 feet high by 120 feet broad, and 240 feet long, has a grand Corinthian portico, facing Bow-street, about one-fifth larger than the late theatre, and the same size as the celebrated La Scala of Milan, hitherto the largest theatre in the world.

The interior decorations are white and gold, and pale azure. Adjoining the theatre is the Floral Hall, of ” Crystal Palace” design. (See Royal Italian Opeea, p. 789.)

First Appearances.— Inclcdon, the singer, 1790; Charles Kemble, 1794; Mrs. Glover, 1797; G. F. Cooke (Richard III.), Oct, 31, 1800; Miss Stephens (Countess of Essex), 1812; Miss O’Neill (Lady
ISeecher), 1814; Macready, 1816; W.Farren, 1818; Fanny Kemble, 1829; Adelaide Kemble, 1841. Here Edmund Kean last acted, 1833.

Curtain Theatre (The), Holywell, is mentioned in 1577. Stow, speaking of the priory of St. John Baptist, says : ” Near thereunto are huilded two publique houses for the acting and showe of comedies, tragedies, and histories for recreation; whereof the one is called The Courtein, the other The Theatre, hoth standing on the southwest side, towards the field ” {Stow, 1st edit. 1599).

Both theatres are mentioned in Northbrook’s Treatise against Diceing, Dancing, Vain Plays or Interludes, 1577 ; by Stubbes in bis Anatomie of Abuses, 1583 ; in a black-letter ballad, in the Pepysian collection, occurs ” the Curtain at Holywell ;” and in an epigram by Heatb, 1610.

Sir H. Herbert’s office-book shows that in 1622 the Curtain was occupied by the servants of Prince Charles. Aubrey (1678) describes it as “a kind of nursery or obscure playhouse, called the Greene Curtain, situate in the suburbs towards Shoreditch.” After it was abandoned as a playhouse, prize-fighters exbibited here. Sir Henry Ellis (Hist. Shoreditch, 1798) quotes from the parish books several entries of the marriage, burial, &c, of players. Maitland (Hist. London, 1772) mentions some remains of the Curtain standing at or near his time. It is said to have occupied the site of the curtain close of the priory, and is conjectured to have been named from its being the first theatre to adopt that necessary appendage of the stage, the curtain.

The name survives in Curtain-road.

Drury-lane Theatre, between Drury-lane and Brydges-street, forms the east side of Little Russell-street. The first theatre here was built precisely upon this site for Thomas Killigrew, and opened April 8, 1663 ; the company being called ” the King’s Servants,” as Davenant’s were ” the Duke’s Servants,” both under patents granted by Charles II. in 1660. Drury-lane, ” the King’s Theatre,” had the chief entrance in Little Russell-street. Pepys’s Diary records many of his visits to ” the King’s House,” and other London theatres, from 1660-1670. ” The King’s House ” was burnt down Jan. 1671-72. It was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, and opened March 26, 1674, with a prologue and epilogue by Dryden. Mr. Collier has printed in the Shakspeare Society’s Papers, vol. iv. p. 147, an indenture showing Dryden to have been joined with Killigrew, Hart, Mohun, and others, in the speculation of this ” new playhouse.” In 1682 the King’s and Duke’s companies played here together.

Rich, Steele, Dogget, Wilks, Cibber, and Booth were successively patentees; and Garrick in 1747, when he opened the theatre, Sept. 15, with the well-known prologue written by Dr. Johnson, and commenced the revival of Shakspeare’s plays. On June 10, 1776, Garrick here took leave of the stage. Sheridan then became part-proprietor; and, in 1788, John Kemble manager. In 1791 the old theatre was taken down, rebuilt by Holland, and the new theatre opened March 12, 1794.

It was called by Mrs. Siddons ” The Wilderness.” The opening for the curtain was 43 feet wide and 38 feet high, or nearly seven times the height of the performers. There were seats for 3600 persons ; but upwards of 5000 persons are known to have been squeezed into this theatre.

It was burnt down Feb. 24, 1809. The present house, built by B. Wyatt, from the plan of the great Bordeaux theatre, was opened Oct. 12, 1812, with a prologue by Lord Byron. In 1818 the theatre was let, at 10,200Z. per annum, to Elliston, for whom Beazley reduced the auditory, added the Doric portico in Brydges-street, and the cast-iron colonnade in Little Russell-street in 1831. In the hall is a cast of Scheemakers’s statue of Shakspeare, and a statue of Edmund Kean by S. Joseph. The staircases and rotunda are magnificent, and the interior circular roof of the auditory is geometrically fine.

First Appearances. — Nell Gwynne, at “the King’s House,” 1666; Barton Booth, 1701 ; Mrs. Siddons, 1775; John P. Kemble, 1783; Harriet Mellon (Duchess of St. Albans), 1795; Edmund Kean, 1814. Here
Macready took leave of the stage, Feb. 26, 1851.

The first Drury-lane Theatre was sometimes called Covent Garden Theatre; and the late Mr. Richardson, the Coffee-house keeper, possessed a ticket inscribed, “For the Music at the Playhouse in Covent Garden, Tuesday, March 6, 1704.” — J. T. Smith.

Dorset-gardens Theatre was built at the extremity of Salisbury-court, Fleet-street, and had a handsome front and flight of stairs to the Thames. It was opened in 1671, under the management of Lady Davenant. Dryden, in his prologue to Marriage a-la-lfode, 1672, leaves contemptuously to the citizens ” the gay shows and gaudy scenes ” of Dorset-gardens. Here Shadwell’s operatic version of Shakspeare’s Tempest was produced with great splendour in 1673. After 1697 the theatre was let to wrestlers and fencers, but was taken down about 1720, and the site is now occupied by the City Gas-works. The theatre was designed hy Wren, and the sculpture by Gibbons, included figures of Comedy and Tragedy surmounting the balustrade.

Duke’s Theatre, “the Opera,” Lincoln’s-inn-fields. (See Portugal-street,p.6S7.)

Here, May 10, 1735, Macklin killed his brother-actor Hallam, by accident, in a quarrel.

Effingham Theatee (modern), in the rear of the Earl of Effingham Tavern, 235, Whitechapel-road, was, in part, taken down in 1867, and rebuilt to hold 4000 persons.

Fortune Theatre — named from its sign, ” The picture of Dame Fortune Before the Fortune playhouse” (Heywood) — was built for Philip Henslowe and William Alleyn, in 1599-1600, on the east side of
Golding-lane, without Cripplegate. It cost 1320?., and was opened May, 1601. It was a square timber and lath-and-plaster building, and was burnt Dec. 9, 1621 (Alleyn’s Diary) ; but was rebuilt on a circular plan, of brick, and tiled. The interior was burnt in 1649 — Prynne says by accident, but it was fired by sectarians. In the Mercurius Politicus, Feb. 14-21, 1661, the building, with the ground belonging, were advertised ” to be lett to be built upon •” and it is described as standing between ” Whitecross-street and Golen-lane,” the avenue now Playhouse-yard.

Garrick Theatre, Leman-street, Goodman’s Fields, was built in 1830, and named from its proximity to the scene of Garrick’s early fame. The theatre was burnt down November 4, 1846, when it belonged to Messrs. Conquest and Gomersall, the latter remembered for his impersonation of Napoleon Bonaparte. The theatre has been rebuilt.

Gibbon’s-court Theatre, Clare Market. (See p. 558.)

Goodman’s Fields Theatre was first opened as a silk-throwster’s shop, in 1729, by Thomas Odell, and was rebuilt by Henry Giflard ; both of whom were, however, compelled to close the theatre by the puritanical clamour raised against it. Giff.ird returned to Goodman’s Fields in 1737 ; and here, Oct. 19, 1741, David Garrick first appeared in London as Richard III. He drew an audience of the nobility and gentry, whose carriages filled the whole space from Temple Bar to Whitechapel. Gray, in a letter to Chute, writing respecting these performances, says, ” Did I tell you about Mr. Garrick, that the town are horn mad after ? There are a dozen dukes of a night in Goodman’s Fields sometimes.” The theatre was taken down about 1746. Garrick’s first appearance here arose from the proprietor being also manager of the Ipswich company, in which Garrick first appeared on the stage.

Grecian Theatre, adjoining the garden of the Eagle Tavern, City-road, was built by Thomas Rouse for regular dramatic entertainments. The establishment has been enlarged and improved by Mr. Conquest, the present proprietor : it has a spacious ball-room, elegantly decorated, open without extra charge ; and the garden is illuminated in the Vauxhall taste, with the advantages of gas-lighting, open-air orchestra, lights among the shrubs, &c.

Haymarket Theatre, the ” Little Theatre,” was originally built by one Potter, and opened Dec. 29, 1720, by “the French comedians:” it was first called “the New French Theatre.” In 1723 it was occupied by English actors ; 1726, Italian operas, rope-dancing, and tumblers, by subscription ; in 1727 the Beggar’s Opera was produced here ; 1731, gladiators and backswordsmen ; 1732, English opera upon the Italian model ; 1734-5, Fielding opened the theatre with ” the Great Mogul’s Company of Comedians,” for whom he wrote his Pasquin, the satire of which upon the Walpole administration gave rise to the Licensing Act (10th of Geo. II. cap. 28). In 1738 a French company reopened the theatre, but were driven from the stage the first night. In 1741, English operas were played here ; 1744, Samuel Foote first appeared here as Othello; 1747, Foote became manager, and continued so for thirty years, commencing with his own Entertainments. Jan. 16, 1748-9, the Bottle Conjuror hoax and riot. 1762, the Haymarket was established as a regular summer theatre.

1777, it became a Theatre Royal, when Foote sold his interest to George Colman for a life annuity of 1600?., and Foote died in the following October. In the green-room is a gilt clock, which belonged to Foote. Colman died in 1795, and was succeeded by his son, George Colman the younger, licenser of plays. Feb. 3, 1794, sixteen persons were trodden to death, or suffocated, in attempting to gain admission on a royal visit.

The ” Little Theatre ” was taken down in 1820 ; the present theatre was built, at a few feet distant, with a lofty Corinthian portico, by Nash, and opened July 14, 1821 : here was produced Paul Pry, with Liston, in 1825. In 1853, Mr. B. WelJster concluded here a lesseeship of 16 years ; the theatre was then let to Mr. Buckstone, who has rendered the Haymarket famous for its excellent performance of the legitimate drama ; and this while one of our great national theatres was devoted to Italian opera.

First Appearances. — Henderson, Bannister, Mathews, Elliston, Liston, and Young; Miss Fenton (Duchess of Bolton), Miss Farren (Countess of Derby) ; Edmund Kean, in ” little business,” 1806 ; Miss Paton (Lady W. Lennox). Here Macready gave his final performances.

Holborn Amphitheatre occupies the site of the Metropolitan Horse Bazaar, opposite the Inns of Court Hotel. Its length is 130 feet, width 68 feet from box to box. The private boxes form a semicircle in front of the house, a row of stalls, called the “Grand Balcony,” being ranged immediately before them on the same tier.

Above them is a gallery called the Amphitheatre. The performances are chiefly equestrian, and the ring is surrounded by pit-stalls.

Holboln Theatre, built 1866, nearly upon the site of Warwick House. (See p. 431.)

St. James’s Theatee, King-street, St. James’s, was designed by Beazley, for John Brabant, the singer, and cost 50,000/., independently of the site, which cost 8000/.

The facade is Roman, of the Middle Ages ; and the interior, by Crace, originally resembled the theatre of the Palace of Versailles. The St. James’s Theatre was opened in 1S35 ; and next year was produced here an operatic burletta written by Charles Dickens, the music by John Hullah. Here French plays are occasionally performed.

Lyceum Theatee, Wellington-street, Strand, was originally built by James Payne, architect, in 1765, as an academy (or lyceum) for a society of artists ; of whom, on the re-establishment of the Royal Academy, Garrick ’ bought the lease of the premises, to prevent their becoming a theatre. They were next purchased by Mr. Lingham, a breeches maker, in the Strand, and opened about 1790 for musical performances j in 1794 or 1795 Lingham leased the adjoining ground to Dr. Arnold, who built here a theatre, the licence for which was suppressed, and it was let for music, dancing, and horsemanship, exhibition of paintings, &c. : a foreigner gained a large fortune by showing here the first phantasmagoria seen in England; and here, in 1803-4, Winsor exhibited his experimental gas-lighting. In 1809, the theatre was enlarged by Mr. S. A. Arnold, and opened as the English Opera-house : it was rebuilt, in 1816, by Beazley ; was destroyed by fire, Feb. 16, 1830 j and again rebuilt by Beazley somewhat further west, the site of the former theatre being included in Wellington-street, then formed from the Strand northward. The new theatre cost 35,000/. ; it has an elegant Corinthian portico : it was opened with English opera, July 14, 1834 ; and was re-decorated in rich Italian taste, for Madame Vestris, in 1847. Here were given the best performances of the Keeleys; and the admirable Shakesperean and melodramatic impersonations of Mr. Charles Fechter.

Marionette Theatre, Adelaide-street, Strand, was originally the Adelaide Gallery, and was altered for the clever performances of Marionettes, or puppets, in 1852.

Marylebone Theatee, Church-street, Paddington, was built and opened in 1842, as ” a penny theatre :” it was enlarged in 1854, to hold 1200 persons.

Milton-steeet Theatre, see Grub-street, p. 782.

Newington Butts : here was a theatre built before the Globe at Bankside : it is mentioned in the Diary of Philip Henslowe, which shows that from June, 1594, the performances were jointly by the Lord Admiral’s men and the Lord Chamberlain’s men : here were acted Titus Andronicus, Samlet, and the Taming of a Shrew.

Nursery (the), in Golding-lane, was built by a patent of Charles II. as a school for the education of children for the stage :

“Near these a Nursery erects its head,
Where queens are formed, and future heroes bred,
Where unfledged actors learn to laugh and cry,
Where infant punks their tender voices try,
And little Maximins the gods defy.” — Dryden’s Mac Flecknoe.

Bayes, in the Rehearsal, speaks of ” the service of the Nursery ;” and Pepys first went there 24th Feb. 1667-8. The house, with the royal arms and a figure of Charity, in plaster, on the front, existed to our time, and has been erroneously described as the Fortune Theatre. There was a similar Nursery in Hatton-garden, at which Joe Haynes, the dancer, performed.

Olympic Theatbe, Wych-street, was originally erected by Philip Astley, upon the site of old Craven House, and was opened with horsemanship, Sept. 18, 1806; it was principally built with the timbers of La Ville de Paris, the ship in which William IV. served as midshipman; these materials were given to Astley, with a chandelier, by George III. The theatre was leased in 1813 to Elliston, who removed thence to Drury-lane ; and subsequently to Madame Vestris, before she became lessee of Covent-garden ; both which changes were ruinous. The Olympic Theatre was destroyed by fire, within an hour, March 29, 1849 : it was rebuilt the same year, and opened Dec. 26. Here William Farren was sometime lessee.

First and last at the Olympic Theatre have appeared Elliston and Mrs. Edwin ; Oxberry and Power; Keeley and Fitzwilliam ; Charles Kean and Ellen Tree ; Madame Vestris, Mrs. Nesbitt (Lady Boothby),
Mrs. Keeley, and William Farren ; Charles Mathews first appeared here ; and Miss Foote (Countess of Harrington), Mrs. Orger, and Liston, last played here. In Craven-buildings, adjoining the theatre,
have resided “three favourite actresses, from the time of Dryden to our own — Mrs. Bracegirdle, Mrs. Pritchard, and Madame Vestris.”

Pantheon Theatbe, Oxford-street (see p. 639).

Pavilion Theatee, Whitechapel, one of the largest theatres in the metropolis, covers nearly an acre of ground : it is nearly 60 feet high, yet has but two tiers of boxes and one gallery ; depth and width, nearly 50 feet each ; decorations, dead- white, gold, and crimson.

Peincess’s Theatee, Oxford- street, originally built as the Queen’s Bazaar (see p. 41), was designed by Nelson, and opened Sept. 30, 1841, with promenade concerts. It cost 47,000Z. ; but the unique character of its Renaissance decoration, by Crace, has been spoiled : originally it consisted entirely of four tiers of boxes. This theatre, under the management of Mr. Charles Kean, became famous for his reproduction of Shakspeare’s historic plays, excellently acted, with scenic accessories hitherto unprecedented.

For these efforts to improve the tone, and elevate the character of our stage, Mr. Charles Kean was, in 1862, presented with a costly service of plate, by public subscription.

Queen’s Theatee (now the Pkince of Wales’s) Tottenham-street, Tottenham-court-road, was originally Francis Pasquali’s Concert-room, enlarged for the Concerts of Ancient Music by Novosielski, who built here a superb box for George III. and Queen Charlotte (Dr. Bimbault, Notes and Queries, No. 10). In 1802 Colonel Greville fitted it up for the performances of the ” Pic-nic Society,” a body of distinguished amateurs, whose celebrity rendered them objects of alarm to the professional actors of the day, and exposed them to the attacks of the caricaturist Gilray. In 1808 it was an equestrian establishment under the management of Saunders. Two years afterwards it was opened as a theatre, but Mr. Paul, the first manager, proved unsuccessful. About 1821, it passed into the hands of Mr. Brunton, whose daughter, afterwards so justly celebrated as Mrs. Yates, was one of its chief attractions. In the first bill issued by Mr. Paul, the first theatrical lessee, it is simply called the ” New Theatre, King’s Ancient Concert Rooms, Tottenham-street.” Afterwards it became the Regency, the Theatre of Variety, and the West London ; and on the accession of William IV. was designated the Queen’s, in compliment to Queen Adelaide. An attempt to render the theatre a sort of English opera-house was made in 1831 by Mr. Macfarren (father of the popular composer), and in 1833 it acquired a temporary brilliancy under the new name of the Fitzroy. Here the burlesques, chiefly written by Mr. Gilbert a, Beckett, gained considerable fame in their day ; and still more celebrated were Mr. H. Mayhew’s Wandering Minstrel, and his local drama of the Field of Forty Footsteps.

Here French plays were first performed after the Peace of 1815. Frederick Lemaitre appeared ; Mademoiselle George played in Voltaire’s tragedy Merope ; and M. Laporte, afterwards manager of Covent-garden and Her Majesty’s Theatres, was a principal comedian. In 1835 it was reopened by Mrs. Nesbitt, who formed a really powerful company, comprising the most noted comic performers of the time, and revived the name of the ” Queen’s.” It received its present designation under the management of Miss Marie Wilton. Here Young, the tragedian, first appeared on the stage, in 1807, at a private performance.

Queen’s Theatre, formerly St. Martin’s Hall, Long Acre, opened 1867.

Red Bull Theatre (the), upon the site of Red Bull-yard, St. John-street, Clerkenwell, was originally an inn-yard, but rebuilt about 1633 : here the King’s Company, under Killigrew, acted until Drury-lane was ready for them. During the Interregnum, “Drolls” were performed here, and afterwards published by Kirkman, one of the players, with a frontispiece of the interior of the theatre. (See Cleekenwell, p. 236.)

There is a well-compiled account of the Red Bull Theatre in Pinks’s History of Clerkenwell, pp. 190-196.

Sir William Davenant, to whom Charles I. granted a patent in 1639, continued recreation and music, after the manner of the ancients, at Rutland House, Bridgewater-square, and subsequently at the Cockpit, till the Restoration, when the few players who had not fallen in the wars or died of poverty assembled under Davenant at the Red Bull : the actors’ clothes were ” very poore, and the actors but common fellows.”— Pepys, 1661.

Royalty Theatre, Well-street, Wellclose-square (named from Goodman’s Field Wells, 1735), was built by subscription, and opened in 1787, when John Braham first appeared on the stage, as Cupid, and John Palmer was manager ; Lee Lewis, Bates, Holland, and Mrs. Gibbs, were also of the company. It was purchased about 1820 by Mr. Peter Moore, M.P. ; was burnt down April 11, 1826 j and upon the site was erected the Brunswick Theatre, noticed at p. 781.

Sadler’s Wells, the oldest theatre in London, is on the S.W. side of Islington, and named in part from a mineral spring, which was superstitiously dispensed by the monks of the Priory of St. John of Jerusalem, probably from the time of Henry I. or Stephen. In the reign of Charles II., one Sadler built here a music-house, and in 1683 re-discovered in the garden the well of ” excellent steel waters,” which in 1684 was visited and drunk by hundreds of persons every morning. Evelyn, on June 11, 1686, went to ” the New Spa Well, near Myddelton’s receptacle of water at the New River.” The entertainments were rope-dancing, tumbling, and gluttonous feats. The well, ceasing to attract, was covered over ; and in 1764 the old music-house (engraved in the Mirror, No. 971) was taken down, and the present theatre built by Rosoman.

King (of Drury-lane) was long a partner and stage-manager j and Charles Dibdin and his sons, Thomas and Charles, were proprietors. Grimaldi, father, son, and grandson, were famous clowns at this theatre ; and Belzoni was a posture-master here before he travelled to the East. In 1804 the New River water was introduced in a tank under the stage, where also is a mineral well ; but the old well is between the stage-door and the New River. Wine was sold and drunk on the premises until 1807 : under the old regulation, ” for an additional sixpence, every spectator was allowed a pint of either port, Lisbon, mountain, or punch.” But the more honourable distinction of Sadler’s Wells Theatre is its admirable representations of Elizabethan plays, under the management of Mr. Phelps, who has been efficiently succeeded by Miss Marriott.

Salisbury-court Theatre (see p. 349).

Sans Souci Theatre, Strand, was built by Dibdin, the song-writer, in the rear of his music-shop, and opened Feb. 16, 1793. Dibdin planned, painted, and decorated this theatre ; wrote the recitations and songs, composed the music, and sang and accompanied them on an organized pianoforte of his own invention. He built another Sans Souci theatre in Leicester-place.

Soho Theatre, now the New Royalty, was built for Frances Kelly, in 1840, as a school for acting, in the rear of No. 73, Dean-street. It will hold 600 persons.

Standard Theatre, Shoreditch, occupies the site of the former theatre, burnt Oct. 28, 1866, and is larger than any one in London, excepting the Italian Opera-house, Covent Garden. The main building is 149 feet long and 90 wide. The extreme height of the auditorium part is 84 feet, and that of the stage 94 feet, to give room for drawing up the scenery, which will not any of it be used from the sides. The stage from the footlights to the back is 61 feet, and the widest part of the horseshoe is 56 feet. All the passages and staircases are of stone, with iron rails.

The outlets are numerous, and the auditorium is lighted by five sun burners above a grouud-glass ceiling painted in oil.

Strand Theatee, No. 169, Strand, originally Barker’s Panorama, was altered in 1831 for Rayner, the low comedian, and Mrs. Waylett, the singer. Here were produced Douglas Jerrold’s early plays. The theatre has since become famous for its burlesques.

Subset Theatee, St. George’s-fields, was first built by Charles Hughes and Charles Dibdin, the song-writer, and was opened Nov. 4, 1782, as the Royal Circus, for equestrianism. John Palmer was acting manager in 1790, when he was living within the Rules of the King’s Bench .(See p. 702.) The theatre was destroyed by fire Aug. 12, 1805, but was rebuilt in 1806 by Cabanel, in Blackfriars-road. Among its lessees were Elliston and Thomas Dibdin. Here Buckstone first appeared. This theatre was destroyed by fire, Jan. 30, 1865, but was rebuilt upon an enlarged plan, and opened within eleven months.

” The Theatre” was built, in 1576, on the site of the Priory of St. John Baptist, at Holywell, Shoreditch ; and is conjectured by Malone to have been ” the first building erected in or near the metropolis purposely for scenic exhibitions :” it is noticed in John Stockwood’s sermon at Paul’s Cross, in 1578, as “the gorgeous playing-place erected in the fields.” It was a wooden building; and in the Star-Chamber records is proof that, in 1598, ” the Theatre” was taken down, and the wood removed to Bankside for rebuilding or enlarging the Globe Theatre.

Victoria Theatee, New Cut, Lambeth, was originally named “the Cobourg,” from the first stone having been laid by proxy for Prince Leopold of Saxe- Cobourg, Oct. 15, 1817 : it has in its foundation part of the stone of the old Savoy Palace.

The theatre was designed by Cabanel, a carpenter from Liege, who also constructed the stage of old Drury-lane Theatre, and invented a roof known by his name.

The Cobourg Theatre was first opened May 13, 1818 : for its repertoire, Clarkson Stanfield, subsequently R.A., painted scenery ; and here was constructed a looking-glass curtain, of large plates of glass, enclosed in a gilt frame. The house was leased to Egerton and Abbott in 1833, when the name was changed to ” Victoria,” and the Princess (her present Majesty) visited the theatre.

Whitefriars Theatre (the) was originally the hall of Whitefriars monastery, outside the garden-wall of Dorset House. From a survey in Mr. Collier’s possession, we learn that the theatre was fitted up in 1586 ; it was taken down in 1613. Howes, in his continuation of Stoic, describes, ” the erection of a new fair playhouse near the Whitefriars,” 1629 : this was ” the Private House in Salisburie-court.”

Opera Houses, Italian. — Her Majesty’s Theatee. — The first theatre for the performance of Italian operas in England was built by subscription, by Sir John Vanbrugh, at the south-west corner of the Haymarket, and was opened April 9, 1705 : but operas were not performed here wholly in Italian until 1710, when Almahide was produced ; and next year Handel’s Sinaldo, in Italian, and by Italian singers. On June 17, 1789, the theatre was burnt down; and upon the same site, enlarged, April 3, 1790, was laid the first stone of the present Opera House, designed by Novosielski, who introduced the horse-shoe form of auditory, from the Italian theatres. In 1820 the exterior was altered by Nash and Repton in the Roman-Doric style, as we now see it, fronted with arcade and colonnade : each of the iron columns is a single easting. The Haymarket front bears a basso-relievo, by Bubb, of lithargolite, or artificial stone, illustrating the progress of Music ; Apollo and the Muses occupying the centre. The interior, at the time of its erection, was larger than that of La Scala at Milan, or the Theatre Italien at Paris. The audience and stage ground are held on two distinct leases. The whole theatre is lined with thin wood in very long pieces, as the best conductor of sound. It was entirely re-decorated in the Raphaelesque and Roman style in 1846. Hora.ce Walpole’s box was No. 3, on the grand tier. There are 177 boxes, the freehold of some of which has been sold for 7000 and 8000 guineas : the season-rent is 300 guineas; a small box, fourth tier, has been let for one night at 12 guineas. When Mr. Lumley purchased the theatre in 1844, he realized 90,000£. by selling boxes in perpetuity. The house will accommodate about 3000 persons. The drop-scene was painted by Stanfield, R.A. The decorations, after ancient masters, are extremely beautiful. Here is a model of the theatre, 10 feet high. Part of the scenery is deposited at ” the Barn,” James-street, Haymarket.

The Italian Opera House ia the Haymarket has ever been a eostly speculation. Ill 1720 George I headed a subscription of 50,0002. for its support. Ebers lost 44,0S02. (see his Seven Years of the King’s Theatre, 1829). For two seasons he paid 15,0002. rent per annum. One season’s expenses : — Opera, 86362. ; ballet, 10,6782. ; orchestra, 32612. ; scene-painting and wardrobes (50,000 dresses), 53722. ; lighting, 12812.; salaries, 25782.; servants, 4032. ; military guard at the doors, 1502.; fittings of the king’s box, in 1821, 3002. ; nightly expenses from 7002. to 10002. The largest receipts were in the seasons when Jenny Lind sang. Her Majesty’s is stated to be the only theatre which has no lease. It claims the exclusive right to produce foreign operas, from a deed made in 1792, covenanting that “the patents of Drury Lane and Covent Garden shall never be exercised for the purpose of Italian operas.” See an able account of Her Majesty’s Theatre, by Shirley Brooks, Morning Chronicle, March 20, 1851. Mr. Lumley’s greatest seasons were those in which Mile. Jenny Lind gave her matchless performances in opera.

Royal Italian Opera, Covent Garden Theatre, was opened April 6, 1847, with Semiramide (Grisi), and M. Costa as musical director. The originator of this second Italian Opera House was Mr. C. L. Griineisen, with Mr. T. F. Beale as director. In the seasons of 1848 and 1849 were expended 60,0002″. ; and the salaries of Alboni, Viardot, Grisi, and Mario, were between 4000Z. and 50002″. each. (See p. 782.)

The Act 6th and 7th of Victoria, cap. 68 (1843), which is the most important of all, authorizes the Lord Chamberlain to license houses for stage-plays in London, Westminster, Brighton, and New
Windsor, and wherever the precincts of the Court may for a time be ; also authorizes justices of the peace to license houses beyond the Lord Chamberlain’s jurisdiction : also authorizes the Lord Chamberlain to license stage-plays throughout Great Britain. This Act was looked upon at the time as a most liberal measure. It abolished the privileges of the patents, and allowed the Lord Chamberlain to license within certain districts as many theatres as he pleased, all endowed with equal rights, thus depriving the expression “minor theatre” of its distinctive signification.

The number of London Theatres licensed by the Lord Chamberlain for the performance of any kind of drama whatever in 1866 was 23. Of these we give a list, together with the number of persons which each will contain, extracted from one of the statements laid before Parliament : —

Her Majesty’s 2200
Drury-lane 2500
Covent-garden 2500
Haymarket 1500
Princess’s 2000
St. James’s ….. 1000
Adelphi 1800
Lyceum 1700
Marylebone 1200
Olympic 1000
Strand 700
Astley’s 2200
Victoria 2000
Surrey 2000
Pavilion 2300
Grecian 2000
Britannia 2400
City of London …. 1400
Standard 2000
Garrick 1100
New Royalty 600
Queen’s 900
Sadler’s Wells …. 1300

Besides 3 theatres since opened, and 23 theatres, containing . 38,300

THREADNEEDLE-STREET

OR Three- Needle-street (Stow), originally extended from Bishopsgate-street to Stocks Market, but now terminates at the Bank of England. The name is from three needles, the charge on the shield of the Needlemakers’ Company’s arms ; but Pennant traces the final cause to the Hall of the Merchant-Taylors, Taylors, and Linen-arm our era in this street. Hatton refers it to “such a sign.” (See Meechant-Tailoes’ Hall, South-Sea House, and Hall op Commeece.) Upon part of the site of the latter lived Sir William Sidney, one of the heroes of Flodden Field ; and his son, Sir Henry Sidney, in whose arms died Edward VI. Sir Henry then retired to Penshurst, where was born, in 1554, his son, the famed Sir Philip Sidney. Upon the site of the present chief entrance to the Bank of England, in Threadneedle-street, stood the Crown Tavern, ” behind the ’Change :” it was much frequented by Fellows of the Royal Society, when they met at Gresham College, hard by. The Crown was burnt in the Great Fire, but was rebuilt ; and a century since, at this tavern, ” it was not unusual to draw a butt of mountain, containing 120 gallons, in gills, in a morning.” (Sir John Hawkins.’) At No. 20 lived Alderman (now Sir Francis Graham) Moon, F.S.A., the eminent print-publisher : he was Lord-Mayor in 1854-5, when he received his patent of baronetcy.

TOKENS.

IN the reign of Elizabeth (1558), the great want of halfpence and farthings led to private Tokens, or farthings, of lead, tin, latten, and leather, being struck for ale-house-keepers, chandlers, grocers, vintners, and other traders; the figure and devices being emblematical of the various trades, victuallers especially adopting their signs.

They were made without any form or fashion ; and some of them (as the leaden tokens of Elizabeth’s reign) are now of extreme rarity. Every one issuing this useful specie was compelled to take it again when offered; and this practice continued until 1672, when Charles II. struck halfpence and farthings. Within the present century, however, many tokens obtained general circulation in London, by which means tradesmen advertised their business : such tokens also recorded great events, portraits of public men, views of places and of entertainments, which might otherwise have been lost. They mostly disappeared on Watt’s new copper coinage of George III. The great national collection of tokens in the British Museum is the finest we possess. Mr. Roach Smith’s collection, now in the British Museum, contains about 500 mediaeval leaden tokens, and many tradesmen’s tokens in brass, from about 1648 to 1674. (See Catalogue, 1854.) The Beaufoy Cabinet, presented to the Corporation Library, consists exclusively of London traders’, tavern, and coffee-house Tokens current in the 17th century, 1174 in number : they are well described and annotated in a Catalogue by Jacob Henry Burn, printed for the Corporation, 1853 ; and reprinted 1855. See also the work on Tradesmen’s Tokens current in London, 1648 to 1672, by J. Y. Akerman,

F.S.A., 4to, 1849.

Tokenhouse-yard, on the north side of Lothbury, is named from the Mint-house, or office for the issue and change of these farthings or tokens : it was built in the reign of Charles L, and occupied the site of the house and garden of the Earl of Arundel ; and from its proximity to the brassfounders of Lothbury, they are thought to have minted the Tokens.

TOTTENHAM-COURT-ROAD,

FROM Oxford-street to the Hampstead-road, was the old way from the village of St. Giles’s to the prebendal manor of Totham, Toten, or Totten Hall (named in Domesday), and temp. Henry III. the mansion of William de Totenhall. It stood at the north-west extremity of the present road, and is mentioned as a house of entertainment in the parish-books of St. Giles’s, in 1645, when Mrs. Stacye’s maid and two others were fined “for drinking at Tottenhall Court, on the Sabbath daie, xijrf. a-piece.” It was then altered to the Adam and Eve public-house, which, with the King’s Head and Tottenham Court turnpike, is shown in Hogarth’s ” March to Finchley,” at the Foundling Hospital. At the Adam and Eve were a music-room and tea-gardens; here Lunardi ascended in his balloon, May 16, 1785. A portion of the old court-house remained to our time ; the gardens were built upon between 1806 and 1810, and the public-house has been rebuilt. J. T. Smith, in his Book for a Rainy Lay, remembers, in 1773, Capper’s Farm, behind the north-west end of Russell-street, noted for its garden-houses in Strype’s time. From Capper’s Farm were straggling houses, but Tottenham-Court-road was then ” unbuilt upon.” The first house (No. 1) in Oxford-street bore on its front, cut in stone, ” Oxford-street, 1725.” The Blue Posts, corner of Hanway-street, was once kept by Sturges, the famous draught-player, author of a Treatise on Lraughts. The site of Gresse-street (named from Gresse, the painter) was then gardens, recommended by physicians for the salubrity of the air. Stephen-street was then built : George Morland the painter, lived here, at No. 14, in 1780.

Whitefield’s chapel was built in 1754, upon the site of ” the Little Sea” pond; and a turnstile opened into Crab-tree Fields, which then extended to the Adam and Eve.

“Totten-Court, a mansion in the fields,” is a scene in Ben Jonson’s Tale of a Tub : and the scene of Thomas Nash’s Tottenham- Court, a pleasant comedy (1639), is laid in “Marrowbone Park.”

TOWER HILL

IS described by Hatton (1708) as ” a spacious place extending round the west and north parts of the Tower, where are many good new buildings, mostly inhabited by gentry and merchants. Upon this hill such persons as are committed to the Tower and found guilty of high treason are commonly executed. And Stow says ” the scaffolds were built at the charge of the City, but in the reign of Edward IV. the same was erected at the charge of the King’s officers ; and that many controversies have been between the City and Lieutenant of the Tower touching their liberties.” A century previous the spot was noted for its salubrity :

” The Tower Hill,
Of all the places London can afford,
Hath sweetest ayre.” — Haughton’s Englishmen for my Money, 1616, 4to.

The ” bounds ” of the Tower Liberties are perambulated triennially, when, after service in the church of St. Peter, a procession is formed upon the parade : including a headsman, bearing the axe of execution ; a painter to mark the bounds ; yeomen warders, with halbards ; the Deputy Lieutenant and other officers of the Tower, &c. : the boundary-stations are painted with a red ” broad arrow ” upon a white ground, while the chaplain of St. Peter’s repeats, ” Cursed be he who removeth his neighbour’s landmark.” Another old custom of lighting a bonfire on Tower Hill on Nov. 5th was suppressed in 1854.

Lady Raleigh lived on Tower Hill after she had been forbidden to lodge with her husband in the Tower. William Penn was born April 14th, 1644, in a court on the east side of Tower Hill. At the Bull public-house died, April 14th, 1685, Otway the poet, it is said of hunger. ” In a by cutler’s shop of Tower Hill,” says Sir Henry Wotton, ” Felton bought a tenpenny knife (so cheap was the instrument of this great attempt),” with which he assassinated the Duke of Buckingham.

Postern-row, with a few posts set across the footpath (opposite about the middle of the Tower moat), denotes the site of the Postern-gate, at the south-eastern termination of the City Wall. Here is the rendezvous for enlisting sailors and soldiers, which formerly had its press-gangs. The shops display odd admixtures of marine stores, pea-jackets and straw-hats, ” rope, hour-glasses, Guuter’s scales, and dog-biscuits.”

The Place of Execution, on Great Tower Hill, is shown in the old plan of the Tower at p. 7 1)3; the space eastward is Little Tower Hill.

Notable Persons Executed on Tower Sill. — June 22, 1535, Bishop Fisher. July 6, 1535, Sir Thomas More. July 28, 1540, Cromwell, Earl of Essex. Jan. 21, 1547, Earl of Surrey, the poet. March 20, 1549, Thomas Lord Seymour of Sudeley, the Lord Admiral, by order of his brother, the Protector Somerset, who was beheaded Jan. 22, 1552. Feb. 12, 1553-4, Lord Guildford Dudley, husband of Lady Jane Grey. April 11, 1554, Sir Thomas Wyat. May 12, 1641, Earl of Strafford. Jan. 10, 1644-5, Archbishop Laud. Dec. 29, 1680, William Viscount Stafford, ” insisting on his innocence to the very last.” Dec. 7, 1683, Algernon Sidney. July 15, 1685, the Duke of Monmouth. Feb. 24, 1716, Earl of Derwentwater and Lord Kenmuir. Aug. 18, 1746, Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino. Dec. 8, 1746, Mr. Radcliffe, who had been, with his brother Lord Derwentwater, convicted of treason in the Rebellion of 1715, when Derwentwater was executed ; but Radcliffe escaped, and was identified by the barber who, 31 years before, had shaved him in the Tower. Chamberlain Clark, who died in 1831, aged 92 years, well remembered (his father then residing in the Minories) seeing the glittering of the executioner’s axe in the sun as it fell upon Mr. Radcliffe’s neck. April 9, 1747, Simon Lord Lovat, the last beheading in England, and the last execution upon Tower Hill, when a scaffolding built near Barking-alley fell with nearly 1000 persons on it, and 12 were killed.

On the west side of Tower Hill is Great Tower-street : No. 48, on the south side, is the Czar’s Head, built upon the site of the former tavern, where Peter the Great (Czar of Muscovy) and his companions, after their day’s work, used to meet, to smoke pipes and drink beer and brandy. In Little Tower-street, No. 12, was Watts’s Academy, where Thomson was tutor when he wrote his Summer.

At the south-west corner of the Hill is Tower Dock, where Sir Walter Raleigh, disguised, embarked in a boat for Tilbury ; but being betrayed, he was arrested on the Thames, and committed to the Tower.

TOWER OF LONDON, THE,

” THE citadel to defend or command the City” (Stow), stands on the north bank of the Thames, about a mile below London Bridge, and in the oldest part of the metropolis ” between the south-east end of the City Wall and the river, though the west part is supposed within the City,* but with some uncertainty ; and in what county the whole stands is not easy discovered.” (Hatton, 1708.) It comprises within the walls an area of 12 acres 5 roods. Tradition has assigned its origin to Julius Caesar, and our early poets have adopted this antiquity.

This, however, is unsupported by records ; but that the Romans had a fortress here in a subsequent age is probable, from the discovery of Roman remains upon the site ; and a Roman wall is still visible near the ditch. The Saxon Chronicle leads to the belief of there having been a Saxon fortress upon the spot.

The oldest portion of the present fortress is the Keep, or White Tower, so named from its having been originally whitewashed, as appears from a Latin document of the year 1241. This tower was built about 1078, for William the Conqueror, by Gundulph, bishop of Rochester, who also erected Rochester Castle; and the two fortresses have points of resemblance. William Rufus greatly added to the Tower. At the close of his reign was sent here the first prisoner, Ralph Flambard, or Firebrand, who contrived to escape by a window which is shown. Henry I. strengthened the fortress ; and Stephen, in 1140, kept his court here.

Fitzstephen describes it as “the Tower Palatine, very large and very strong, whose court and walls rise up from a deep foundation. The mortar is tempered with the blood of beasts. On the west are two castles, well fenced.”

About 1190, the Regent Bishop Longchamp surrounded the fortress with an embattled stone wall and ” a broade and deepe ditch :” for breaking down part of the City wall he was deposed, and besieged in the Tower, but surrendered after one night.

King John held his court here. Henry III. strengthened the White Tower, and founded the Lion Tower and other western bulwarks ; and in this reign the palace-fortress was alternately held by the king and the insurgent barons. Edward I. enlarged the moat, and on the west made the last additions of military importance prior to the invention of cannon. Edward II. retired here against his subjects ; and here was born his eldest daughter, Joan of the Tower. Edward III. imprisoned here many illustrious persons, including David king of Scotland, and John king of France with Philip bis son.* During the insurrection of Wat Tyler, King Richard II. took refuge here, with his court and nobles, 600 persons : Richard was deposed whilst imprisoned here, in 1399. Edward IV. kept a magnificent court here. In 1460 Lord Scales was besieged here by the Yorkists, and was taken and slain in endeavouring to escape by water. Henry VI., twice imprisoned in the fortress, died here in 1471 ; but the tradition that George Duke of Clarence was drowned here in 1478, in a butt of malmsey-wine, is of little worth. The beheading of Lord Hastings, in 1483, by order of the Protector Gloucester (on a log of timber in front of the Chapel) ; the seizure of the crown by Richard ; and the supposed murder of his nephews, Edward V. and the Duke of York, — are the next events in the annals of the fortress. Henry VII. frequently resided in the Tower, where also his queen sought refuge from ” the society of her sullen and cold-hearted husband :” the king held a splendid tournament here in 1501 his queen died here in 1503. Henry VIII. often held his court in this fortress : here in great pomp, Henry received all his wives previous to their espousals ; here were beheaded his queens Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard. About this time (1548) occurred a great fire in the Tower :

“Jj A° (Edw. VI.) Item the xxij day of November was in the nyghte a grete fyer in the tower of
London, and a gret pesse burnyd, by menes of a Freneheman that sette a barrelle of gonnepoder a fyere,
and soo was burnyd hymselfe, and no more persons, but moch hurte besyde.”— Chron. Grey Friars of
London.

Edward VI. kept his court in the Tower prior to his coronation : here his uncle, the Protector Somerset, was twice imprisoned before his decapitation on Tower Hill, in 1552. Lady Jane Grey entered the fortress as queen of England, but in three weeks became here a captive with her youthful husband : both were beheaded. Queen Mary, at her court in the Tower, first showed her Romish resolves : her sister, the Princess Elizabeth, was imprisoned here on suspicion of favouring Sir Thomas Wyat’s design ; she was compelled to enter at the Traitors’ Gate, when she exclaimed, ” Here landeth as true a subject, being a prisoner, as ever landed at these stairs j and before Thee, O God, I speak it.” Queen Elizabeth did not keep her court in the Tower, but at no period was the state prison more ” constantly thronged with delinquents.” James I. resided here, and delighted in combats of the wild beasts kept here. In Charles I.’s reign many leading partisans were imprisoned here ; and under the government of Oliver Cromwell, and in the reigns of Charles II. and James II., the Tower was filled with prisoners, the victims of state policy, intrigue, tyranny, or crime. The Courts of Justice, the King’s Bench and Common Pleas were held here ; the former in the Lesser Hall, beneath the east turret of the “White Tower j the latter in the Great Hall, by the river. Almost from the Conquest, our sovereigns, at their coronations, went in great state and procession from the Tower, through the City, to Westminster; the last observance being at the coronation of Charles II. All the domestic apartments of the ancient palace within the Tower were taken down during the reigns of James II. and William and Mary. In 1792 the garrison was increased.

The Tower Palace occupied the south-eastern portion of the inner ward, as shown in the plan of the fortress in the reign of Elizabeth, within a century from which period much of its ancient haracter was obliterated by small buildings between its towers and courts. Northward of the White Tower was built, temp. James II. and William III., the Grand Storehouse for the Royal Train of Artillery, and the Small Armoury for 150,000 stand of arms : this building, 345 feet in length, was destroyed by fire October 30, 1841 ;• since which the Tower has been ” remodelled,” many small dwelling-houses have been cleared away, and several towers and defences have been rebuilt. The houses of Petty Wales and the outworks have been removed, with the Menagerie buildings at the entrance from the west.

The Lion Tower was built by Henry III., who commenced assembling here a menagerie with three leopards sent to him by the Emperor Frederic II., “in token of his regal shield of arms, wherein those leopards were pictured.” Here, in 1255, the Sheriffs built a house ” for the King’s elephant,” brought from France, and the first seen in England. Our early sovereigns had also a mews in the Tower :

“Merry Margaret, as Midsomer flowre,
Gentyll as i’aucon and hawke of the Towre.” — Skelton.

To the Lion Tower was built a semicircular enclosure, where lions and bears were baited with dogs, in which James I. and his court much delighted. A lion was named after the reigning king ; and it was popularly believed that ” when the king dies, the lion of that name dies after him” (see also Addison’s Freeholder, No. 47). ” Washing the Lions on the first of April” was another popular hoax. The menagerie greatly declined until 1822, when it revived under the management of Mr. Cops ; the last of the animals were, however, transferred to the Zoological Society’s Gardens, in the Regent’s Park, in 1834 : but the buildings were not entirely removed until 1853 ; the Refreshment-room and ticket- office occupy part of the site of the Lion Tower. See The Tower Menagerie, with woodcut portraits drawn by Harvey.

The Tower Moat or Litch was drained in 1843, filled up, and turfed, for the exercise of the garrison : occasionally sheep feed here. The banks are clothed with thriving evergreens ; and en the north-east is a pleasant shrubbery-garden.

” In draining the moat were found several stone shot, which had probably been projected against tho fortress during the siege of 1460, when Lord Scales held the Tower for the king, and the Yorkists cannonaded him from a battery on the Southwark side of the river.” — Hewitt ’s Tower and its Armouries.

The land entrance to the fortress is by the Middle Tower, and a stone bridge, anciently a drawbridge, crossing the Moat, at the south-west angle, to the Byword Tower : these towers were strongly fortified, and provided each with a double portcullis.

On the right, a small drawbridge crosses the Moat, and leads to the wharf fronting the Thames. Here is St. Thomas’s Tower : Ings, the Cato-street conspirator, was the last person confined in this Tower. Beneath it is Traitors’ Gate, with a cut which until lately connected the ditch with the river : by this entrance state prisoners were formerly brought into the Tower ; and through it

” Went Sidney, Russell, Ealeigh, Cranmer, More.” — Rogers.

“When it was found necessary, from any cause, to carry a prisoner through the streets, the Sheriffs received him from the king’s lieutenants at the entrance to the City, gave a receipt for him, and took another on delivering him up at the gates of the Tower. The receipt of the Governor for the body of the Duke of Monmouth— his living body— is still extant.”— Dixon’s Prisons of London, 1850.

Traitors’ Gate is now a modernized sham. Eastward is the basement-story of the Cradle Tower, in good condition ; the Well Tower is used as a warder’s residence.

There were 94,500 stands of arms, of which 4000 were saved : loss by the fire, about 250,000. Among the objects destroyed and lost were a cannon of wood, and the state swords of Justice and Mercy carried before the Pretender when he was proclaimed in Scotland in 1715.

In 1830 the Tower Ditch was filled with water, and cleansed, by order of the Duke of Wellington, as Constable ; which measure was gravely described at the time as putting the fortress into a state of security against the Reform Bill agitation

The front wall is embattled, and mounted with cannon ; and on the wharf were formerly fired the ” Tower Guns.” Hatton describes them, in 1708, as ” 62 guns, lying in a range, fast in the ground, always ready to be discharged on any occasion of victories, coronations, festivals, days of thanksgiving, triumphs, &c.” The guns are now fired from a new ” Saluting Battery,” facing Tower-hill.

Between the outer and inner wards extends a narrow street, in part formerly occupied by the buildings of the Mint, removed to Tower Hill in 1810. The towers of the inner ward are — commencing from the south-east, the Bell Tower, containing the alarm-bell of the garrison ; it is said to have been the prison-lodging of Fisher, Bishop of Rochester, and subsequently of the Princess Elizabeth: “at this point, in former times, were other gates, to prevent an enemy getting possession of the lines, and to guard the approaches to the inner ballium.” — Hewitt.

Between the Bell Tower and the Beauchamp Tower was formerly a passage by the leads, used as a promenade for prisoners, of whom the walls bear memorials ; among them is ” Respice Jinem, W. D.” Next, northward, is the Beauchamp or Cobham Tower, a curious specimen of the military architecture of the 12th and 13th centuries.

This tower is named from Thomas Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, being confined here in 1397, and the Cobhams in 1551. It was restored by Anthony Salvin in 1854; when lithographed copies of the Inscriptions, Memorials, and Devices cut on the walls of the rooms and cells, were published by W. R. Dick.

It is much to be regretted that these records in stone have been removed from their original places into the large room.

Upon the wall is a rebus of Dr. Abel, chaplain to Catherine of Aragon ; a bell inscribed TA, and Thomas above. Couplets, maxims, allegories, and spiritual truths are sometimes added : of these we can only select a few :

” Thomas Willyngar, goldsmithe. My hart is yours tel dethe.” By the side is a figure of a bleeding “” hart,” and another of ” dethe ;” and ” T. W.” and ” P. A.” ” Thomas Rose,

Within this Tower strong
Kept close
By those to whom he did no wrong. May 8th, 1666.”

The figure of a man, praying, underneath ” Ro. Bainbridge” (1587-8).

“Thomas Bawdewin, 1584, Jvly. As vertve maketh life, so sin cawseth death.”

¦ Walter Paslew, dated 1569 & 1570. My hope is in Christ.” Devices of the Peverels ; and crucifix and bleeding heart. ” J. C. 1538.” ” Learne to feare God.” *’ Reprcns . le . sage . et . il . te armera. —

Take wisdom, and he shall arm you.”

Over the fireplace is inscribed :

” Quanto plus afflictionis pro Christo in hoc saeculo,
Tanto plus gloria? cum Christo in futuro.
Arundell, June 22, 1587.”

” Gloria et honore eum coronasti Domine :
In meraoria aetemaerit Justus. Atuch …..”

One of the most elaborate devices is that of John Dvdle, Earl of Warwick, tried and condemned in 1553 for endeavouring to deprive Mary of the crown ; but being reprieved, he died in his prison-room, where he had wrought upon the wall his family’s cognizance, the lion, and bear and ragged staff, underneath which is his name ; the whole surrounded by oak-sprigs, roses, geraniums, honeysuckles, emblematic of the Christian names of his four brothers, as appears from this inscription :

“Yow that these beasts do wel behold and se,
May deme with ease wherefore here made they bo
Withe borders eke wherein (there may be found)
4 brothers’ names, who list to serche the grovnd.”

The names of the four brothers were Ambrose, Robert, Guildford, and Henry : thus, A, acorn ; R, rose ; G, geranium ; H, honeysuckle : others think the rose indicates Ambrose, and the oak Robert (robur). In another part is carved an oak-tree bearing acorns, signed R.D. j the work of Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester.

” I h s 1571, die 10 Aprilis. Wise men ought circumspectly to see what they do, to examine before they speake, to prove before they take in hand, to beware whose company they use, and above all things, to whom they truste. Charles Bailly.” Another of Bailly’s apophthegms is : ” The most unhapy man in the world is he that is not paoient in adversities; for men are not killed with the adversities they .have, but with ye impacience which they suffer.”

” O . Lord . whic . art . of . heavn . King . Graunt . gras . and . lyfe . evcrlaatig . to . Miagh . thy . servant . in . prison . alon . with * * * * Thomas Miagh.” Again :

“Thomas Miagh, whiche lieth here alon,
That fayne wovld from hens be gon,
By tortyre straunge mi troth was
tryed, yet of my libertie denied. 1581, Thomas Myagh.”

(A prisoner for treason, tortured with Skeffington’s irons and the rack.)

” Hit is the poynt of a wyse man to try and then trvste, for hapy is he whome fyudeth one that is
ivst. T. C.” Again : ” T. C. I leve in hope and I gave credit to mi frinde in time did stande me mosto
in hande, so wovlde I never do againe, exeepte I hade him sver in bande, and to al men wiche I so vnles,
ye svssteine the leke lose as I do. Vnhappie is that mane whose actes doth procvre the miseri of this
hovs in prison to indvre. 1576, Thomas Clarke.”

In the State Prison Room occurs twice the name of ” jane” (Lady Jane Grey), probably inscribed by one of the Dudleys, who were all imprisoned here in 1553, and one of whom, Guildford, was the lady’s husband : this is the only memorial preserved of Lady Jane in the Tower. Wallace, the Scottish hero, is erroneously named among the prisoners here ; for Wallace was not confined in any part of the Tower, as proved in a paper by Mr. W. Sydney Gibson, F.S.A., Notes and Queries, No. 213, p. 509.

The memorial of Thomas Salmon, 1622, now let into the wall of the middle room, was formerly in the upper prison-lodging : A shield surrounded by a circle ; above the circle the name “T. Salmon ;” a crest formed of three salmons, and the date 1622; underneath the circle the motto Nee temere, nee timore — “Neither rashly nor with fear.” Also a star containing the abbreviation of Christ, in Greek, surrounded by the sentence, Sic vive vt vivas — ” So live that thou mayest live.” In the opposite corner are the words, Et morire ne morieris — “And die that thou mayest die not.” Surrounding a representation of Death’s head, above the device, is the enumeration of Salmon’s confinement : ” Close prisoner 8 moneths, 32 wekes, 224 dayes, 6376 houres.”

On the ground-floor is incised :

“The man whom this house can not mend,
Hath evill becom, and worse will end.”

Round this (Beauchamp) chamber a secret passage has recently been discovered in the masonry, in which spies were, no doubt, set to listen, and report the conversation or soliloquies of prisoners, when they, poor souls, believed themselves alone. The men who live in the Tower have christened this passage the Whispering Gallery.” — Dixon’s Prisons, 1850, p. 70.

Raleigh was thrice imprisoned in the Tower ; in 1592 (eight weeks), for winning the heart of Elizabeth Throgmorton, one of Elizabeth’s maids of honour ; ” not only a moral sin, but in those days a heinous political offence.” In 1604 he was again committed to the Tower, and in the frenzy of despair attempted to stab himself to the heart ; he remained here a captive nearly thirteen years, part of the time with Lady Raleigh : here, 1605, was born Carew, their second son. Sir Walter’s prison-lodging is thought to have been the second and third stories of the Beauchamp Tower ; here he devoted much time to chemistry and pharmaceutical preparations. ” He has converted,” says Sir William Wade, Lieutenant of the Tower, “a little hen-house in the garden into a still-house, and here he doth spend his time all the day in distillations ; … he doth show himself upon the wall in his garden to the view of the people :” here Raleigh prepared his ” rare cordial,”* wrote his political discourses, and commenced his famous History of the World. He was at length liberated, but again committed to the Tower, about two months before his execution at Westminster.

Raleigh’s constant study was in the pages of that Divine book, by which, as he told the clergyman who rebuked him for his seeming lightness, on the eve of his beheadal, he had prepared himself to look fearlessly on death. His last hours were each an episode, and his acts and words have been carefully recorded. On the morning of his execution, his keeper brought a cup of sack to him, and inquired how he was pleased with it? ” As well as he who drank of St. Giles’s bowl as he rode to Tyburne,” answered the knight, and said, ” it was a good drink, if a man might but tarry by it.”

” Prithee, never fear, Beeston,” cried he to his old friend Sir Hugh, who was repulsed from the scaffold by the sheriff, ” I shall have a place !” A bald man, from extreme age, pressed forward “to see him,” he said, “and pray God for him.” Raleigh took a richly-embroidered cap from his own head, and placing it on that of the old man, said, ” Take this, good friend, to remember me, for you have more need of it than I.” ” Farewell, my lords,” was his cheerful parting to a courtly group, who affectionately took their sad leave of him, ” I hare a long journey before me, and I must e’en say good-bye.” ” Now I am going to God,” said that heroic spirit, as he trod the scaffold ; and, gently touching the axe, added, ,’ This is a sharp medicine, but it will cure all diseases.” The very headsman shrank from beheading Raleigh’s one so illustrious and brave, until the unquailing soldier addressed him, ” What dost thou fear ? Strike, man !” In another moment, the mighty soul had fled from its mangled tenement.

Raleigh’s shifting imprisonments must have been very irksome. Thus, in 1603, ” In the course of a few months Raleigh was first confined in his own house, then conveyed to the Tower, next sent to Winchester Gaol, returned from thence to the Tower, imprisoned for between two and three months in the Fleet, and again removed to the Tower, where he remained until released thirteen years afterwards, to undertake his new expedition to Guiana.” (Mr. J. Payne Collier; ArchiBologia, vol. xxxv. p. 218.) Mr. Collier possesses a copy of that rare tract, ” A Good Speed to Virginia,” 4to. 1609, with the autograph on the title-page, ” VV”. Ralegh, Turr. Loud. ;” showing that at the time this tract was published, and read by Raleigh, he recorded himself as a prisoner in the Tower of London.

We learn from the Memorials of the Tower, by Lord De Ros, the Lieutenant-Governor, that the late Prince Consort interested himself to preserve the remains of the original building, and caused it to be declared that “no edifice within the Tower walls should be built, altered, or restored until the plans and elevations should have been submitted for the Queen’s personal approval.”

North of the Beauchamp Tower is the Devereux Tower, which has been rebuilt tinder the direction of the Ordnance. The original tower, with walls 11 feet thick, was the prison-lodging of Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex ; in the lower chambers were passages leading to the adjoining Chapel oe St. Petee, described at p. 198.

Eastward are the Flint, Bowyer, and Brick Towers, which have also been rebuilt by the Ordnance. In the Bowyer Tower resided the Master and Provider of the King’s Bows ; and in a work-room over this tower originated the fire which destroyed the Grand Storehouse in 1841 : the basement, strongly groined and vaulted, has been restored. Beneath the floor is a still more dreary vault, with a trap-door opening upon a flight of steps. The Brick Tower, the reputed prison-house of Lady Jane Grey, had its modernized superstructure destroyed in the fire of 1841 ; but the original basement and a dungeon beneath remained.

The Martin Tower, at the north-east angle, was formerly a prison-lodging, and next the Jewel Tower. Anne Boleyn was imprisoned here : on the walls is a coat-of-arms and ” Boullen :” she slept in the little upper room. Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, and Lord Southampton (Shakspeare’s friend), were also prisoners in the Martin Tower ; and here were confined, by James II., Archbishop Sancroft and the six bishops. The Keeper of the Regalia resides here. Thence, southward, is the Constable Tower, rebuilt by the Ordnance. Next is the Broad Arrow Tower, in its original condition : Lady Jane Grey was a prisoner here : the Latin couplet which Fox states Jane scratched with a pin upon the walls of her chamber, can nowhere be found. The Salt(petre) Tower is called ” Julius Csesar Tower ” in a survey temp. Henry VIII., and is supposed to be actually of the reign of William Rufus. It is circular, and has a vaulted dungeon : in the first-story chamber, among the devices and inscriptions cut in the wall, is a sphere with the signs of the zodiac, and

“Hew : Draper : of: Bristow : made : thys : spheer : the : 30 : daye : of: Maye : anno 1561.”

Draper was a wealthy tavern-keeper at Bristol, and was committed here “as suspect of a conjuror or sorceror,” practising against “Sir William St. Lowe and my ladie;”

but he affirmed that ” longe since he soe misliked his science, that he burned all his books.” A view of the Salt Tower, taken in 1846, is etched in Archer’s Vestiges, part iii. : it has been restored by Salvin.

Next the Salt Tower, westward, was the Lantern Tower, removed for the Ordnance Office, greatly heightened in 1854. Further west is the Record Tower, also called Wakefield, from the imprisonment of the Yorkists here after the battle of Wakefield, 1460 : this was also anciently the Sail Tower, from its proximity to the great hall of the palace : the basement is Norman, probably of the reign of William Rufus ; the walls are 13 feet thick. The upper chamber has been a Record-room since the reign of Henry VIII. : here are the carta antiquce and chancery rolls, chronologically ranged in presses. Opposite the chamber in which Henry VI. is supposed to have been murdered, is the Record-keeper’s room, where hang some of the Keepers’ portraits : William Lambarde, the topographer ; the learned Selden ; the Puritan, William Prynne ; and William Petyt, Samuel Lysons, and Henry Petrie, were distinguished Record-keepers. The Octagon is ” Edward the Confessor’s Room.”

Adjoining the Record Tower, westward, is the Bloody Tower: here, in a dark windowless room, in which one of the portcullises was worked, George Duke of Clarence is said to have been drowned in malmsey ; in the adjoining chamber, the two princes are said to have been ” smothered •” whence the name of Bloody Tower. This has been much disputed; but in a tract temp. James I. we read that the above ” turret our elders termed the Bloody Tower ; for the bloodshed, as they say, of those infant princes of Edward IV., whom Richard III., of cursed memory (I shudder to mention it), savagely killed, two together at one time.” In the latter chamber was imprisoned Colonel Hutchinson, whose wife, daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, Lieutenant of the Tower, where she was born, related the above traditions. This portion was formerly called the Garden, Tower ; it was built temp. Edward III., and is the only ancient place of security, as a state prison, in the Tower : it is entered through a small door in the inner ballium; it consists of a day -room and a bed-room, and the leads on which the prisoner was sometimes allowed to breathe the air. The last person who
occupied these apartments was Arthur Thistlewood, the Cato-street conspirator.

Westward are the Lieutenant’s Lodgings (the Lieutenant’s residence), chiefly timber-built, temp. Henry VIII. ; in 1610 was added a chamber having a prospect to all the three gates of the Tower, and enabling the lieutenant to call and look to the warders.

In the ” Council Chamber ” the Commissioners examined Guy Fawkes and his accomplices, as commemorated in a Latin and Hebrew inscription upon a parti-coloured marble monument ; and elsewhere in the building there was discovered, about 1845, ” an inscription carved on an old mantelpiece relating to the Countess of Lenox, grandmother of James I., ’commytede prysner to thys Logynge for the Marige of her Sonne my Lord Henry Darnle and the Queen of Scotlande.’ ” (Hewitt’s Tower, &c.)

Here a bust of James I. was set up, in 1608, by Sir William Wade, then Lieutenant ; the walls are painted with representations of men inflicting and suffering torture ; and the room is reputed to be haunted ! The last person confined in the lodgings here was Sir Francis Burdett, committed 1810, for writing in Cobbett’s Weekly Register.

” Besides the ’ prison lodgings,’ there were other still more terrible chambers in the Tower ; chambers especially constructed with a view to the torture of their inmates. One of these was called ’ Little Ease ;’ a cell so small in its dimensions, that it was impossible for the prisoner to stand erect or to lie down except in a cramped position (Holinshed, vol. iii. p. 825). Another was named ’ The Pit.’ Others are said to have been full of vermin, especially rats, which at high water were driven up in shoals from the Thames. The Devil’s Tower probably took its name from some contrivance of this kind.” — Hewitt.

An inscription recently found in an adjoining room tells us a State secret, that Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox, mother of unhappy Darnley, was confined in these lodgings by Elizabeth, on suspicion of being concerned in the marriage of her son with Mary Queen of Scots. Margaret lived in London for many years.” — Mr. Mepworth Dixon’s Paper read to the Archeological Institute, 1866.

The Place of Execution within the Tower on the Green was reserved for putting to death privately ; and the precise spot, nearly opposite the door of St. Peter’s Chapel, is denoted by a large oval of dark flints : hereon perished Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, Margaret Countess of Salisbury, and Lady Jane Grey.

The Bloody Tower gateway, built temp. Edward III. (opposite Traitors’ 1 Gate), is the main entrance to the Inner Ward : it has massive gates and portcullis, complete, at the southern end; but those at the north end have been removed.

“The gates are genuine, and the portcullis is said to be the only one remaining in England fit for use. The archway forms a noble specimen of the Doric order of Gothic. For a prison entrance we know-of no more perfect model.” — Weale’s London, p. 160.

Westward of the White Tower, between the Chapel and Lieutenant’s Lodgings, was the ” Tower Green,” now the parade-ground of the garrison. Northward, upon the site of the Grand Storehouse,* are the Waterloo Barracks (to receive 1000 men), in the ” modern castellated style,” its only ancient features being battlements and machicolations : the first stone was laid June 14, 1845, by the Duke of Wellington, of whom here was a pedestrian stone statue, by Milnes; upon a pedestal, now removed to Woolwich Arsenal.

North-east of the White Tower is another “modern castellated” range of buildings for the officers of the garrison. South-eastward are the unsightly piles of the Ordnance Office and Store-houses.

* The large pediment of the Storehouse, filled with bold sculptures of the royal arms, guns, and military trophies, was preserved, and has been set up opposite the Martin Tower.

The White Tower, citadel, or keep (for many years of itself “the Tower of London,” the other buildings having been added as outworks), was begun by Bishop Gundulph, in 1078, on the site of a work said to have been destroyed by floods. The external dimensions of the White Tower are 176 feet north and south by 96 feet east and west, with an eastern semicircular projection, the apsis of the chapel. The elevation is 92 feet ; it is embattled ; and its angles are finished with turrets, the vanes of which are surmounted with the royal crown. The north and south-western turrets are square, with a slight projection ; the south-eastern turret is built upon the summit of the wall ; and that at the north-eastern angle is an irregular circle, and was pierced to receive four clock-dials in 1854. This tower was called the Observatory, and was employed by the ” Astronomical Observator, John Flamsteed,” who had ” an hundred poundes yearly payd him out of this office (of Ordnance) :” it contains a staircase which communicates with each of the floors, from the vaults to the roof, which is covered with lead, and was once a promenade for the prisoners. Traces of a large archway on the north side indicate the original grand entrance, shown in the oldest views ; the present entrances, north and south, are modern. The external walls are from 10 to 12 feet thick, and the internal walls 7 feet ; of these there are only two, which divide each floor into three apartments. The White Tower was first considerably repaired about the middle of the 13th century; next, with Caen stone, in 1532; ” it was almost new erected in 1637 and 1638, being built of boulder and square stone” (Hatton) ; and windows and other ancient features were obliterated in the reign of William III. On the eastern side is a wing occupied for Ordnance books and papers.

Here, circ. 1708, were ” 3000 barrels of gunpowder at a time, with vast quantities of match ; also swords and gin for mounting great guns ; and on the east side is a place where the powder is proved before the surveyor and other officers.”

On the first floor is Queen Elizabeth’s Armoury, with a vaulted roof: on the north side a door opens to a cell, 10 feet by 8, in the thickness of the wall ; this is said to have been the prison-lodging of Sir Walter Raleigh; near the cell entrance are inscribed Rudstone, Fane, and Culpeper, all implicated in Sir Thomas Wyat’s rebellion.

” He that indvreth to the ende shal be savid
M : 10 B. livdston. Dar. Kent. Ano. 1553.”

” Be faithfvl vnto the deth and I wil give thee a erowne of Life,
T Fane 1554.”

“T Cvlpeper of Ailsford, Kent.”

On the second floor, reaching to the roof, is the Chapel of St. John the Evangelist, the most perfect specimen of Norman architecture in the metropolis ; it has an apsis, and a gallery supported by 12 massive round columns, united by semicircular arches : here our early sovereigns knelt before the King of kings. Three stained-glass windows were added to this chapel by Henry III. : it was long used as a record depository.

In the third floor is the Council Chamber, a state apartment, with a massive timber roof: here the Protector Gloucester ordered Lord Hastings to be led to instant execution in front of St. Peter’s Chapel ; and commanded the arrest of the Archbishop of York, the Bishop of Ely, and Lord Stanley. King John of France was lodged in the White Tower in 1357. The vaults underneath were occupied as prisons : among their inscriptions is one carved by Fisher, Bishop of Rochester. Throughout the building there is no trace of a fireplace or of a well. The Council Chamber and Banqueting Hall are now filled with rifles ready for use. Hitherto, they had been used as store-rooms, and the present alteration was made at the suggestion and from the designs of the late Prince Consort. They now form two splendid armouries, the Council Chamber containing 20,000 and the Banqueting Hall 31,000 Enfield and short rifles, ready at any time for immediate use. The passages, walls, ceilings, beams, &c, are richly ornamented with swords, bayouets, lances, pistols, and various other weapons, some of them now obsolete.

A paper drawn up by a yeoman-warder, in 1641, shows the White Tower to have then been the Office of Ordnance ; the Martin Tower was assigned to the Porter of the Mint ; the Byward and Water-gate Towers to the warders; and eleven other towers were “prison-lodgings.”

Mr. Hepworth Dixon’s paper, elsewhere quoted, is a very attractive precis of the history of the Tower, narrated with poetic verve, and archaeological identification. Of Charles of Orleans, the brave soldier and poet-prince, who was captured at Agincourt, and remained prisoner in the Tower five-and-twenty years, Mr. Dixon tells us, there is in the MS. department of the British Museum a copy of the prince’s French poems, nobly illuminated. ” One of the drawings in this MS. is of peculiar interest : in the first place, as being the oldest view of the Tower extant ; in the second place, in fixing the exact chamber in the White Tower in which the poet was confined, and displaying dramatically the life which he led. First we see the prince at his desk, composing his poems, with his gentlemen in attendance, and his guards on duty. Next we observe him on a window-sill looking outwards into space. Then we have him at the foot of the White Tower, embracing the messenger who brings him the ransom. Again, we see him mounting his horse. Then we have him and his friendly messenger riding away from the Tower. Lastly, he is seated in a barge, which lusty rowers are pulling down the stream, for the boat which is to carry him to France.” Mr. Dixon’s paper is printed in the Atheneeum, No. 2021.

Imprisonments. — Upwards of 1000 prisoners have been confined in the chambers and cells of the Tower at one time. Among the celebrated persons imprisoned here, besides those already named, were : A.D. 1100. Ralph Flambard, the militant Bishop of Durham. 1296. Balliol, King of Scotland, and Scottish chieftains. 1307. Lady Badlesmere, for refusing the queen of Edward II. lodging in her castle of Leeds, Kent. 1347. Charles of Blois, and the twelve citizens of Calais with the governor. 1386. Geoffrey Chaucer, said to have here written his Testament of Love. (Chaucer was appointed clerk of the works, July 13, 1389, 13th Eichard II.) 1415. The Duke of Orleans, father of Louis XII., composed here a volume of English poems, which contains the earliest view of the Tower. 1534. John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester ; and Sir Thomas More. 1540. Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex. 1547. The Duke of Norfolk and his son, the poet Earl of Surrey.

1553. Cranmer, Latimer, and Ridley. Latimer was also a prisoner here from 1541 to 1547. 1554. Sir Thomas Wyat. 1562. The Earl of Southampton, the friend of Shakspeare. 1606.’ Guy Fawkes and his fellow-conspirators. 1622. Lord Chancellor Bacon, “a broken reed;” Sir Edward Coke, a close prisoner. 1613. Sir Thomas Overbury, supposed to have been poisoned by his gaoler. 1616. The Countess of Somerset,* for Overbury’s murder. 1626. ” Mr. Moor was sent to the Tower for speaking (in Parliament) out of season ; and Sir William Widdrington and Sir Herbert Price for bringing in candles against the desire of the House.” (Lwarris, on Statutes, p. 83.) 1628. Felton, the assassin of the Duke of Buckingham ; Sir John Elliot, second imprisonment ; John Selden. 1641. Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford ; Archbishop Laud, and Bishop Hall. 1648. The pious Jeremy Taylor. 1651. Sir William Davenant, whose life was saved by Milton and Whitelock. 1656. Lucy Barlow, mother of the Duke of Monmouth : she was liberated by Oliver Cromwell.

1661. Harrington, who wrote the Oceana. 1679. Viscount Stafford, beheaded 1680.

1679. Samuel Pepys, the diarist, suspected of connexion with the Popish Plot ; liberated on bail for 30,0002. 1681. The Earl of Shaftesbury. 1683. William Lord Russell and Algernon Sidney. 1685. James Duke of Monmouth. 1688 (the Revolution). The infamous Lord Jeffreys ; William Penn, for street preaching ; the Seven Bishops.

1692. The great Duke of Marlborough. 1712. Sir Robert Walpole, for receiving bribes.

1715. Harley, Earl of Oxford; the Earls of Derwentwater and Nithsdale.

1717. William Shippen, ” downright Shippen” {Pope).

1722. Bishop Atterbury and the Earl of Orrery.

1746. Lords Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and Lovat.

1760. Earl * The Countess of Somerset’s “only child, born in the Tower during her imprisonment, and named Anne, after the name of the Queen, in the hopes thereby of propitiating her majesty, was afterwards married to the Duke of Bedford, and was the mother of William Lord Kussell.”— Amos. Ferrers, hanged for murder.

1762. John Wilkes ; no charge specified.

1780. Lord George Gordon (Riots).

1794. John Home Tooke, Hardy, Thelwall, Holcroft, and others.

1810. Sir Francis Eurdett.

1820. Cato-street conspirators.

The Constable of the Tower was formerly styled the Constable of London, the Constable of the Sea, and the Constable of the Honour of the Tower ; which post was conferred hy William I. upon Geoffry de Mandeville, in reward of his services at the battle of Hastings. The Constable, besides his salary, privileges, and perquisites, temp. Edward II. received a custom of 2d. from each person going and returning by the Thames, on a pilgrimage to St. James’s shrine. In the reign of Richard II. the Constable received yearly 1001., with fees from his prisoners, according to their rank, ” for the suit of his irons :” of every duke committed, 2,01. : and for irons, earl, 20 marks ; baron, 101. ; knight, 100 shillings. The Constable’s salary is now a little under 950/., with an official residence. The great Duke of Wellington was Constable from 1820 to his death in 1852, and was succeeded by Viscount Combermere, at whose death Sir John Fox Burgoyne received the appointment. On taking possession, the new Constable is by the Lord Chamberlain presented with the keys of the fortress, in the name and on behalf of Her Majesty the Queen; the Yeomen Warders, following an ancient custom on such occasions, respond ” Amen” in chorus, the troops give a Royal salute and present arms, and the band plays the National Anthem. The Constable is then formally presented to the officers of the garrison, and conducted over the armoury. The Lieutenant of the Tower is next in rank to the Constable ; but the duties of both offices are performed by the Deputy-Lieutenant and the Tower Major.

Colonel Gurwood, editor of the Duke of Wellington’s Despatches, was long Deputy-Lieutenant. The Gentleman Gaoler had the custody and locking-up of the state prisoners. The Yeomen Warders, of whom there were forty-five, originally kept watch over the prisoners: in the reign of Edward VI., the Duke of Somerset, in return for the attention and respect they paid him whilst in confinement, procured them, after his liberation, ” to be sworne extraordinary of the guard, and to weare the same livery they doe.” The old uniform is now only worn on State occasions. The new dress was made in 1858. The old cut is retained, the alterations being in the colour of the cloth and the trimmings. The tunic or frock is of dark blue cloth, with a crown in red cloth on the breast, and V.R. underneath; two bands of red cloth round the sleeves, the same as the skirt. A cloak is supplied for inclement weather.

The Yeomen at present number forty-eight: they are old and deserving non-commissioned officers.

Locking-up the Tower is an ancient, curious, and stately ceremony. A few minutes before the clock strikes the hour of eleven — on Tuesdays and Fridays, twelve — the Head Warder (Yeoman Porter), clothed in a long red cloak, bearing a huge bunch of keys, and attended by a brother warder carrying a lantern, appears in front of the main guard-house, and loudly calls out, ” Escort keys !” The sergeant of the guard, with five or six men, then turns out and follows him to the ” Spur,” or outer gate ; each sentry challenging as they pass his post, ” Who goes there ?” — ” Keys.” The gates being carefully locked and barred, the procession returns, the sentries exacting the same explanation, and receiving the same answer as before. Arrived once more in front of the main guard-house, the sentry there gives a loud stamp with his foot, and asks, ” Who goes there ?”— ” Keys.” ” Whose keys ?”—” Queen Victoria’s keys.” ” Advance Queen Victoria’s keys, and all’s well.” The Yeomau Porter then exclaims, ” God bless Queen Victoria !” The main guard respond, ” Amen.” The officer on duty gives the word, ” Present arms ’.” the firelocks rattle ; the officer kisses the hilt of his sword ; the escort fall in among their companions ; and the Yeoman Porter marches across the parade alone to deposit the keys in the Lieutenant’s Lodgings.

The ceremony over, not only is all egress and ingress totally precluded, but even within the walls no one can stir without being furnished with the countersign.

The Tower has a separate coroner ; and the public have access to the fortress only by sufferance. When Horwood made his Survey of London, 1799, he was denied admission to the Tower; and the refusal is thus recorded upon the map:—

” The Tower : the internal parts not distinguished, being refused permission to take the survey.”

The Tower is extra-parochial ; and in 1851 the population was 882, and the military in barracks 606.

The Armouries. — The fortress has been the depository of tbe national arms and accoutrements from the earliest ages of our monarchy ; and writs of various dates enumerate warlike stores contained in or issued from the Tower by ” the Keeper of the Arms.” In an inventory temp. Edward VI. are mentioned many of the articles in the present collection ; and Hentzner describes the Armouries in the reign of Elizabeth as one of the sights of London.

The Horse Armoury, 150 feet long, is on the south side of the White Tower, and was built in 1826, when it was arranged by Sir Samuel Meyrick. In the centre is a line of twenty-two equestrian figures, in the armour of various reigns from Edward I. to James II. Over each figure is a crimson banner bearing the name and time of the king or knight represented by the effigy below j but only a few of the armours have been actually worn by the persons to whom they are assigned. Around the room are ranged other figures in armour, interspersed with military trophies and emblems ; besides other mounted figures ; arms of different ages ; helmets, cuirasses, shields, &c. ; and on the ceiling are displayed obsolete arms and accoutrements in fanciful devices.

The equestrian figures are of the time of Edward I. (1272). — Suit of a hauberk, with sleeves and chaussees, and a hood with camail; square-topped shield ; prick-spurs ; surcoat and baudric, modern.

Henry VI. (1450). — Back and breast plates of flexible armour ; chain-mail sleeves and skirt ; fluted gauntlets; helmet a la Cade, with a frontlet and surmounting crest; the horse housing emblazoned with the arms of France and England; fluted chauffron.

Edward IV. (1465). — Tournament suit, with tilting lance; war-saddle, somewhat later; horse housings, black, powdered with the king’s badges — the wttite rose and sun; a spiked chauffron on horse’s head.

Knight, temp. Richard III. (1483-1485). — Ribbed German armour; tilting apparel and original tilting lance: this suit was worn at the Eglinton Tournament by the Marquis of Waterford.

Knight, temp. Henry VII. (1485-1509).— Fluted (German) suit ; burgonet helmet. Suit of fluted armour of the same reign; ancient sword, battle-axe, and war-saddle; horse armour fluted, and only wanting the flanchards.

Henry VIII. (1520). — Damasked armour actually worn by this king. Two suits of the same reign, worn by Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and Edward Clinton, Earl of Lincoln. In a recess is ” one of the most curious suite of armour in the world,” of German workmanship, once gilt, and made to commemorate the marriage of Henry VIII. and Katherine of Arragon: it is most elaborately engraved with the rose and pomegranate^ portcullis, fleurs-de-lis, and red dragon; “H. K.,” united by a true-lover’s-knot ; saintly legends, mottoes, &c.

Edward VI. (1552). — Russet armour, covered with beautiful filagree-work ; burgonet helmet; horse armour complete, embossed with the combined badges of Burgundy and Granada.

Francis Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon (1555). — Richly gilt suit, with indented slashes; weight of body armour exceeds 100 lbs.

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester (1560). — Tilting suit actually worn by Leicester, temp. Elizabeth : it bears the initials “R. D.,” and the earl’s cognizance of the bear and ragged staff: this suit ” was kept in the tilt-yard, where it was exhibited on particular days” (Meyrick).

Sir Henry Lea (1570). — Suit of plate.

Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex (1581). — Suit of armour, richly engraved and gilt ; burgonet helmet. This armour was worn by the King’s Champion at the coronation of George II.

James I. (1605). — Plain suit of tilting armour. Of the same period are the suits of cap-a-pie armour assigned to Sir Horace Vere, and Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel.

Henry Prince of Wales (1612). — Richly-gilt suit made for the prince; engraved with battles, sieges, &c.

George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham (1618). — Full suit of plate.

Charles Prince of Wales (1620). — Suit made for the prince when about twelve years old.

Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford (1635). — Armour continued only to the knees.

Charles I. (1640). — Magnificent suit presented to Charles, when Prince of Wales, by the Armourers* Company of the City of London: it is richly gilt aud arabesqued; face is carved by Gibbons. This suit was laid on the coflin of the great Duke of Marlborough, in his funeral procession.

James II. (1685). — Cuirass over a velvet coat; casque and pierced visor: the head was carved by Gibbons, as a portrait of Charles II.

Here also are : a swordsman (Henry VII.). A man-at-arms and foot-soldier Henry VIII.). ” Armour cap-a-pe, rough from the hammer, said to be King Henry ye 8ths.” Suits belonging to the Princes Henry and Charles, sons of James I. Cavaliers and pikemen (temp. Charles I.). A fragment of ” penny plate armour.” Magnificent suit of Italian armour, engraved and gilt. Cuirasses from Waterloo. Ancient suits of chain-mail. Halbards,* shields, and helmets. ” The Norman Crusader,” really an Asiatic suit of mixed chain and plate. Very curious helmets. Pieces of a * The halbard remained in use among our troops till within 60 years, and may sttll be seen as an official weapon in our courts of justice. The warders of the Tower are still armed with the partisan : it is still carried by the watchmen in Denmark.

puffed and engraved suit of armour (temp. Henry VIII.), extremely rare. Ancient German bone saddle, with Teutonic inscription. The ” Anticke Headpiece with rames Homes and speckakels on it of Will Somers,” jester to Henry VIII. Specimens of hand firearms. Ancient warder’s horn, of carved ivory. Chinese military dresses from Chusan. Helmet, belt, straight sword, and scimitars of Tippoo Saib. Concave rondelle with spiked boss, such as is seen in the picture of “Henry the Eighth’s Embarcation at Dover,” at Hampton Court.

Part of a horse armour of cuir houilli, extremely rare and curious. On the columns are groups of arms now in use among continental powers ; arms employed in England from the time of James II. to the present reign ; and projects for the improvement of war implements.

Here are celts ; ancient British axes, swords, and spears, of bronze (one axe found near Hastings, supposed temp. Harold) ; a British battle-axe found in the Thames in 1829 ; Roman spear-head ; Saxon daggers and battle-axes.

At the top of the stairs are two rudely-carved wood figures, ” Gin” and ” Beer,” from over the buttery of the old palace at Greenwich. A very curious Indian suit of armour, sent to Charles II. by the Great Mogul. Ten small cannon, presented by the brass-founders of London to Charles II. when a boy.

Queen Elizabeth’s Armoury, cased with wood in the Norman style, is entered at the eastern side of the White Tower : the windows are filled with stained glass, in part ancient. Here is an equestrian figure of Elizabeth, in a fac simile of the robe worn by her on going to St. Paul’s to return thanks. The weapons collected here were brought originally from ” The Spanish Weapon House,” and were long called ” The Spanish Armoury,” misinterpreted as the spoils of the Spanish Armada. These weapons were mostly used temp. Henry VIII. and Elizabeth. The collection of spears is interesting. Here is the Morning-star, or Holy-water (blood) Sprinkle, a spiked ball on a pole, used by infantry from the Conquest till temp. Henry VIII. The walls are hung with early shields. Two bows of yew, from the wreck of the Mary Hose, 1545 ; early kite shield ; two cross-hilted swords, temp. Crusaders, authentic and rare.

Thumb-screws, or thumbikins ; the ” Iron Coller of Torment, taken from y’ Spanyard in y” yeare 1588 ;” the iron Cravat, ” Scavenger’s or Skeffington’s Daughter.” Ancient Cresset, with spear-head. Mace-cannon, carried at the saddle-bow. Long-pikes and boar-spears, in the Tower temp. Edward VI. Large pavoise, or archer’s shield. ” Great Holly-water Sprincle, with three gonnes in the top.” Spontoon of the guard of Henry VIII. Guisarmes and glaives, partisans, lances, pikes, and halbards. On the floor is the heading-axe with which the Earl of Essex was executed, temp. Elizabeth.

Heading-block on which Lords Balmerino, Kilmarnock, and Lovat were decapitated on Tower-hill, in 1746. The money received for admission to the Armouries is expended in adding to the collection ; hus, in 1853, a beautiful suit of Greek armour, found in a tomb at Cumae, was purchased for 2001. : it is shown in the Horse Armoury.

Among the Curiosities mentioned by Hatton, 1708, is the sword which Lord Kingsale took from a French guard, for which he and his posterity have the favour of being covered in the king’s presence.

On the stairs is part of the keel of the Royal George, sunk in 1782.

In the Ante-room added to Queen Elizabeth’s Armoury, fitted up in 1581, from the plan of Mr. Stacey, Ordnance Storekeeper, are a group of cannon from Waterloo, two kettle-drums from Blenheim ; and specimens, ancient and modern, of every description of weapon now in the Tower. Here are also the sword and sash of Field Marshal the Duke of York ; and General Wolfe’s cloak, on which he died before Quebec. In the centre of the room is a beautifully ornamented bronze gun. Here are two large brass guns taken at Quebec by General Wolfe, a stand of cross-bows, and four figures in armour. In the western compartment are chiefly oriental arms and armour : suit of chain-mail (reputed Bajazet, 1401) ; Asiatic iron boot ; Saracenic and Indian armour ; memorials from Tippoo Saib’s armour; collection of Chinese armour; brass gun taken from the Chinese in 1842, inscribed, ” Richabd : Philips : made : this : Pece : An : Dni : 1601 ;” arms from Kaffraria ; hempen armour from the South Seas ; New Zealand implements, and chiefs robe ; rich Indian and Moorish arms and accoutrements, from the Great Exhibition of 1851 : and a cabinet of oriental armour, weapons, horse-furniture, &c., presented by the Hon. East India Company. Here is the large anchor taken at Camperdown by Admiral Duncan. In 1854 were added 2000 stands of arms from Bomarsund, the first spoils of the Russian war.

Outside the White Tower, on the south-east, are : an ancient gun for stone shot ; two brass guns, temp. Henry VII. and Henry VIII. j French, Spanish, and Chinese guns ; guns from the wreck of the Royal George; and several mortars, including one of 18 inches, used at the siege of Namur by William III.

Mr. Hewitt’s work, already mentioned, is by far the most accurate and illustrative Guide-book to the Tower Armouries.

The Regalia, or Crown Jewels, have been exhibited to the public for a fee since the Restoration of Charles II. They had been previously kept sometimes in the Tower, in the Treasury of the Temple or other religious house, and in the Treasury at Westminster. The Royal Jewels were several times pledged to provide for the exigencies of our monarchs : by Henry III., Edward III., Henry V., Henry VI. ; and Richard II. offered them to the merchants of London as a guarantee for a loan. The office of Keeper of the Regalia, conferred by the king’s letters patent, became in the reigns of the Tudors a post of great emolument and dignity, and ” the Master of the Jewel-house” took rank as the first Knight Bachelor of England : the office was sometime held by Cromwell, afterwards Earl of Essex. During the civil war under Charles I. the Regalia were sold and destroyed.* On the Restoration of Charles II. new Regalia were made, for which was paid to the king’s goldsmith, Sir Robert Vyner, 21,978Z. 9*. lid. (Treasury Order, 20th June, 1662.) The emoluments of the Master of the Jewel-house were now so reduced, that Sir Gilbert Talbot obtained permission to show the
Regalia to strangers for a fee j which proved so profitable, that Sir Gilbert, upon the death of his servant who showed the jewels, was offered 500 gold broad-pieces for the place. In this reign, May 9, 1671, Colonel Blood made his daring attempt to carry off ” the crown, globe, and sceptre.” The Regalia were then kept in a strong vaulted chamber of the Martin Tower, and were shown behind strong iron bars : through these, in 1815, a woman forced her hands and tore the royal crown to pieces. The Regalia were next shown at one view by the light of six argand lamps, with powerful
reflectors.

In 1842, a new Jewel-house was built in the late Tudor style, south of the Martin Tower : where the Regalia are shown upon a pyramidal stand, enclosed within plate-glass ; and over the whole is an open iron frame, or cage, of Tudor design, surmounted by a regal crown of iron.

The Regalia are : — St. Edward’s Crown, or the ancient Imperial Crown, made temp. Charles II., to replace that said to have been worn by Edward the Confessor : and with which the Sovereign is crowned at the altar. This is the crown which Blood stole : the arches, flowers, and fillets are covered with large multi-coloured jewels ; and the purple velvet cap is faced with ermine. Prof. Tennant, P.G.S., thus describes her Majesty’s State Crown :—

” The Imperial State Crown of Her Majesty Queen Victoria was made by Messrs. Rundell and Bridge in the year 1838, with jewels taken from old Crowns, and others furnished by command of her Majesty.

It consists of diamonds, pearls, rabies, sapphires, and emeralds, set in silver and gold ; it has a crimson velvet cap, with ermine border, and is lined with white silk. Its gross weight is 39 oz. 5 dwts. Troy.

The lower part of the band, above the ermine border, consists of a row of one hundred and twenty-nine pearls, and the upper part of the band a row of one hundred and twelve pearls, between which, in front of the Crown, is a large sapphire (partly drilled), purchased for the Crown by His Majesty King George the Fourth. At the back is a sapphire of smaller size, and six other sapphires (three on each side), between which are eight emeralds. Above and below the seven sapphires are fourteen diamonds, and around the eight emeralds one hundred and twenty-eight diamonds. Between the emeralds and sapphires are sixteen trefoil ornaments, containing one hundred and sixty diamonds. Above the band are eight sapphires surmounted by eight diamonds, between which are eight festoons consisting of one hundred and forty-eight diamonds. In the front of the Crown, and in the centre of a diamond Maltese cross, is the famous ruby said to have been given to Edward Prince of Wales, son of Edward III., called the Black Prince, by Don Pedro, King of Castile, after the battle of Najera, near Vittoria, a.d. 1367. This ruby was worn in the helmet of Henry V. at the battle of Agincourt, a.d. 1415. It is pierced quite through after the Eastern custom, the upper part of the piercing being filled up by a small ruby.

Around this ruby, to form the cross, are seventy-five brilliant diamonds. Three other Maltese crosses, forming the twb sides and back of the Crown, have emerald centres, and contain respectively one

• The State Crown of Charles I., found in the upper Jewel-house, contained 7 lbs. 7oz. of gold: in one of the fleurs-de-lis was ” a picture of the Virgin Mary.”

Between the four Maltese crosses are four ornaments in the form of the French fleur-de-lis, with four rubies in the centres, and surrounded by rose diamonds, containing respectively eighty-five, eighty-six, eighty-six, and eighty-seven rose diamonds. From the Maltese crosses issue four imperial arches composed of oak leaves and acorns ; the leaves containing seven hundred and twenty-eight rose, table, and brilliant diamonds ; thirty-two pearls forming the acorns, set in cups containing fifty-four rose diamonds and one table diamond. The total number of diamonds in the arches and acorns is one hundred and eight brilliant, one hundred and sixteen table, and five hundred and fifty-nine rose diamonds. From the upper part of the arches are suspended four large pendant pear-shaped pearls, with rose diamond caps, containing twelve rose diamonds, and stems containing twenty-four very small rose diamonds.

Above the arch stands the mound, containing in the lower hemisphere three hundred and four brilliants, and in the upper two hundred and forty-four brilliants ; the zone and arc being composed of thirty-three rose diamonds. The cross on the summit has a rose-cut sapphire in the centre, surrounded by four large brilliants, and one hundred and eight smaller brilliants. — Summary of Jewels comprised in the Crown : l large ruby irregularly polished; 1 large broad-spread sapphire; 16 sapphires ; 11 emeralds; 4 rubies; 1363 brilliant diamonds; 1273 rose diamonds; 147 table diamonds; 4 drop-shaped pearls; 273 pearls.”

There are correct woodcuts of the crown, by S. “Williams, in Britton’s Dictionary of Architecture, and Sharp’s Peerage. Haydon, in his Autobiography (1830), vol. ii. p. 236, has this odd entry as to the crown of George IV. : —

” The Crown at the Coronation was not bought, but borrowed. Rundell’s price was 70,000?. ; and Lord Liverpool told the King he could not sanction such an expenditure. Eundell charged 7000?. for the loan; and as some time elapsed before it was decided whether the crown should be bought or not, Eundell charged 3000?. or 4000?. more for the interval.”

The Prince of Wales’s Crown, of pure gold, plain, without jewels : it is placed upon a velvet cushion, in the House of Lords, before the seat of the Heir Apparent, when Her Majesty opens or prorogues Parliament; for which occasions it is conveyed with the imperial crown of the sovereign from the Tower, by the Keeper of the Jewel-office, attended by warders, in a coach. — The Queen Consort’s Crown, of gold, set with diamonds, pearls, and other jewels; made for the queen of William III. — The Queen’s Diadem, or Circlet of Gold, made for the coronation of Maria d’Este, consort of James II., at the cost of 111,000/. (Sandford) : it is set with diamonds, and surmounted with a string of pearls. — St. Edward’s Staff, of beaten gold, 4 feet 7 inches in length ; surmounted by an orb and cross, and shod with a steel spike ; the orb is said to contain a fragment of the true Cross. The staff weighs 9 lbs. — The Royal Sceptre, or Sceptre with the Cross, of gold : the pommel is set with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds; the fleurs-de-lis have been replaced by the rose, shamrock, and thistle, in gold ; and the cross is covered with jewels, and has a large centre table-diamond.—

The Rod of Equity, or Sceptre with the Dove, of gold, 3 feet 7 inches long, is set with diamonds, &c, and is surmounted with an orb, banded with rare diamonds, supporting a Jerusalem cross, on which is a gold dove with expanded wings. — The Queen’s Sceptre and Cross, ornamented with large diamonds; made for the coronation of Mary, Queen of William III. — The Queen’s Ivory Sceptre, made for Maria d’Este, mounted in gold, and bearing a golden cross, and a dove of white onyx : it is sometimes miscalled Queen Anne Boleyn’s. — An ancient Sceptre, found behind the wainscoting of the old Jewel-office in 1814 : it is set with jewels, and is supposed to have belonged to Mary, Queen of William III. — The Orb, of gold, 6 inches in diameter ; the bands are set with precious stones and roses of diamonds, and edged with pearls ; a very large amethyst supports the gold cross, set with diamonds, &c. — The Queen’s Orb, resembling the former, but of smaller dimensions. — The Sword of Mercy, or Curtana, of steel, but pointless; ornamented with gold. — The Swords of Justice, Ecclesiastical and Temporal. — The Armilla, or Coronation Bracelets, of gold, chased with the rose, fleur-de-lis, and harp, and edged with pearls. — The Royal Spurs, of curiously wrought gold : they are used at the coronation of king or queen. — The Ampulla, of pure gold, in the form of an eagle; is used at coronations for the holy oil, which is poured from the beak into the Gold Anointing Spoon, supposed to be the only relic of the ancient Regalia; its date is about the 12th century. The Ampulla ia said to have been brought from Sens Abbey, in France, by Thomas k Becket. — The Gold Saltcellar of State, set with jewels, and chased with grotesque figures, is in the form of a round castle, and has been miscalled ” a Model of the White Tower :” it has a central turret, and four at the angles, the tops of which are removed for the salt ; around the base are curious figures.

It was presented to the crown by the City of Exeter, and was last used at the coronation banquet of George IV. — The Baptismal Font, silver-gilt, elaborately chased, and formerly used at the christening of the Royal Family, but superseded by a new font of picturesque design. A large Silver Wine Fountain, presented by the Corporation of Plymouth to Charles II. j 12 Golden Saltcellars, chased ; two massive gold ” Coronation Tankards ;” the Banqueting Dish, Gold Spoons, and other Coronation Plate. Also, a Service of Sacramental Plate, one dish bearing a fine alto relievo of the Last Supper ; used at Coronations, and in the chapel of St. Peter in the Tower.

Admission daily (Sundays excepted), to the Armouries, Gd. each person ; and to see the Regalia, 6d. each ; in parties of twelve, conducted by a warder, every half-hour, from 12 to 4 o’clock inclusive.

TOWER ROYAL,

A SHORT street or lane between St. Antholin’s Church, Watling-street, and the south end of St. Thomas Apostle, was removed in 1853-4, in forming New Cannon-street West. It occupied the site of a building stated by Stow to have anciently belonged to the kings of England, as early as Stephen ; but it was subsequently discastled, and held as a tenement by one Simon of Beauvais, surgeon to
Edward I. Mr. Hudson Turner states it to be invariably called in early records la Real, la Riole, or la Ryle or Ryole, but not a tower j and he could not find it occupied by royalty until Edward III., in 1331, granted it to his queen Philippa as a depository for her wardrobe ; by whom la Real was externally repaired, if not rebuilt.

In 1370, Edward bestowed it upon the canons of St. Stephen’s, Westminster ; but it reverted to the Crown, and was called “the Queen’s Wardrobe” in the reign of Richard II. It was a place of strength ; and the king’s mother fled here for shelter when Wat Tyler had seized the Tower of London. Leon III., King of Armenia, when driven from his kingdom by the Turks, was lodged and entertained in Tower Royal by Richard II., in 1386. It was granted by Richard III. to the first Duke of Norfolk of the Howard family, as entered in that king’s ledger-book. In Stow’s time, Tower
Royal had become stabling for the king’s horses, and was let in tenements : the whole was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. In removing the modem houses upon the site, in 1852, were found the remains of a Roman villa: the earth was interspersed with horns, bones, teeth of goats and oxen ; tusks of boars ; fragments of flanged tiles, scored flue-tiles, amphorae, mortaria, urns, glass vessels, and Samian pottery. Some of these relics are engraved in the Illustrated London News,. No. 554.

TREASURY AND OTHER GOVERNMENT OFFICES.

ON the west side of Whitehall are the Government Offices : the Admiralty {see p. 2) ; Hoese Guards (p. 434). In 1724, 600 planks of mahogany were brought from Jamaica for the inner doors and tables of the Admiralty ; and, judging by the way in which the wood is mentioned in the public papers, it was evidently far from well known.

The Treasury occupies a portion of the site of Whitehall Palace. To make way for the north wing, the last portion of old York House was taken down in 1846 : it had been refronted, but the Tudor doorway was ancient. The principal Treasury building, however, faces the parade-ground, St. James’s Park : it was built by Kent, in 1733, and consists of three stories, Tuscan, Doric, and Ionic. The Whitehall front consists of the Treasury, Board of Trade, and Privy Council Offices; designed by Barry, R.A., in 1846-8, partly in place of Sir John Soane’s facade (the centre and south wing),
decorated with three-quarter columns from those of the Campo Vaccino at Rome.

Soane’s exterior, exposed to the criticism of every passenger, was much censured ; ” whilst the interior, in which the skill and taste of the architect are most manifest, and particularly the Council Chamber, is but little seen, and known only to a few persons.” (Britton.) Barry’s design consists of a long series of attached Corinthian columns on rusticated piers, and carrying a highly-enriched entablature and frieze j the attics have carved drops of fruit and flowers, and the balustrade carries urn-shaped vases : the whole facade is 296 feet long. The Council Office occupies the site of the old Tennis-court of the Palace. — See the print {temp. Charles II.) in Pennant’s London, 5th edit.

At the Cockpit died General Monk, Duke of Albemarle, 4th Jan. 1670 ; and in the same month his duchess, Nan Clarges. Queen Anne, when Princess of Denmark, fled down the back stairs, in 1688, to join her father’s enemies, Lord Dorset and Bishop Compton riding on each side of the hackney-coach as an escort. Hatton, in 1708, describes the Treasury Office kept at the Cockpit, ” where the Lord High Treasurer sits to receive petitions, and give orders, warrants, &c.” Here, March 8, 1711, Guiscard attempted to stab with a penknife Harley, Earl of Oxford, but was struck down by the swords of Lord Paulet and Mr. St. John. The Cockpit itself occupied nearly the site of the present Board of Trade Office, and it existed early in the present century:

the King’s speech was read ” at the Cockpit” on the day before it was delivered at the opening of the Session of Parliament; and the discontinuance of this practice was much complained of by the Opposition. The term ” Given at the Cockpit at Westminster” was in use within the writer’s recollection. The Lord High Treasurer formerly carried a staff of office (see the portrait of the great Lord Burghley) ; and he sat in a needlework chair, which is preserved at the Office of the Comptroller of the Exchequer, Whitehall-yard. ” The sovereign occasionally presided at the Board of Treasury until the accession of George III. ; and the royal throne still remains at the head of the table.” {Notes by F. S. Thomas, Record Office.) The Board of Treasury has long ceased to manage the revenue. An interesting series of Treasury Minutes, from 1667 to 1834, is appended to the ” Seventh Report of the Deputy-Keeper of the Public Records.”

Some curious relics of the ancient Royal Treasury at Westminster are preserved. Among these are a skippet, or turned box, of the time of Edward III., and a smaller hamper, or hanaper of twyggyt, of
the succeeding reign. Both were used for the preservation of title-deeds of the Crown. The skippets were packed away in an outside chest, or forcer, a cist, or coffer, of all which specimens have been found in the Pyx Chamber, at Westminster ; the storehouse of the Royal Treasury, from the period when the reigning Sovereign occupied the palace close at hand. The forcer is nearly round, made of stout leather, bound with small bars of iron ; the cist is also iron-bound. The Royal plate and jewels were usually deposited in the former. In the reign of Edward I. the Treasury was plundered of these valuables, in addition to lOO.OCKM., upwards of 2,000,0004. of our present money.

Next is Downing-street, ” between King-street E. and no thorow fair West.” {Hattori). It was named from Sir George Downing, Bart., a political ” sider with all times and changes,” who, after serving Cromwell, became Secretary to the Treasury under Charles II., 1667. At the Revolution, the property, then belonging to Lee, Lord Lichfield, was forfeited to the Crown. The largest house was, temp. George I., the office of the Hanoverian minister, Baron Bothmar, at whose death the mansion was given by the King to Sir Robert Walpole, who, in 1735, would only accept it for his office of First Lord of the Treasury, to which post he got it annexed for ever.” {Mdes Walpoliance.) It has accordingly since been the official residence of successive prime ministers : here Lady Hester Stanhope received Mr. Pitt’s guests : but the rooms are ill adapted for State assemblies. The adjoining house was purchased within the present century, for the Foreign Office, Colonial Office, and Office of the Chancellor of the Exchequer. To this cul-de-sac a street of smaller houses was added : the south side was taken down in 1828 : at the corner next King-street was the noted Cat and Bagpipes, used as a chop-house in early life by George Rose, subsequently Secretary of the Treasury, and the originator of Savings-banks. — See ” The Last Days of Downing-street,” in Walks and Talks about London, 1865.

In one of the above mansions, in 1763, died Aubrey de Vere, last Earl of Oxford. In the street lived, in 1723, John Boyle, Earl of Orrery, the friend of Swift, and contributor to The World and ConTtoiseeur. Here resided Boswell, the biographer of Johnson; and Lord Sheffield, the friend of Gibbon, the historian. In the Colonial Office, No. 14 in the street, in a small waiting-room on the right hand as you entered, the Duke of Wellington— then Sir Arthur Wellesley — and Lord Nelson, both waiting to see the Secretary of State, met — the only time in their lives. The Duke knew Nelson from his pictures; Lord Nelson did not know the Duke, but was so struck with his conversation, that he stept out of the room to inquire who he was. Mr. Cunningham relates this meeting, which has been painted and engraved.

The new Government Offices, commenced in 1863, are in course of erection, and are to include the Foreign Office, the India Office, the Colonial Office, and the Navy Office ; the whole to form a large quadrangle, fronting St. James’ -park, and Parliament-street. The architecture will be of Italianized character; the various fronts will display a large amount of characteristic sculpture. The India Office was so far completed as to have been the site of a magnificent fete given to the Sultan of Turkey, in the summer of 1867.

TRINITY HOUSE, TRINITY-SQUARE, on the north side of Tower Hill, was built by Samuel Wyatt, 1793-5, for the ancient guild founded by Sir Thomas Spert, commander of the great ship Harry Grace de Dieu, and Comptroller of the Navy to King Henry VIII., and incorporated 1515. It was then a guild or fraternity of mariners of England for the encouragement of the science of Navigation ; and was first empowered to build lighthouses and erect beacons by an Act passed in the reign of Queen Elizabeth.

Before the charter of Henry VIII. the society was of a purely monastic character, and had been established for kindred but comparatively limited purposes. The office of the Master of the Corporation at various times has been held by princes and statesmen, from 1816, when Lord Liverpool occupied the office of Master, it was held in succession by the Marquis Camden, the Duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV. ; Marquis Camden again, the Duke of Wellington, the Prince Consort, and Viscount Palmerston; the present Master, the Duke of Edinburgh — a period of half a century.

The Corporation has in charge the lighthouses and sea-marks, and the licensing of pilots, tonnage, ballastage, beaconage, &c, producing about 300,000£. a year; the net revenue, about one-fourth, is principally expended in maintaining poor disabled seamen and their widows and orphans, by pensions, in the Corporation hospitals at Deptford-Strond ; which the Master, Deputy-Master, and Brethren visit in their state-yacht, in grand procession, on Trinity Monday. A state banquet has been given annually since the Restoration, when there is a fine display of the ancient plate, some more than 250 years old. The Trinity House is of the Ionic order; upon its principal front are sculptured the arms of the Corporation, medallions of George III. and Queen Charlotte; genii with nautical instruments; the four principal lighthouses on the coast, &c. The interior has busts of Vincent, Nelson, Howe, and Duncan ; W. Pitt and Capt. J. Cotton, by Chantrey ; George III., by Turnerelli, &c. The Court-room is decorated with impersonations of the Thames, Medway, Severn, and Humber ; and among the pictures is a large painting, 20 feet long, by Gainsborough, of the Elder
Brethren of the Trinity House. In the Board-room are portraits of James I. and II., Elizabeth, Anne of Denmark, Earl Craven, Sir Francis Drake, Sir J. Leake, and General Monk ; King William IV., the Prince Consort, and the Duke of Wellington, three of the past Masters ; and George III., Queen Charlotte, and Queen Adelaide.

The arms of the Corporation are, a cross between four ships under sail.

The present is the third House built for the Corporation : the first was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666. Pepys records : ” Sept. 4, 1 after supper walked in the dark down to Tower-street, and there saw it all on fire ; at the Trinity House on that side, and the Dolphin Tavern on this side.” The second House was erected in Water-lane in 1671, and is described by Hatton as “a stately building of brick and stone, and adorned with ten Dustos.”

TYBURN AND TYBURN TREE.

TYBURN was anciently a manor and village west of London, on the Tybourn or brook, subsequently the Westbourne, the western boundary of the district, now incorporated in the parish of Paddington. This stream (within memory a favourite resort of anglers) is shown descending from the high ground about Hampstead in the maps by Saxton, 1579; Speede, 1610; Seller, 1733; in Morden’s and Seales’s, and in Rocque’s surveys. Upon its bank was the place of execution for criminals convicted in London and Middlesex as early as 1196, when William Fitzosbert, or Longbeard, was executed at Tyburn, as we learn from Roger de Wendover. In 1330, Roger de Mortimer was ” drawn and hanged” at ” the Elms,” described by Holinshed as ” now Tiborne ;” and Elms-lane, Bayswater, is pointed out to this day where the fatal elm grew, and the gentle Tiborne ran :

” Then fatal carts through Holborn seldom went,
And Tyburn with few pilgrims was content.”— Oldham’s Satire, 1682.

Elms-lane is the first opening on the right hand after getting into the Uxbridge-road from the Grand-Junction-road, opposite the head of the Serpentine ; the Serpentine itself being formed in the bed of the ancient stream, first called Tybourn, then Westbourn, then Ranelagh Sewer; while the stream which crossed Oxford-street, west of Stratford-place, first bore the name of Eyebourn, then,
Tybourn, then King’s Scholars’ Pond.— Kobins’s Paddington, 1853, p. 8.

The gallows, ” Tyburn-tree,” was a triangle upon three legs, and is so described in the 16th and 17th centuries. If Mr. Robins’s location of the gibbet be correct, it was subsequently changed ; for in the lease of the house No. 49, Connaught-square (granted by the Bishop of London), the gallows is stated to have stood upon that spot.

In 1811, Dr. Lewis, of Half Moon-street, Piccadilly, was about to erect some houses in Connaught-place (Nos. 6 to 12, I think), and during the excavation for foundations a quantity of human bones was found, with parts of wearing apparel attached thereto. A good many of the bones, say a cart-load, were taken away by order of Dr. Lewis, and buried in a pit dug for the purpose in Connaught-mews. — Communication, by Mr. Charles Lane, to the Times, May 16, 1860.

Smith (Hist. St. Mary-le-Bone) states the gallows to have been for many years a standing fixture on a small eminence at the corner of the Edgvvare-road, near the turnpike, on the identical spot where a tool-house was subsequently erected by the Uxbridge-road Trust. Beneath this place lie the bones of Bradshaw, Ireton, and other regicides, which were taken from their graves after the Restoration, and are stated to have been buried under the gallows.

On May 7, 1860, in the course of some excavation connected with the repair of a pipe in the roadway, close to the foot pavement along the garden of Arklow House, the residence of Mr. A. J. B. Beresford Hope, at the extreme south-west angle of the Edgeware-road, the workmen came upon, numerous human bones, obviously the remains of the unhappy persons buried under the gallows. — Communicated by Mr. Hope to the Times, May 9, 1860.

The gallows subsequently consisted of two uprights and a cross-beam, erected on the morning of execution across the roadway, opposite the house at the corner of Upper Bryanston-street and the Edgware-road, wherein the gibbet was deposited after being used ; and this house had curious iron balconies to the windows of the first and second floors, where the sheriff’s attended the executions. After the place of execution was changed to Newgate in 1783, the gallows was bought by a carpenter, and made into stands for beer-butts in the cellars of the Carpenters’ Arms public-house, hard by.

Formerly, when a person prosecuted for any offence, and the prisoner was executed at Tyburn, the prosecutor was presented with a ticket which exempted him from serving either on juries or any parochial business ; by virtue of the Act 10 and 11 Will. III. This Act was repealed ’by 58 Geo. III. Mr. George Phillips, of Charlotte-street, Bloomsbury, was the last individual who received the Tyburn ticket, for a burglary committed by two housebreakers on his premises. In the autumn of 1856, however, Mr. Pratt, armourer, of Bond-street, claimed and obtained exemption from serving on an Old Bailey jury by reason of his possession of a Tyburn ticket ; the judge probably not remembering the Act which repealed the privileges of the holders of Tyburn tickets.

Around the gibbet (” the fatal retreat for the unfortunate brave”) were erected open galleries like a race-course stand, wherein seats were let to spectators at executions : the key of one of them was kept by Mammy Douglas, ” the Tyburn pew-opener.” In 1758, when Dr. Henesey was to have been executed for treason, the prices of seats rose to 2s. and 2s. 6d. ; but the doctor being ” most provokingly reprieved,” a riot ensued, and most of the seats were destroyed. The criminals were conveyed thither from Newgate : “thief and parson in a Tyburn cart.”— Prologue by Dryden, 1682.

The oldest existing representation of the Tyburn gallows is in a German print in the Crowle Pennant, in the British Museum ; wherein Henrietta-Maria, queen of Charles I., is kneeling in penance beneath the triple tree : it is moonlight ; the confessor is seated in the royal coach, drawn by six horses ; and at the coach-door is a servant bearing a torch. The “pore queene,” it is stated, walked afoot (some say barefoot) from St. James’s to Tyburn, to do homage to the saintship of some recently-executed papists : but this is denied by the Marshal de Bassompierre ; the above print
is of later date than 1628, the year of the reputed pilgrimage, and its authenticity is disbelieved.

Memorable Executions at Tyburn.— 1330 (4th Edw. III.), Roger de Mortimer, for treason ; 1388 (12th Richard II.), Judge Tresilian and Sir N. Brembre, treason; 1499 (14th Hen. VII.), Perkin Warbeck was executed here for plotting his escape from the Tower ; 1534 (24th Hen. VIII.), the Holy Maid of Kent and her confederates; 1535, the last Prior of the Carthusian Monastery (Charter House) ; 1595, Robert Southwell, Elizabethan sacred poet ; 1615, Mrs. Turner, hanged in a yellow-starched ruff, for the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury; 1628, John Felton, assassin of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham; 1660-1 (Jan. 30), the first anniversary of the execution of Charles I. after the Restoration : the disinterred bodies of Oliver Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw hung in their shrouds and cerecloths at each angle of Tyburn gallows till sunset, when they were taken down and beheaded, and the bodies buried under the gallows, the heads being set on Westminster Hall; 1660-62, five persons who had signed the death-warrant of Charles I.; 1684, Sir Thomas Armstrong (Rye House Plot); 1705, John Smith, a burglar, having hung above a quarter of an hour, when a reprieve arrived, be was cut down, and being let blood, came to himself (Hatton, 1708). 1724, Jack Sheppard, housebreaker ; 1725, Jonathan Wild, thief and thief-taker; 1726, Catherine Hayes, for the murder of her husband : she was burnt alive, for the indignant mob would not suffer the hangman to strangle her, as usual, before the fire was kindled.

1760, Earl Ferrers, for the murder of his steward : he rode from the Tower, wearing his wedding-clothes, in his landau drawn by six horses ; he was indulged with a silken rope, and ” the drop” was first used instead of the cart; the executioners fought for the rope, and the mob tore the black cloth from the scaffold as relics ; the landau stood in a coach-house at Acton until it fell to pieces ; and the bill for the silken rope has been preserved. 1767, Mrs. Brownrigg, for murder ; 1774, John Rann (Sixteen-Stringed Jack), highwayman; 1775, the two Perreaus, for forgery; 1777, Rev. Dr. Dodd, forgery; 1779, Rev. James Hackman, assassination of Miss Reav: he was taken from Newgate in a mourning-coach ; 1783, Ryland, the engraver, for forgery; 1783, John Austin, the last person executed at Tyburn.

The road between St. Giles’s Pound and Tyburn gallows was first called Tyburn-road, now Oxford – street ; the lane leading from which to Piccadilly was called Tyburn-lane, now Park-lane. The original turnpike-gate stood close to St. Giles’s Pound ; then at Tyburn, removed in 1825 ; then at Winchester-row j next at Pineapple-place j and next at Kilburn. Strange have been the mutations in which the rural Tybourn “welled forth away” through pleasant fields to the Town, there became linked with the crimes of centuries, and lost in a murky sewer ; but left its name to Tybumia, the newly-built city of palaces north-west of Hyde Park.

In 1785, William Capon made a sketch of Tyburn gallows ; and at the foot of a drawing made by him from this sketch, in 1818, are the following notes :

” View looking across Hyde Park, taken from a one-pair-of-stairs window at the last house at the end of Upper Seymour-street, Edgware-road, facing where Tyburn formerly was. The eastern end of Connaught-place is now built on the very plot of ground, then occupied by a cow-lair, and dust and cinder heaps. The shadow on the right of the Edgware-road is produced by one of the three galleries which were then standing, from which people used to see criminals executed. They were standing in 1785, at which time the original sketch was made from which the picture is done.”

A portion of Tyburn gate exists :

” The arch and door, forming the centre portion of the gate, which was removed about 1825, with the old clock, are still standing at the entrance to a wooden cowshed, on the premises of Mr. Baker, a
farmer at Cricklewood, who bought them at the time when the gate was taken down.” — Curiosities of Clocks and Watches, p. 163. 1866.

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

SOMERSET HOUSE, was instituted Nov. 28, 1836, for ” rendering academical honours accessible, without distinction, to every class and every denomination.” The University consists of a chancellor, vice-chancellor, and senate ; and graduates. It is solely an examining body, and confers degrees on the graduates of University College and King’s College, London ; and the colleges not belonging to the other universities ; besides all the medical schools in the empire, and most of the colleges of the Roman Catholics, Baptists, Independents, and Wesleyans. The degrees are conferred, and the honours bestowed, in public ; and the senate first met for this purpose on May 1, 1850, in the large hall of King’s College, Somerset House ; the Earl of Burlington, Chancellor of the University, presiding. A new edifice was, in 1867, commenced building for the University in the rear of Burlington House.

WALBROOK,

A NARROW street named from the stream or brook which, rising on the north of Moorfields, entered the City through the walls, between Bishopsgate and Moorgate, and proceeded nearly along the line of the new street of that name; thence, according to Stow, across Lothbury, beneath the kitchen of Grocers’ Hall and St. Mildred’s Church, through Bucklersbury, past the sign of the ” Old Barge” (from Thames barges being rowed up there) ; and thence through the present Walbrook-street, under which it still runs as a sewer, and discharges itself, by a part of Elbow-lane, down Greenwich -lane, into the Thames at Dowgate. The Walbrook was crossed by a bridge connecting Budge-row and Cannon-street, and several other bridges, but was vaulted over with brick, and its banks built upon, long since : so that in Stow’s time the course of Walbrook was ” hidden under ground, and thereby hardly known.”

The brook was navigable not merely to Bucklersbury but as far as Coleman-street, where a Roman boat-hook has been found ; and with it was found a coin of Alectus, who ruled in Britain towards the close of the third century. In forming Prince’s-street, the workmen came upon the course of the brook, which the Romans had embanked with wooden piles ; and the bed was thickly strewn with coins, brass scales,styli, knives, tools, pottery, &c. In Walbrook was one of the three taverns in London licensed to sell sweet wines in the reign of Edward III. Walbrook gives name to the ward : at its north-east corner is St. Stephen’s Church, described at p. 204. Lower down, upon the brook, at Dowgate-hill, was the church of Allhallows the Less, destroyed in the Great Fire, and not rebuilt ; but its burial-ground, with a solitary altar-tomb, remains. Nearly opposite London Stone, in June, 1852, was unearthed part of the cloister of the church of St. Mary Bothaw, which stood near Walbrook bank at Dow-gate, and was named Boat-haw from being near a yard where boat-building was carried on : in the church was interred Fitzalwin, first Mayor of London. The writer of a quarto History of London, 1805, states that, in 1803, he saw the Wallbrook ” still trickling among the foundations of the new buildings at the Bank.”

WAPPING,

A HAMLET of Stepney, is now a long street extending from Lower East Smithfield, on the north bank of the Thames, to New Crane. It was commenced building in 1571, to secure the manor from the encroachments of the river, which made the whole site a great wash ; the Commissioners of Sewers rightly thinking that ” the tenants would not fail being attentive to their lives and property.” Stow calls it ” Wapping in the Wose,” or Wash.

Here was Execution Sock, “the usual place for hanging of pirates and sea-rovers, at the low-water mark, and there to remain till three tides had overflowed them ; but since the gallows being after removed farther off, a continual street or filthy strait passage, with alleys of small tenements or cottages built, inhabited by sailors’ victuallers, along by the river of Thames almost to Eadcliffe, a good mile from the Tower.”— Stow.

Pennant notes : ” Execution Dock still remains at Wapping, and is in use as often as a melancholy occasion requires. The criminals are to this day executed on a temporary gallows placed at low-water mark ; but the custom of leaving the body to be overflowed by the sea tides has long been omitted.” — London, 5th edit.

In 1703 a destructive fire took place at Execution Dock, by which the sufferers, mostly seamen, sea-artificers, and poor seamen’s widows, lost 13,040Z. And in 1794, a great fire occurred at Wapping, burning 630 houses, and an East India warehouse containing 35,000 bags of saltpetre — the loss was 1,000,000£.

To Wapping, in 1688, Lord Chancellor Jeffreys fled in the disguise of a coal-porter, and was captured in the Med Cow ale-house, in Anchor and Hope-alley, near King Edward’s Stairs. He was identified by a scrivener he had formerly insulted, lolling out of window in all the confidence of misplaced security. (Cunningham.) But at Leather
head, where Jeffreys had a mansion, it is traditionally asserted that he was betrayed by the butler who accompanied him in his flight, for the sake of the reward.

Joseph Ames, F.R.S., author of the Typographical Antiquities, and Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, was a ship-chandler at Wapping, where he died in 1758: ” he was a person of vast application and industry in collecting old printed hooks, prints, and other curiosities, both natural and artificial.” (Cole.) John Day, with whom originated “Fairlop Fair,” in Hainault Forest, was a block and a pump maker at Wapping. Here the first Fuchsia brought to England from the West Indies, being seen by Mr. Lee, the nurseryman, became, in the next flowering season, the parent of 300 fuchsia-plants, which Lee sold at one guinea each.

Wapping is noted, as in Stow’s time, for its nautical signs, its ship and boat builders, rope-makers, biscuit-bakers and provision-dealers ; mast, oar, and block makers ; ship-chandlers and sail-makers : and the name Wapping was probably derived from the ship’s rope called a veapp ; or from wapin-schaw, a periodical exhibition of arms, which may formerly have been held upon this open ground. In the list of subscribers to Wren’s Parentalia, 1750, is ” The Mathematical Society of Wapping ;” and nautical instrument makers are said to have abounded here.

Among the thirty-six taverns and public-houses in Wapping High-street and Wapping Wall, we find the signs- of the Ship and Pilot, Ship and Star, Ship and Punch-bowl, Union Flag and Punch-bowl, the Gun, North American Sailor, Golden Anchor, Anchor and Hope, the Ship, Town of Bamsgate, Queen’s Landing, Ship and Whale, the Three Mariners, and the Prospect of Whitby.

Between Nos. 288 and 304 are ” Wapping Old Stairs,” in Wapping-street, on the western side of the church ; but the wood-built wharf and house fronts towards the river are fast disappearing.

Strype relates that ” on Friday, the 24th of July, 1629, King Charles having hunted a stag or hart from Wanstead, in Essex, killed him in Nightingale-lane, in the hamlet of Wapping, in a garden belonging to one , who had some damage among his herbs, by reason of the multitude of people there assembled suddenly.”

The village of Radcliffe, to which Wapping joins, is of some antiquity. From hence the gallant Sir Hugh Willoughby, on May the 20th, 1553, took his departure on his fatal voyage for discovering the north-east passage to China. He sailed with great pomp by Greenwich, where the Court then lay. Mutual honours were paid on both sides. The council and courtiers appeared at the windows, the people covered the shores. The young King alone lost the noble and novel sight ; for he then lay on his death-bed ; so that the principal object of the parade was disappointed. — LZakluyt, i. 239. Pennant’s London, 5th edit.

WATLING STREET,

COMMENCING at the north-east corner of St. Panl’s-churchyard, and formerly extending through Budge-row and Cannon-street, is considered to have been the principal street of Roman London, and ” one of the four grand Roman ways in Britain ;”* as well as a British road before the arrival of the Romans : ” with the Britons it was a forest-lane or trackway ; with the Romans it became a stratum, street or raised road, constructed according to their well-known manner.” (A. J. Kempe, Archeeologia, xxvi. 467.)

The Watling-street Thistle {Eryngium eampestre) is named from this ancient road being its only known habitat in England. — Baker’s Northamptonshire Glossary, ii. 386. Watling-street, part of which remains, is one of the narrowest and most inconvenient streets in the metropolis :

“Who would of Watling-street the dangers share,
When the broad pavement of Cheapside is near?”

— Gay’s Trivia.

The Romans made it part of their grand route from the point of their invasion, through a portion of Kent and the north-eastern corner of Surrey, and thence from Stoney -street over the Thames to Dowgate, north of the river, by the present Watling-street, to Aldersgate ; where, quitting the City, it ran along Goswell-street to the west of Islingtou, through Hagbush-lane (the road in part remains), to Verulamium, or St. Albans. Dr. Stukeley, however, maintains that the old Watling-street did not enter London, but, in its course from Verulam, crossed the Oxford-road at Tyburn, and thence ran over part of Hyde Park, and by May Fair through St. James’s Park, to the Wool-staple at Westminster, and crossed the Thames by Stanegate-ferry, through St. George’s Fields, and south of the Lock Hospital, Ivent-street, to Deptford and Blackheath. Stukeley adds : ” as London increased, passengers went through the City by Cannon-street, Watling-street, and Holborn, this being a vicinal branch of Watling-street.” Wren, however, considers it to have been the centre or Praetorian way of the old Roman station ; the principal gate being at Eastcheap. In 1853, in excavating Budge-row, there was discovered a fragment of Roman wall.

In a folio Map of Middlesex, by Bowen, 1709, a Roman road appears from the corner of the Tottenham-court-road, where the Hampstead-road and the Euston-road now meet, running through what must now be the Regent’s Park, uniil it reaches Edgware, and thence to Brockley Hills, called Sulloniacse, an ancient city in Antonine’s Itinerary. In this Map, or in another with the same route, Watling-street is printed upon the highway that leads to Tyburn Turnpike, in a manner to show the whole of that distance is meant. The Roman road from Tottenham Court, after making its appearance in a variety of other maps, up to a certain date, about 1780, is nowhere to be found since in any of the Middlesex Maps. It is, however, certain that the part of Watling-street crossing Oxford-street at Tyburn, must have led to Edgware.

” Watling-street crossed the Walbrook by a bridge at the junction of Cannon-street and Budge-row, and then branching off at London Stone, in Cannon-street, ran along the Langbourne to Aldgate ; whilst a smaller road ran from the ferry at Dowgate towards Cripplegate, one of the three City gates during the Roman rule. Enough of remains of houses have been found in Budge-row and Watling-street to show that the rudiments of a street, in continuation of the line from Aldgate, existed on the west side of the brook.” — National Miscellany, No. 6.

This street, says Leland, was formerly called Atheling (or Nolle) street, from being near the Old Change, where the Mint formerly was; and afterwards, corruptly, Watheling and Waiting street : but from this Stow dissents. By another, Watling ’ is traced to the ancient British words, gwaith, work, and lea, legion, whence gwaith-lea — i.e., legion work (Gent. Mag. 1796). Dr. Jamieson states it to have been “called by the Romans Via Laetea (Milky Way), from its fancied resemblance to a broad street, or causeway, being as it were paved with stars.” Moxon, in his Tutor to Astronomy, 1670, describing the Milky Way, observes : ” some, in a sporting manner, call it Watling-street ; but why they call it so I cannot tell, except it be in regard to the narrowness itseemeth to have,” which narrowness is now contrasted with the fine broad thoroughfare of Cannon-street West. We must make room for a few more etymons of this much disputed word :

” The two words Watling Street are compounded of three English roots, which are identical with the Anglo-Saxon roots waetling-straet. No etymology hitherto advanced approximates so near, or is so significant or appropriate as this. We have to bear in mind that long before embankment and drainage were attended to in this country, the meadows (ings) were flooded after rain; and the mode of passing along the streets (the straight or direct ways), where such impediment occurred, was by wattles or hurdles, called by the French fascines, and which are now used for the same purpose in military operations. With so clear an etymological deduction, we can dispense with Hoveden’s strata quamfilii regis Welhlae straverunt (Annates, 342), with Camden’s Vitellianus, in British Ouetalin, and even with Thierry’s Ghwydd-elin-sarn, Road of the Gaels or Irish (Norman Conquest, i. 165), which are the only other etymologies deserving attention. It is to be noted that Anglo-Saxon names were given to works already “ancient, when such names were imposed.” — T. J. Buckton, Notes and Queries, 2nd S., vii.

The following is considered a good derivation: the name a Saxon corruption of the Cymric Gwydelinsarn (the way of the Gael), so called because it led to the country of the Gwyddyl — Ireland.

It is much more probable that it was the work of that people during its dominancy in South Britain ; just as were the houses whose ruins, two centuries ago, were called by the Welsh the houses of the Gael. (Thierry’s Norman Conquest, vol. i. p. 2, note. Notes and Queries, 2nd S., No. 40.)

It is also suggested to have been called by corruption only Yitellin, or Watling-street, from the name of Vitellianus.

Mr. T. Reveley, of Kendal, suggests that the Romans probably employed brushwood in forming the foundations of their roads, and may have wattled it to give it greater consistency; and that the name had been given to the several roads so called by the Anglo-Saxons from the wattling, the remains of which they had found. It would thus be synonymous with the name Wicker-street, which occurs in the tenth Antonine Itinerary. — Proc. Soc. Antiq., vol. iv. p. 256.

Watling-street has been, since Stow’s time, inhabited by ” wealthy drapers, retailers of woollen cloths, both broad and narrow, of all sorts.” Hatton describes it as ” much inhabited by wholesale grocers, tobacconists, and other great dealers.” Several of the new buildings in Cannon-street are mansion-like warehouses. At the. east end are
immense warehouses of the Manchester and silk trades j the German bronze and Bohemian glass trades ; the pin and needle trade ; and about the centre the paper trade.

Near St. Swithin’s-lane, are the wholesale tea and grocery and spice trades. Here, too, are leading houses of the shipping-trade, and Colonial Banks and Assurance Companies. Messrs. Lawrence and Sons (Alderman W. Lawrence, Lord Mayor, 1863-4) are the builders of several of these noble piles, and are the ground-landlords. Here is the
City station of the South-Eastern Railway.

The water-front towers of the Station have gilded metal finials, with weather-vanes and arms. The edifice, with its vast arch, its spacious platforms, its ten lines of rails, its broad carriage-way, and, at the end, the handsome inner front of the hotel, and the flank erections, is probably the finest station in London. The elaborate apparatus of the Cannon-street signal-box stretches across nearly the entire width of the roadway, and has above the roof 24 semaphore arms, and 16 lamps showing red, green,
and white lights. The switches which work the points and signals are adjusted in a metal frame in one straight line, and are an admirable and elaborate piece of mechanism. The levers, 67 in number, are coloured yellow, white, black, blue, and red, and numbered progressively by circular brass plates on their fronts. The yellow levers work the distance signals, and are nine in number; the white, of which there are three, are indicators, and relate to the station ; the black levers, of which there are 30, work the points, which appear very complicated, there being as many as 12 pairs of rails passing under the signal box.

The blue levers work the semaphore arms for trains outward; and the red levers, 16 in number, signal the train inwards.

WAXWORK SHOWS.

THE oldest Exhibition of Wax-work in England of which we have any record was that at Westminster Abbey, called ” the Play of the Dead Volks,” and ” the Ragged Regiment,” shown by the keeper of the tombs. From a passage in a rhyming account of the tombs in Westminster Abbey, in the Mysteries of Love and Eloquence, 1658, it would appear that at that time the following were the waxen figures exhibited in the presses :—

” Henry the Seventh, and his fair Queen,
JEdtcard the First, and his Queen ;
Henry the Fifth here stands upright,
And his fair Queen was this Queen.
” The noble prince, Prince Henry,
King James’s eldest son ;
King James, Queen Anne, Queen Elizabeth,
And so this chapel’s done.”

In Peacham’s Worth of a Penny, 1667, we read : ” For a penny you may hear a most eloquent oration upon our English kings and queens, if, keeping your hands off, you will seriously listen to David Owen, who keeps the monuments in Westminster.”

Of the wax-work we find the following account in a description of the Abbey, ” its monuments and curiosities,” ” printed for J. Newbery, at the Bible and Sun, in St. Paul’s Churchyard, 1754 :”

” Over this chapel (Islip, otherwise St. Erasmus) is a chantry in which are two large wainscot presses full of the effigies of princes and others of high quality, buried in this Abbey. These effigies resembled the deceased as near as possible, and were wont to be exposed at the funerals of our princes and other great personages in open chariots, with their proper ensigns of royalty or honour appended. Those that are here laid up are in a sad mangled condition; some stripped, and others in tattered robes, but all maimed or broken. The most ancient are the least injured, by which it would seem as if the costliness of their clothes had occasioned this ravage; for the robes of Edward VI., which were once of crimson velvet, but now appear like leather, are left entire ; but those of Q. Elizabeth and K. James the First are entirely stript, as are all the rest, of every thing of value. In two handsome wainscot presses are the effigies of K. William and Q. Mary, and Q. Anne, in good condition, and greatly admired by every eye that beholds them.” The figure of Cromwell is not here mentioned ; but in the account of his lying-in-state, the effigies is described as made to the life, in wax, apparelled in velvet, gold lace, and ermine. This figure was laid upon the bed-of-state, and carried upon the hearse in the funeral procession ; both were then deposited in Westminster Abbey : but at the Restoration, the hearse was broken in pieces, and the effigies was destroyed after hanging from a window at Whitehall.

Under date of 1761, Horace Walpole complains that ” the Chapter of Westminster sell their church over and over again : the ancient monuments tumble upon one’s head through their neglect, as one of them did, and killed a man, at Lady Elizabeth Percy’s funeral ; and they erect new waxen dolls of Queen Elizabeth, &c., to draw visits and money from the mob.”

In the Picture of London, 1806, the collection is described as ” a variety of figures in wax, in cases with glass doors, which are shown as curious to the stranger •” their exhibition was continued until 1839.

Nollekens, the sculptor, used to describe the collection as ” the wooden figures, with wax masks, all in silk tatters, that the Westminster boys called ’ the Bagged Regiment ;’ and carried before the corpse formerly ; kept in narrow closets between the wax figures of Queen Elizabeth and Lord Chatham in his robes ; in Bishop Islip’s Chapel, where you have seen the stained glass of a boy slipping down a tree, a slip of a tree, and the eye slipping out of its socket.”

New Exchange, Strand, was also noted for its Wax-work shows.

Mes. Salmon’s Wax-work, in Fleet-street, is described earlier. The minor Exhibitions of wax-work are too numerous to mention ; but we may instance a collection of figures shown at the Queen’s Bazaar, Oxford-street, in 1830; and Dubourg’s Mechanical Exhibition, in Windmill-street, Haymarket; as admirable specimens of foreign ingenuity in wax-modelling. To these may be added the lifelike and spirited figures of costumed natives of Mexico, and American Indians, modelled in wax with surprising minuteness and artistic feeling ooth in the position and grouping, varied expression, and anatomical development; cnese figures, at the Great Exhibition of 1851, gained for their artist, N. Montanari, a prize medal.

Madame Tussaud and Son’s Collection, Baker-street, Portman-square, is stated to be the oldest exhibition in Europe. It was commenced on the Boulevard du Temple at Paris in 1780, and was first shown in London, at the Lyceum, Strand, in 1802. It now consists of upwards of 300 figures in wax, in the costume of their time, and several in the dresses which they actually wore ; besides a large collection of paintings and sculpture, arranged in superb saloons.

Madame Tussaud was born at Berne, in Switzerland, in 1760. When a child she was taught to model figures in wax, by her uncle M. Curtius, at whose house she often dined with Voltaire, Rousseau, Dr. Franklin, Mirabeau, and La Fayette, of whose heads she took casts. She taught drawing and modelling to the Princess Elizabeth, and many of the French noblesse, just before the Revolution of 1789. She also modelled in wax Robespierre, Marat, and Danton ; and often took models of heads severed on the scaffold. Thus she commenced her collection of royalists, revolutionists, generals, authors and men of science, and distinguished ladies ; with which she came to London in 1802. She has left her Memoirs and Reminiscences, published in 1838 ; a very curious narrative of the old French
Revolution, and its leading characters en costume. Madame Tussaud died in London, 15 April, 1850, aged 90 ; her mother lived to the same age, her grandmother to 104, and her great-grandmother to 111.

The Tussaud Collection not only contains fine specimens of modelling in wax, but a curious assemblage of costume and personal decoration, memorials of celebrated characters, historical groups, &c. Among the most noteworthy are the costumed recumbent effigies of the Duke of Wellington; a group of Henry VIII. and his six queens ; Edward VI. and Henry VII. ; Queen Victoria and Prince Albert ; the Prince and Princess of Wales ; the Prince and Princess of Hesse ; and the rest of the Royal Family ; Alexander Emperor of Russia, taken from life, in England, in 1814 ; Napoleon Bonaparte, from life, in 1815 ; Louis XVI., his queen and children, modelled from life, in 1790, and exhibited at La Petite Trianon ; Lord Nelson, the cast taken from his face ; the beautiful Madame l’Amaranthe ; Madame Tussaud, taken by herself, William Cobbett, very like ; Madame Grisi as Lucrezia Borgia ; Richard III., from the portrait at Arundel Castle ; Voltaire (taken from life a few mouths before his death), and a Coquette of the same period, both admirably characteristic ; Loushkin, the Russian giant, 8 feet 5 inches high ; Jenny Lind, very like ; Sir Walter Scott, modelled by Madame Tussaud, in Edinburgh, in 1828 ; the Empress Eugenie and the Prince Imperial of France ; Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico ; Garibaldi, Count Cavour, Poerio, Antonelli, and Count Bismarck ; Presidents Lincoln and Johnson (United States) ; Queen Victoria (recently added). The sovereigns of the world, heroes and statesmen, are well-timed additions.

Hall of Kings. — Kings and Queens of England, since the Conquest, thirty-six in number ; the costumes and ornaments worn at the various periods, copied from historical authorities, by Mr. Francis Tussaud and assistants. This series has proved an especially attractive addition. The celebrities of the reigns are added ; as Wicklifie, Wykeham, Chaucer, Caxton, Shakspeare, &c. The ceiling of the Hall of Kings is painted by Sir James Thornhill. Here are portraits of Queen Victoria (Hayter); Prince Albert (Patten); George IV. (Lawrence); William IV. (Simpson); George III. and Queen Charlotte (Reynolds) ; George II. (Hudson) ; Louis XIV. (Parosel). Also a group of figures of Queen Victoria (the throne from Carlton Palace) ; the Queen Dowager, the Dukes of Sussex and Cambridge, and the Princess Augusta, in Coronation robes; George III. taken from life in 1809 ; William IV. as Lord High Admiral.

In the richly-gilt chamber adjoining is George IV. in his Coronation Robe, which, with two other robes, contain 567 feet of velvet and embroidery, and cost 18,000£. : the chair is the homage-chair, used at the Coronation; and the crown and sceptre, orb, orders, &c, are copies from the actual regalia. Here is a large picture of the Birth of Venus, by Boucher ; and of the Marriage of George IV., with many portraits.

Napoleon Relics. — The camp-bedstead on which Napoleon died ; the counterpane stained with his blood. Cloak worn at Marengo. Three eagles taken at Waterloo.

Cradle of the King of Rome. Bronze posthumous cast of Napoleon, and hat worn by him. Whole-length portrait of the Emperor, from Fontainebleau ; Marie Louise and Josephine, and other portraits of the Bonaparte family. Bust of Napoleon, by Canova.

Isabey’s portrait table of the Marshals. Napoleon’s three carriages : two from Waterloo, and a landau from St. Helena. His garden chair and drawing-room chair.

” The flag of Elba.” Napoleon’s sword, diamond, tooth-brush, and table-knife; dessert knife, fork, and spoons ; coffee-cup ; a piece of willow-tree from St. Helena ; shoe-socks and handkerchiefs, shirt, &c. Model figure of Napoleon in the clothes he wore at Longwood; and porcelain dessert-service used by him. Napoleon’s hair and tooth, &c.

Miscellaneous Relics. — Nelson’s Order of the Bath, and coat worn at the Nile.

Snuff-box of James II. Shirt worn by Henry IV. of France when stabbed by Ravaillac (from Cardinal Mazarin’s collection). Coat and waistcoat of the Duke of ’Wellington, given to Haydon, the painter. Model of Longwood, St. Helena.

The Chamber of Horrors contains portrait figures of the murderers Rush and the Mannings, Good and Greenacre, Courvoisier and Gould, Burke and Hare ; Dumollard and his wife, believed to have murdered seventeen or eighteen persons ; Nana Sahib ; George Townley. Pierri, Pianori, and Orsini, who attempted to assassinate the Emperor of the French. William Palmer and Catherine Wilson, the poisoners. Oxford and Francis, who shot at Queen Victoria. Franz Miiller, murderer ; Fieschi and the infernal-machine ; Marat, taken immediately after his assassination ; heads of French Revolutionists ; the knife and lunette used in decapitating 22,000 persons in the first French Revolution, purchased from M. Sanson, the grandson of the original executioner, now residing in Paris. Also a model of the guillotine, &c. ; this being a class of models in which Madame Tussaud excelled in her youth. Admission to the general collection, Is. ; Chamber of Horrors, 6d. Music, instrumental, in the evening.

The Oriental and Turkish Mitsettsi, Knightsbridge, opened 1854, contained models from Eastern life, with costumes, arms, and implements ; set scenes of Turkish baths, coffee- shops and bazaars, a wedding, repasts, and councils; the palace, the harem, and the divan ; street scenes, &c. ; the figures were modelled in wax, by James Boggi, with wonderful variety of expression and character.

WESTMINSTER.

THE general title of the western portion of the metropolis, but properly applying only to the City of Westminster, or ” the parish of St. Margaret, including the ecclesiastical district of St. John the Evangelist ; the other parishes constituting the Liberties of Westminster.” {Rev. M. E. C. Walcott.) It is named from the founding of St. Peter’s Minster on Thorney Island in the seventh century, which was called West Minster to distinguish it from St. Paul’s, the church of the East Saxons : thus the town grew up around the monastery from which it took its name. The island site, ” formed by the rude channel worn by the river tides,” in a charter of King Offa, a.d. 785, is called ” Torneia in loco terribili, quod dicitur set. Westmunster.” King Edgar’s charter describes Westminster to extend from Fleet Ditch, next the City of London, to the Military Way, now the Horseferry-road ; and from Ty bourn and Holbourne to the Thames. Subsequently, the boundary of the City of London was extended from Fleet Ditch to Temple Bar.

Thorney Island, 470 yards long and 370 yards broad, was insulated by a small stream, called in modern times Long Ditch, which has been traced from the Thames at Manchester-buildings, across King-street by Gardener’s-lane, by Prince’s-street (where it is the common sewer), to Tothill-street, and thence to the Thames at the end of Abingdon-street.

” This island comprised the precinct of the Abbey and Palace, which were further defended by lofty stone walls : those on the east and south of the College gardens being the last remains of such defences of a later date. They were pierced with four gateways : the first in King-street; the second near New Palace-yard, the foundations of which were seen in December a.d. 1838, in excavating for a sewer ; the third opening into Tothill-street; and the fourth near the mill in College-street. The precinct was entered by two bridges : one crossed the water of Long Ditch, at the east end of Gardener’s-lane having been built by Queen Matilda, the consort of King Henry I., for foot passensers ; the other still exists at the east end of College-street, underneath the pavement, — it connected Millbank with Dirty-lane.” — Walcott’s Westminster, p. 3.

Westminster, like Chelsea, Lambeth, and all the low-lying western districts of London, stands upon gravels and sands of a depth of 25 to 30 feet, with a breadth of from two to two and a-half miles, overlying a thick stratum of London clay. In the Westminster gravels mammalian remains are frequently found. From the sandy beds abutting against the abrupt line of London clay in excavations for sewers in St. James’s-square, and for the foundations of the Junior United Service Club, Charles-street, Haymarket, tusks, teeth, and bones of the elephant, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, ox, &c, were obtained, specimens of some of which are preserved carefully at the above-named club.— S. W. Mylne, F.&.S.

In Domesday-Book, Westminster is designated a village, with about 50 holders of land, and ” pannage for a hundred hogs,” probably in part of the forest of Middlesex, on the north-west ; so that the Liberty of Westminster thus early extended northward to Tyburn : the whole of the Abbey and Palace precinct, south of Pall Mall, was called by the Normans, ” Thorney Island and tout le champ.” In Domesday, also, occurs ” the vineyard lately made by Baynard,” a nobleman that came in with William the Conqueror. Westward, the parish of St. Margaret’s extends to Chelsea, and includes Kensington Palace. In 1174, Fitzstephen describes the Royal Palace as about two miles westward of the City of London, with an intervening suburb of gardens and orchards. Around the Old Palace the courtiers and nobility fixed their town residences.

The establishment of the Woolstaple at Westminster made it the early resort of merchants ; the Law Courts were fixed here, and thenceforth Parliaments were more frequently held ; and in the reign of Henry VIII., Westminster obtained the title of City, from its having been for a short time the residence and see of a bishop. St. Martin’s-in-the- Fields became a parish 1353-61.

Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, about 1560, a plan shows Westminster united to London by a double line of buildings, extending from the palace of Whitehall (built by Henry III.), by Charing Cross and along the Strand. Around Westminster Abbey and Hall, the buildings formed a town of several streets ; and at the close of Charles II.’s reign they had extended westward along the south side of St. James’s Park; and southward along Millbank to the Horseferry opposite Lambeth Palace. In the reign of Elizabeth, Westminster was the abode of great numbers of felons, masterless men, and cutpurses ; and in the next reign, ” almost every fourth house was an alehouse, harbering all sorts of lewd and badde people.” To the church of St. Margaret (originally built by Edward the Confessor) was added, in 1728, St. John’s near Millbank ; and in 1747 was completed Westminster Bridge. The old streets were so narrow, that ” opposite neighbours might shake hands out of the windows ;” and a knot of wretched lanes and alleys were called ” the desert of Westminster.” Among the old Westminster signs, mentioned in the parish-books, are The Rose (the Tudor badge) ; The Lamb and the Saracen’s Head (Crusades) ; and The White Hart (Richard II.), to this day the sign of Elliot’s Brewery at Pimlico. Westminster is governed by a High-Steward and a High-Bailiff. The first High-Steward was the great Lord Burghley. The City has returned two members to Parliament since 1 Edward VI. Abingdon-street has been built in place of Dirty-lane. Almonry, the {see p. 6), has disappeared. St. Anne’s-lane, named from the Chapel of the Mother of Our Lady, was part of the orchard and fruit-gardens of the Abbey. Henry Purcell and Dr. Heather, the famous musicians, lived here. Artillery-place was the ground for the men of Westminster’s shooting at ” the butts ;” and early in the last century it was ” made use of by those who delight in military exercises.”

Barton-street was built by Barton Booth, the celebrated actor ; and Cowley -street is named from Cowley, in Middlesex, where Booth resided. Broadway, west of Tothill-street, was granted as a hay-market by James I. and Charles II. Here were ” the White Horse and Black Morse Inns j there being none in the parish of St. Margaret at Westminster for stage-coaches, waggons, or carriers.” (Survey, circ. 1700.) In one of the Broadway courts lodged Turpin, the highwayman ; and from his mare, Black Bess, a tavern took its sign. In the Broadway lived Sir John Hill, the empiric, of physic-garden fame. (See Cheistchttech, Broadway, p. 156.)

Canon-row formerly extended from the Woolstaple northward to the south wall of the orchard of Whitehall. It is named from the dean and canons of St. Stephen’s Chapel lodging there.

“’Twas the old way when the King of England had his house, there were canons to sing service in his chapel ; so at Westminster i3 St. Stephen’s Chapel (where the House of Commons sits) from which canons the street called Canon-row has its name, because they lived there.” — Selden’s Table-talk.

It has been vulgarly called Channel-row, and in our time Cannon-row. Upon the site of the canon’s houses were built several mansions, the gardens of which reached to the
Thames : for one of these the Comptroller of the Household of Edward VI. paid only 30,?. annually. Here Anne Duchess of Somerset, sister-in-law to Queen Katherine Parr, built a stately house, wherein Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, Was born in 1590 : upon this site is Dorset-court. In 1618, William Earl of Derby built here a mansion, which was surrendered to Parliament temp. Charles I. ; and here died, in 1643, John Pym, their patriotic leader : the house was temporarily, in the reign of Charles II., the Admiralty Office ; it occupied the site of Derby-court. In Canon-row lived Lady Wheler, to whom Charles I., two days before his execution, sent, by his attendant Herbert, a token-ring : the lady handed him a cabinet, with which he returned to the King, who opened it on the morning of his execution j it contained diamonds and jewels, most part broken Georges and garters: “You see,” said he, “all the wealth now in my power to give my children.” Here is the Office of the Board of Control for the Affairs of India, originally built for the Ordnance Office, by William Atkinson : ” the Ionic portico of this chaste and fine building is one of the best proportioned and best applied in the metropolis” (Elmes). Manchester-buildings occupy the site of a mansion of the Montagues, Earls of Manchester. Charles-street : at No. 19 lived Ignatius Sancho, a negro, who had been butler to the Duke of Montague, and gave his last shilling to see Garrick play Richard III. Here Garrick and Sterne visited him ; and Mortimer, the painter, often consulted him.

Dean’s-yard, south-west of the Abbey, has a green, or playground, for the Westminster Scholars, whereon have played, in “careless childhood,” Ben Jonson, George Herbert, Cowley, Dryden, Nat. Lee, Rowe, Prior, Churchill, Dyer, Cowper, and Southey; Hakluyt, the voyager; Sir Christopher Wren, Locke, South, Atterbury, Warren Hastings, and Gibbon. In Dean’s-yard lived Sir Symonds d’Ewes, the antiquary, who delighted in bell-ringing. Bishop Wilcocks, whom Pope Clement VIII. called ” the blessed heretic,” was born in Dean’s-yard in 1673 ; in the cloisters, in 1708, died the excellent Bishop Beveridgej Carte, the Jacobite historian, lived in Dean’s-yard, where Mrs. Porter, Gibbon’s aunt, built and occupied a boarding-house.

In Little Dean’s-yard is Ashburnham House, described at p. 444. Downing-street is described at p. 807. Duke-street, “a spacious and pleasant street between St. James’s Park N., and Long Ditch S., mostly (especially the W. side) inhabited by persons of quality ” (Satton, 1708). In a house facing Charles-street lived the poet Prior. Bishop Stillingfleet, author of Origines Britannica, died here 1699 ; Archbishop Hutton, 1758 ; and Dr. Arnold, the musical composer, 1802. Dtjke-stbeet Chapel is described at p. 210.* At the corner of the south end of Delahay-street and Great George-street lived Lady Augusta Murray, ” Duchess of Sussex.”

The chapel was a portion of the magnificent house built for Lord Chancellor Jeffreys, upon a plot of ground which he obtained by grant from Charles II., on the east side of St. James’s I’ark. “As soon as the building was completed, the architect, of course, called upon him for payment, but was put off; he called again and again, but never could see him, and was often repulsed from his gate by the porter, with rudeness and ill language. The general character and despotic power of Jeffreys prevented the architect from taking any legal steps in the business, till Jeffreys’ power began to wane.

Fludyer-street, between King-street and St. James’s Park, was named from Sir Samuel Fludyer, Bart., the ground-landlord, who, when lord-major in 1761, entertained George III. and Queen Charlotte at Guildhall. Fludyer-street occupied the site of Axe-yard, from the Axe brewhouse, named in a document 23 Hen. VIII. Pepys had a house here. Fludyer-street has been taken down for the site of the new Government offices.

Gardener’ ’s-lane extends from Duke-street to King-street : here died, in 1677, Wenceslaus Hollar, the celebrated engraver, aged 70, at the moment when he had an execution in his house ; he desired of the sheriffs officers ” only the liberty of dying in his bed, and that he might not be removed to any other prison but his grave” (Oldys). He was buried in the New Chapel yard, near the place of his death ; and no monument was erected to his memory. Hollar engraved 2400 prints, and worked for the booksellers at 4d. per hour ; yet his finest prints bring rare prices. The Gatehouse is described earlier. Great George-street, named from the House of Hanover, was completed in 1750 : the site was an arm of the Thames, when the tide flowed up from Bridge-street to the canal in St. James’s Park. Here was Storey’s Gate, named from Edward Storey, who constructed the decoys in St. James’s Park for Charles II., and who lived upon the site : this gate was taken down in 1854. At No. 15, Great George-street, died Lord Chancellor Thurlow, 1806. At No. 25 (then Sir Edward Knatchbull’s) the body of Lord Byron lay in state two days, before it was removed, July 12, 1824, for interment at Hucknall, Notts. No. 25, Great George-street, has a handsome architectural front, and is now the Institution of Civil Engineers (see Libraries, p. 517 ; and Museums, p. 592). At No. 24 the Reform Club was commenced ; and here subsequently lived Alderman Sir Matthew Wood, Bart., M.P.

At the corner of the street, facing St. Margaret’s Churchyard, is the magnificent Buxton Memorial Drinking Fountain, described earlier.

Horseferry (the) is described earlier.

James-street is described earlier. It was partly taken down in 1854 for the Pimlico improvements, and the offices of the Duchy of Cornwall.

In 1763 there were but few houses in James-street, and none behind it; nor any filthy courts betwen Petty France and the Park ; nor any buildings in Palmer’s Village, or in Tothill-uclds, or on the Artillery-ground, or to the south of Market-street.— Bardwell.

King-street was the principal street of Westminster temp. Henry VIII., with Cockpit-gate at the north end, and High-gate south. Here the poet Spenser died ” for lake of bread,” in an obscure lodging, Jan. 16, 1599 ; here also died Sir Thomas Knevett, who seized Guy Fawkes. Cromwell lived here when member of Parliament, north of Blue Boar’s Head-yard. Dr. Sydenham lived upon the site of Barn’s Mews.

Near the south end, on the west side, was Thieven- (Thieves) lane* the passage for thieves to the Gatehouse prison, so that they might not escape into the Sanctuary.

The roadway was so bad, that faggots were thrown into the ruts to facilitate the passage of the state-coach when the Sovereign went to Parliament. Here, at the Bell Tavern, met the October (Queen Anne) Club. Here lodged the poet Carew, who wrote the masque of Caelum Britannicum for Charles I. Through King-street, Elizabeth and James and Charles I. proceeded to the Houses of Parliament in their state-coaches ; and the republicans of Cromwell’s days on foot and horseback. After the burning of Whitehall Palace, a broader road was made by Parliament-street. Cromwell, when he went to Ireland in 1649, took horse at his house in King-street.

Cromwell lived on the west side of the street, in a house, the precise situation of which is thus preserved in a communication to Cunningham’s Handbook of London, 1850 : — upon the first flight of King James. He then made his way into Jeffreys’ study, saw him, and pressed for his money in very urgent terms. Jeffreys appeared all humble and much confused, made many apolosdes for not settling the matter before, said he had many weighty affairs pressing on his mind at that time ; but if he would call the Tuesday following it should be finally settled. The architect went away after this promise: but between that and Tuesday, Jeffreys, in endeavouring to make his escape from England, was found out, reviled, and much bruised by the populace.” — European Magazine, 1795, p. 2A8. Part of the then ” magnificent house” is No. 23, Duke-street, with passage and steps leading to the chapel and park. There, after the terrible judge’s sudden fall, as Macaulay tells us, the exultant rabble congregated, and read on the door, with shouts of laughter, the bills which announced the sale of his property.

” Shortly before the great Trial, in 1838, between the parish of St. Margaret and the inhabitants of Privy-gardens, a very rigid examination of the old parochial rate-books took place; and in one of them Lieutenant-General Oliver Cromwell was found rated for a house in King-street, which was ascertained, with as much certainty as the extensive alterations in the vicinity would admit, to be one of two very ancient tenements lying between the north side of the gateway entrance to Blue Boar’s Head-yard and the wall of Rams’-mews ; and there was strong ground for believing that the two ancient tenements had originally been one. These tenements, as well as the Blue Soar’s Head public-house, situated on the south side of the gateway, and a portion of the stable-yard behind, for a distance of about two or three hundred feet from King-street, are the property of one of the colleges at Oxford. The public-house (Blue Boar’s Head), as rebuilt about 1750, is now (1850) standing.” — George H. Malone.

In the Cole MSS. in the British Museum is a copy of a letter of Cromwell to his wife from Dunbar, Sept. 4, 1650, addressed to her in this street.

At the north end of King-street was built, by Henry VIII., the Westminster or King’s Gate, of stone, as a communication, by a passage over it, of Whitehall Palace with the Park : it was of Tudor design, with four round-capped turrets : each front was enriched with Ionic pilasters and an entablature, roses, the portcullis, and the royal arms, and glazed biscuit-ware busts. In this Gatehouse lived the Earl of Rochester and Herr von Auls : it was taken down in 1723.

Millbank-street, in 1745 called the High, street at Millbank, was named from the Abbey water-mill, built by Nicholas Litlington, at the end of the present College-street, and turned by the stream which flowed by the Infirmary garden-wall eastward into the Thames (Walcott). Upon the site of the mill was built Peterborough House, by the first Earl of Peterborough, in the reign of Charles I., and shown in Hollar’s Map of London, 1708. Stow describes the mansion with a large front court, and fine gardens behind ; ” but its situation was bleak in winter, and not over-heaithful.” The house
was purchased by the Grosvenor family, and rebuilt : it was taken down in 1809. In the middle of Millbank lived Mr. Vidler, the Government contractor : hence the mail-coach procession started annually on the king’s birthday. The Penitentiary, at Millbank-, is described at p. 697. In New-way, adjoining, was a chapel where Eomaine preached.

Palace-yard, New, is named from William Rufus’s intended new palace, of which the hall only was built ; here was a beautiful Conduit, removed temp. Charles II. Opposite Westminster Hall gate, temp. Edward I., Lord Chief- Justice Hengham built a large stone clock-tower, taken down 1698. In this yard King Edward I. appealed to the loyalty of his people, from a platform erected against the front ot Westminster Hall, in 1297; here Perkin Warbeck was set in the stocks, in 1498; Stubbs, the Puritan attorney, and his servant, had their hands cut off in New Palace-yard, in 1580, for a
libel against Queen Elizabeth ; and William Parry was here hung and quartered for high treason, in 1578 ; here Lord Sanquhar was hanged for murder, 1612 ; Archbishop Leighton’s father was pilloried and publicly whipped for libel, 1630 ; William Prynne was pilloried here, and his Histrio-Mastix burned, 1634 ; here the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, and Lord Capel, were put to death for treason, in 1649 ; Titus Oates was pilloried here in 1685 ; and John Williams, in 1765, for publishing No. 45 of Wilkes’s North Briton. Here was the lurk’s Head, Miles’s Coffee-house, where the noted Rota Club met, whose republican opinions Harrington has glorified in his Oceana. The Tudor buildings of the old Palace were principally taken down in 1793 ; but a range, including the Star Chamber, on the eastern side of the court, were not removed until 1836 : they are described at p. 450. At his official residence, east of Westminster Hall porch, died William Godwin, the novelist, April 7, 1836, aged 81.

Palace-yard, Old, south-west of the Houses of Parliament, had on the west the old Lady Chapel of the Abbey, and abutting upon, it the White Pose Tavern, and the house of Chaucer, in which he died (the site is now occupied by the mausoleum of Henry VII.) ; and in a house between the churchyard and the Old Palace died Ben Jonson ; so that two of England’s greatest poets died almost upon the same spot. At the south-east corner of Old Palace-yard stood the house through which the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot carried their barrels into the vault ; and in the Yard, Guy Fawkes, Winter, Rookwood, and Keyes, suffered death in 1606. Here, 29th Oct. 161S, Sir Walter Raleigh was executed at eight in the morning of Lord Mayor’s Day, ” so that the pageants and fine shewes might draw away the people from beholding the tragedie of one of the gallantest worthies that ever England bred.” In the Pepysian Collection at Cambridge is a Ballad with the following title : ” Sir Walter Rauleigh his Lamentation, who was beheaded in the Old Pallace of Westminster the 29 of October 1618.

Palmer’s Village, west of the Almonry, was a low-lying district (12§ inches below high-water mark), consisting of straggling cottages around the twelve almshouses built in 1566 by the Rev. Edward Palmer, B.D., with a chapel and school attached. Forty years since, here was an old wayside inn (the Prince of Orange), rows of cottages with gardens, and the village-green, upon which the Maypole was annually set up : this rurality has now disappeared, and with it from maps and plans the name of ” Palmer’s Village.” Park-street, built circ. 1708, northward from Carteret-street, making it like a T, contains the house of Mr. Charles Townley, who, in 1772, assembled here his first collection of marbles, terra-cottas, bronzes, &c, commenced in 1768 at Rome. (See British Museum, p. 579.) Mr. Townley died here 3rd January, 1805. The house and collections are well described by J. T. Smith, in Nollelcens and his Times, vol. i. pp. 261-266. ” The late Eoyal Cockpit, which afforded Hogarth an excellent scene for his humour, remained a next-door noisy nuisance to Mr. Townley for many years.”

Petty France {Petit France, Hatton, 1708), and now York-street, from Frederick Duke of York, son of George II., having temporarily resided here, extends from Tothill-street to James-street. In Petty France was Milton’s pleasant garden-house, described at p. 654. Prince’ s-street was formerly Long Ditch : here was an ancient conduit, the site of which is now marked by a pump ; at the bottom of the well is a black marble image of St. Peter, and some marble steps. The southern extremity of this street was called Broken Cross: here, about the middle of last century, was the most ancient house in Westminster. Upon the east side of the street was built Her Majesty’s Neio Stationery Office, in neat Italian style, in 1854, upon the site of the Westminster Mews. In Prince’ s-court, at the south end of the street, lived the notorious politician, John Wilkes, in 1788.

In Queen-street was born, in 1642, James Tyrrell (a grandson of Archbishop Ussher) ; he wrote a History of England, 3 vols, folio, valuable for its exact references to the ancient chronicles.

Rochester-row is named from the Bishops of Rochester, who were also Deans of Westminster. Here are Emery Hill’s Almshouses; and opposite are the Church of St. Stephen, and Schools, built and endowed by the munificence of Miss Angela Burdett Coutts.

Sanctuary (the) of Westminster Abbey is described as the space by St. Margaret’s churchyard, between the old Gatehouse S.W., and King-street N.E. The right of sanctuary — i.e., protection to criminals and debtors from arrest — was retained by Westminster after the Dissolution in 1540; and “sanctuary men” were allowed to use a whittle only at their meals, and compelled to wear a badge. The privilege of sanctuary caused the houses within the precinct to let for high rents ; but it was totally abolished by James I. in 1623 : it is called by Fabyan, ” the Seyntwary before the Abbey.”

Here were two cruciform churches, built one above the other, the lower a double cross ; the upper, the Rev. Mr. Walcott thinks, for the debtors and inhabitants of the Broad and the Little Sanctuaries; the lower for criminals. “They could not leave the precinct without the Dean’s licence, or between sunset and sunrise.” In Little Sanctuary was the Three Tuns Tavern, built upon part of the church vaults, which served as the inn-cellar. The tower of the church, rebuilt by Edward II., contained three bells, the ringing of which ” sowered all the drinke in the town.” The church was demolished in 1750. Fifty years later was removed from Broad Sanctuary the old market-house, built in 1568 ; and .upon the site was erected, in 1805, the present Guildhall, with a Doric vestibule, S. P. Cockerell architect. Here also are the Office and Central Schools of the National Society ,• the Westminster Hospital, built 1833.

The Sanctuary churches are dt scribed by Dr. Stukeley, who remembered their standing (Archceologia, i. p. 39). There were other sanctuaries in London ; but the Westminster site alone retains its ancient name.

Here Judge Tresilian (temp. Richard II.) fled, but was dragged to Tyburn and hanged. In 1441, Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester, accused of witchcraft and treason, was denied refuge. In 1460, Lord Scales, as he was seeking sanctuary here, was murdered on the Thames. Elizabeth Woodville, queen of Edward IV., and her family, escaped from the Tower, and registered themselves “sanctuary women;” and here, “in great penury, ljrsaken of all friends,” she gave birth to Edward V.

More describes her sitting ” alow on the rushes,” in her grief. The Register of the Sanctuary, Gough states, was bought out of Sir Henry Spelman’s Collection, by Wanley, the antiquary, for Lord Weymouth, and is preserved in the library at Longleat.

The vacant ground was let, in 1821, to speculators in seats to view the coronation-procession of George IV., upon a raised platform, from Westminster Abbey to Westminster Hall. In 1854 was built, adjoining the west end of the Abbey, a block of houses in the Mediaeval style, G. G. Scott, R.A., architect ; the centre opening being the entrance to Dean’s-yard. Here is the same architect’s picturesque Memorial to the ” Old Westminsters” who perished in the Crimean War.

Tothill Fields, between Pimlico and the Thames, anciently the manor of Tothill, belonged to John Maunsel, chancellor, who, in 1256, entertained here Henry III. and his court, at a vast feast in tents and pavilions. The Normans called this district tout le champ, which is thought to have been clipped into tout le, and then corrupted into toutle and Tot-hill. (Bardwell.) It occurs, however, in an ancient lease as Toot-hill or Beacon Field,* which Mr. Hudson Turner suggested to Mr. Cunningham as the probable origin. The Rev. Mr. Walcott restricts it within the Sanctuary of the Abbey.

At the Tothill were decided wagers of battle and appeals by combat, Necromancy, sorcery, and witchcraft were punished here j and ” royal solemnities and goodly jousts were held here.” In Culpepper’s time the fields were famous for parsley. In 1642 a battery and breastwork were here erected. Here were built the ” Five Houses,” or ” Seven Chimneys,” as pest-houses for victims to the Plague ; and in 1665 the dead were buried ” in the open Tuttle Fields.” The Fields are described as of great use, pleasure, and recreation to the king’s scholars and neighbours; and in 1672 the parish made here a new Maze, which was ” much frequented in summer time in fair afternoons.” (Aubrey.) In Queen Anne’s reign, here was William Well’s bear-garden, upon the site of Vincent-square. St. Edward’s fair was removed from St. Margaret’s churchyard to Tothill Fields, 34 Hen. III., who granted the Abbot of Westminster ” leave to keepe a markette in the Tuthill every Munday, and a faire every yeare for three days ;” and Edward III. granted a fair of thirty-one days. Both fairs were suppressed by James I. Here, in 1651, the Trained Bands were drawn out ; and in the same year, Heath’s Chronicle records the Scotch prisoners ” driven like a herd of swine through Westminster to Tuthill Fields, and there sold to several merchants, and sent to the Barbadoes.” One of ” the Civil War Tracts of Lancashire,” printed by the Chetham Society, states there were ” 4000 Scots, Highlands, or Redshanks,” many with their wives and bairns, of whom 1200 were buried in Tuttle Fields. The fields next became a noted duel-ground : here, in 1711, Sir Cholmeley Dering, M.P., was killed by the first shot of Mr. Richard Thornhill, who was tried for murder and acquitted, but found guilty of manslaughter, and was burnt in the hand. Here also was an ancient Bridewell.

Tothill-street, extending from Broad Sanctuary to York-street, has lost most of its picturesque old houses. In Tothill-street lived the Bishop of Chester, 1488 ; William Lord Grey of Wilton, ” the greatest soldier of the nobility,” died 1563 ; Sir George Carew, at Caron House, 1612 j and Lincoln House was the Office of the Revels, 1664.

Southerne, the dramatic poet, lived ten years at No. 56, then as now, an oilman’s : it bears the date 1671. Betterton, the actor, was born in this street. In the reign of Elizabeth, the houses on the north side had gardens extending to the Park ; and those on the south to Orchard-street, once the orchard-garden of the Abbey. Here, in 1789, died, aged 97, Thomas Amory, who wrote the Memoirs of John Buncle. Of the Fleece public-house, No. 70, a token exists, date 1666. The old Cock public-house, taken down in 1853, is described at p. 453. Tufton-street was built by Sir Richard Tufton (d. 1631) : here was a cock-pit, which existed long after that in St. James’s Park was deserted.

Victoria-street, commenced by the Westminster Improvement Commission in 1S45, extends across the sites of the Almonry, Orchard-street, Duck-lane, New Pye-street, and part of Old Pye-street (named from Sir Robert Pye, who resided here), to Strutton-ground, named from Stourton-house, the mansion of the Lords Dacre of the South.

Thence the new street crosses Artillery-place, through Palmer’s Village, on the north side of Westminster Bridewell, past Elliot’s Brewery, to Shaftesbury-terrace, Pimlico.

Victoria-street is above 1000 yards, or nearly five furlongs in length, and 80 feet wide : * Others refer it to Toote Hill, shown in Rocque’s map (1746), just at a bend in the Horseferry-road, but now lost in the adjacent made ground the houses are 82 feet in height ; Henry Ashton architect. The ornamentation of the house-fronts, worked in cement, is extremely artistic : the interiors are mostly arranged in flats, as in Edinburgh and Paris.’ In the line of street are the three churches of St. Mark, the Holy Trinity, and Christchurch ; and at the north-west rear is St. Andrew’s Church, in the Geometrical style ; the nave aisles showing five gables on each side, filled with large and lofty windows ; architect, G. G. Scott, R.A.

Vine-street denotes the site of a vineyard, probably that of the Abbey. In the overseer’s book, 1565, is rated ” the vyne-garden ” and ” myll,” next to Bowling-alley ; the vine-garden called ” because, perhaps, vines anciently were there nourished, and wine made.” (Stow.) In Edward VI.’s time it was inclosed with buildings. Bowling-street and alley denote the site of the green where the members of the convent played at bowls. Opposite Bowling-alley is a house where the notorious Colonel Blood died, Aug. 24, 1680: upon the house-front was a shield with a coat of arms. (Walcott.)

Wood-street, described in 1720 as ” very narrow, being old boarded hovels ready to fall,” has disappeared. Here lived John Carter, the diligent antiquary. At 13, North-street, lived Elliston, the comedian, who dearly loved his art : ” wherever Elliston walked, sat, or stood still, there was the theatre.”—- ft Lamb.

Woolstaple (the) was, in 1353, appointed for weighing all the wool brought to London. The Long Staple (upon the site of Bridge-street) consisted of a strong round tower and a water-gate, which was destroyed to make room for the western abutment of Westminster Bridge, in 1741. Here was St. Stephen’s Hospital, founded by Henry VIII. in 1548, and removed in 1745, when eight almshouses were rebuilt in St. Anne’s-lane, inscribed ” Woolstaple Pensioners, 1741.” In 1628, in the overseers’ books of St. Margaret’s, is rated in the Woolstaple, ” Orlando Gibbons, ijd.”

Westminster Abbey. — In 1867, a Parliamentary return showed that the Dean and Chapter of Westminster devote to the maintenance of the fabric of the Abbey one-fifteenth part of the whole divisible income of the capitular body, together with the fees received for monuments placed in the Abbey, and the profits derived from the sale of timber on the capitular estates. In the last six years the funds thus devoted to the fabric averaged 34122. a year. In the same six years the money taken at the Abbey for the admission of persons to view the Royal tombs and private chapels averaged 12922 a year. This has been applied first in payments to the High Constable and to the guides who show the tombs and chapels, and there has been an average annual surplus of 7252. a year, which has been applied to ornamental improvements of the Abbey. The charge for viewing the tombs and chapels is 6rf. for each person. The transepts and the great nave of the Abbey are open free to the public all day.

WESTMINSTER HALL

WAS originally added to the ancient Palace at Westminster by William Rufus, who held his first court herein, 1099. In 1394-9 Richard II. had its walls heightened two feet, the windows altered, and a new timber roof constructed, from the design of Henry de Yeveley, who was master-mason to three successive kings, and to Westminster Abbey.

During the repairs of 1835 the work of the two kings (William II. and Richard II.) was distinguishable, including a Norman arcade connecting the clerestory windows. The exterior is of modern design, except the north porch and window, which, with the internal stone-work (except the south end), is one of our earliest specimens of the Perpendicular style, and is thought to have been the work of William of Wykeham. The original walls (chiefly rubble and grout-work) were then cased 1 foot 7 inches thick with stone, flying buttresses were erected as abutments on the east and west sides, and the embattled flanking towers and porch of the north front added : the towers were restored 1819-22. The roof was originally covered with lead ; for which, on account of its immense weight, slates were substituted. The lantern, of cast-iron, is an exact copy of the original one erected near the end of the 14th century : it is glazed.

The interior dimensions of Westminster Hall are 239 feet by 68, and 42 feet high.

The immense timber- framed roof is one of the finest existing examples of scientific construction in carpentry ; its only bearing being at the extremities of the great ribs, which abut against the side walls, and rest upon twenty-six sculptured stone corbels.

At half this height the timber arches spring from the stone string-course, sculptured with the white hart couchant under a tree, and other devices of Richard II. ; so that the upper half of the height of the edifice is entirely of timber (oak), unrivalled for its accurately moulded detail.

A record in St. Michan’s Church, verified by Hanmer’s Chronicle, in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, states that the roof over Westminster Hall was constructed with timber procured from the site of this church; and clumps of trees have been found during recent excavations. The record states -. ” The faire greene or commune, now called Ostomontowne-greene, was all wood, and hee that diggeth at this day to any depth shall iinde the grounde full of great rootes. From thence, anno 1098, King William Rufus, by license of Murehard, had that frame which made up the roofes of Westminster Hall, where no English spider webbeth or breedeth to this day.” — Proc. Royal Institute Irish Architects.

Loudon, however, states the roof to be of British oak, quercus sessiflora, which is so deficient in grain as not to be distinguishable, at first sight, from chestnut.

The hammer-beams are sculptured with angels bearing shields of the arms of Richard II. or Edward the Confessor, which show the excellence that sculpture in wood had attained in England so early as the fourteenth century. From the roof were formerly hung ” guidons, colours and standards, ensigns and trophies of victory f in Hatton’s time (1708), 138 colours and 34 standards, from the battles of Naseby and Worcester, Preston and Dunbar, and Blenheim : Hatton describes fourteen, with their mottoes Englished. The roof was thoroughly repaired in 1820-21, when forty loads of oak, from old ships broken up in Portsmouth Dockyard, were used in renewing decayed parts, and completing the portion at the north end, where it had been left unfinished ; the roof was also greatly strengthened by tension-rods added to the principals in 1851.

Abutting on the southern end was the Galilee, finished by Edward III., and adapted by Richard II. with a flight of steps to the approach from the Great Hall to the Chapel of St. Stephen and the principal chambers of the Palace. Above the side line of windows are dormers (added in 1820-21), which improve the chiaroscuro ; and above are apertures, opened in 1843, to aid the effect of an Exhibition of Cartoons. The Hall now forms the vestibule to the new Houses of Parliament; which Sir Charles Barry effected by removing the large window from the south end to form an archway to St. Stephen’s Porch, wherein he fixed the Hall window, with an additional transom and row of lights. (See St. Stephen’s Porch, p. 662.)

The statues by John Thomas, flanking the archway in the Hall, are : Sir Charles Barry contemplated raising the roof fourteen feet, closing the doors of the Law Courts, and decorating the walls with frescoes, &c. The heraldic decorations of the corbels and string-course are described by Mr. Willement in the Collectanea Topogr. et Gen. vol. iii. p. 55 ; and the architectural discoveries in 1835 are detailed by Mr. Sydney Smirke in Archceologia, vols. xxvi. and xxvii.

The floor of the Hall, from its low level, was occasionally flooded by the Thames.

Holinshed mentions two floods in the reign of Henry III., in 1237, when he says boats might have been rowed up and down ; and in 1242, when no one could get into the Hall except they were set on horseback. He records another, 1555, when the Hall was flooded ” unto the stairfoot, going to the Chancerie and King’s Bench, so that when the Lord Maior of London should come to present the Sheriffs to the Barons of the Exchequer, all Westminster Hall was full of water.” Also, in 1579, when the water rose so high in the Hall ” that, after the fall thereof, some fishes were found there to remain.” — Stow. These visitations were repeated in the last century, in 1735 and 1791, and to some extent even so lately as 1841.

The kings held their courts, or, as it was called, ” wore their crowns,” at the time of the Conquest, and long after, but not in Westminster Hall until the reign of Henry II. By a clause in Magna Charta, 15th June, 1215, it was declared that ” Common Pleas shall not follow the Court, but shall be held in some certain place,” doubtless Westminster Hall; and when the Aula Regia was abolished, the present arrangement of the Courts of Chancery r , King’s Bench, and Exchequer, as well as the Common Pleas, was established, with separate Judges appointed to preside over each Court. (Foss.)

” In the reign of Charles I., the Kind’s Servants, by his Majestie’s special order, went to Westminster Hall in Term-time, to invite gentlemen to cat of the King’s Acates or Viands ; and in Parliament-time, to invite the Parliament men thereunto.” — Delaune’s Anglias Metropolis, 1690.

” The Hall itself was also occasionally used as a high court of criminal justice for the solemn trials before the peers of great delinquents, impeached by the House of Commons. One of the earliest, of which there is a particular account, is that against Michael de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk, Chief Justice Tresilian, and others, in the reign of Richard II., which king himself was deposed by the Parliament in this same Hall. In subsequent times these trials often took place before commissioners appointed from among the peers, assisted by some of the judges and other commoners. Sir Thomas More and Bishop Fisher were tried in this manner ; but it is doubtful whether the Great Hall was used on these occasions, or only the Court of King’s Bench. Queen Anne Boleyn’s trial took place in the hall on a ’ scaffold ’ there erected. There is a print of Westminster Hall as it was prepared for the trial of the Earl of Strafford in 1640, in which the Queen is portrayed as looking out of her cupboard upon a scene in which her royal consort was a few years after to appear as a condemned prisoner.” — W. Foss ; Paper read to the Archceological Institute, 1866.

Memorable Trials in Westminsfer Sail. — 1S0S, Sir William Wallace condemned for treason (in Rufus’s Hall); 1417, Sir John Oldcastle the Wickliffite; 1522, Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, for treason ; 1535, Sir Thomas More arraigned here ; 1551, the Protector Somerset brought to trial, with ” bills, halberts, and pole-axes attending him,” the clamour of the people ” heard to the Long Acre beyond Charing Crosse;” 1554, Sir Thomas Wyat; 1557, Lord Stourton, for murder; 1600, Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex ; 1606, Guy Fawkes and his fellow-conspirators ; 1616, the profligate Earl and Countess of Somerset, for the murder of Sir Thomas Overbury; 1640 (18 days’ trial), Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, before Charles I. and his queen; 1649, King Charles I. (in 1661, the Act for the King’s Trial was burned by the common hangman in the Hall while the court was sitting) ; 1688, the Seven Bishops; 1710, Dr. Sacheverell; 1716, Viscount Kenmure and the Earl of Derwentwater ; 1746-47, the rebel Lords Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and Lovat; 1760, Earl Ferrers, for murder; 1776, the Duchess of Kingston, for bigamy ; 1788 to 1795, Warren Hastings’s seven years’ trial ; 1806, Lord Melville.

Parliaments assembled in this Hall as early as 1218 (33 Henry III.) and 1265 (49 Henry III.), the latter being the first representation of the people in its present form.

By a curious conjunction, one and the same person in the early reigns held the two offices of Warden of the Palace of Westminster and Warden of the Fleet Prison. Two records, of the 12th and 21th Edward III., show that there were then stalls for merchandize in, and stables under, Westminster Hall ; and that the holder of those offices was allowed to take for his profit 8d. per annum for each stall and stable, and Ad, for each stall only. By a ” rental ” of 38 Henry VI., the rents of shops varied from 2*. to 3s. Ad. a term ; and the ” goers in the Halle,” as they were called, were charged from Ad. to 12d. for the same period. The shops or stalls (resembling those in Exeter Change) are shown in the picture by Gravelot, painted in the reign of George II.

” Ranged along the left side, as you enter, are shops of booksellers, mathematical instrument makers, haberdashers, and sempstresses. At the further end of the Hall are the two Courts of King’s Bench on the left, and of the Chancery on the right, divided by a flight of steps which led to the entrances of both. In the print these Courts are inclosed to a certain height, but not covered, so that the noise in the Hall, and the flirtations of the barristers and attorneys with the sempstresses, must have occasionally disturbed the arguments of the counsel, and disarranged the gravity of the Judges. On the right side is the same array of shops, except where it is interrupted by the Court of Common Pleas, which projects into the Hall, and is similarly inclosed and uncovered. On both sides of the Hall, above the shops and the Court of Common Pleas, was a continuous display of banners, which at the date of the picture were probably those taken at the battle of Blenheim, and the other victories of Marlborough.

The Court of Common Pleas was subsequently removed to the outside of the Hall, and the inclosure of the two other Courts was completed and carried up to the roof, and thus divided from the exterior noise and racket. Counters and stalls for books (at one time sold by poor scholars of Westminster between school-hours), as well as other merchandize, were to be seen here in term-time, and during the session of Parliament, even in the beginning of the reign of George III. The Courts of Chancery and King’s Bench are removed, with the other courts, to more convenient sites on the western exterior of the Hall, with entrances into it. Thus, the edifice is now little more than a magnificent vestibule to them and to the two Houses of Parliament, and a place of congregation for lawyers and their clients when attending the Courts during term time.”— Mr. Foss, ut supra.

Archbishop Laud, in his Diary, records that on Sunday, February 20, 1630-1, the Hall was found on fire, ” by the burning of the little shops or stalls kept therein. It was soon extinguished, and the damage quickly repaired.” In the Great Fire of 1834, by which the Parliament Houses were destroyed, the noble hall was saved by the favourable direction of the wind. At the Great Fire of 1666, the Hall was filled with ” the people’s goods,” for safety.

After great part of the Palace was burnt in 1512, only the Great Hall was kept in repair ; ” and it serveth, as before it did, for feasts of coronations, arraignments of great persons charged with treasons, keeping of the courts of justice, &c.” (Stow.)

Hither came 411 of the rioters of Evil May-day, 1517, each with a halter about his neck, crying to the king upon his throne for mercy ; when ” the general pardon being pronounced, all the prisoners showted at once, and cast their halters towards the roof of the Hall.” (Stowe.)

Here Cromwell was inaugurated Lord Protector, 26th June, 1657, upon an elevated platform at the south end of the Hall, in the ancient coronation-chair, ” under a prince-
like canopy of state,” with the Bible, sword, and sceptre of the Commonwealth before him : the Protector entering the Hall, with the Lord Mayor bearing the City sword before him. On May 8th, 1660, King Charles II. was proclaimed at ” Westminster Hall Gate.” Upon the south gable were set up the heads of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw : Cromwell’s head remained 20 years.

” Abutting on the west side of Westminster Hall, and in part beneath it, were ” certain places designated Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, names that seem to indicate that they were appropriated, as two of them certainly were, to the confinement of delinquents, according to the varied degrees of punishment for their respective offences. We see from the illuminations of the Courts lately published in the 39th volume of the Arehaeologia, which are attributed to the reign of Henry VI., that at the bars of the three Courts of King’s Bench, Common Plea3, and Exchequer, certain prisoners are represented, and their place of incarceration might probably be in one or the other of these cells. Some have thought that these extraordinary names were suggested by the titles of the three parts of Dante’s Divina Commedm ; but at least one of the names occurs in the reign of Henry 111., before Dante was born. In the original accounts of the expenses in that reign, occurs : ’ Door of Hell, in the Exchequer.’ This is followed by another, to which the former probably applies : ’ House called Holle under the Exchequer.’ A third place named in the list may perhaps be the same which afterwards went by the name of Paradise or Heaven : ’ Le Godeshouse, in the receipt of the Exchequer.’ Whatever were the uses to which these places were originally applied, the custody of them was made a source of emolument, and was granted to the ’ squires of the king’s body,’ and other favourites.” — Paper by Mr. Foss, ut ante, abridged.

Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise, and another building called ” Heaven,” were subsequently converted from cells of confinement into taverns, which were much frequented by lawyers’ clerks. In Ben Jonson’s Alchemist, Dapper is forbidden to ” break his fast in Heaven and Hell.”

” False Heaven at the end o’ th* Hall.” — Hudibras.

Pepys records dining at Heaven, and spending the evening in one of these taverns with Lock and Purcell, and hearing Lock’s new canon, Domine salvum faa Tiegem. ” The
prison-keys of Purgatory, attached to a leather girdle, are still preserved.” (Walcott’s Westminster, p. 221.) Here were kept the ” ducking-stools,” with which the burgesses of Westminster (by statute 27 Elizabeth) were empowered to punish common scolds, &c. Heaven and Purgatory were taken down about 1741, and Hell about 1793.

For the preparation of the Coronation banquets, the courts, when within the Hall, were removed, and the shops and stalls boarded over. A petition of the shopkeepers in the reign of George I. prays that, as their shops are boarded up for the ceremony of the Coronation, the leads and the outsides of the windows of the west side of the Hall may be granted for their use and advantage. Strype describes, at the upper end of the Hall, a long marble stone, 12 feet in length and thi^ee feet in breadth; also a marble chair, where the Kings of England formerly sat at their Coronation dinners, and at other solemn times the Lord Chancellor ; but not to be seen, being built over by the two Courts of Chancery and King’s Bench.

Edward I. held here his Coronation feast, for which the Hall was whitewashed. At the Coronation feast of Richard II. (July 16, 1377), Sir John Dymock, as successor of the Marmions, and in right of his wife, Margaret de Ludlow, claiming the privilege by his tenure of the manor of Scrivelsby, in Lincolnshire, having chosen the best charger save one in the king’s stables, and the best suit of armour save one in the royal armoury, rode in, armed to the teeth, and challenged, as the king’s champion, all opposers of the young monarch’s title to the crown ; this picturesque ceremony was last performed at the coronation of George IV.

Haydon, the historical painter, describes the Coronation Festival of George IV. (Autobiography, vol. ii.), which he witnessed from the Chamberlain’s box : ” The Hall doors were opened, and the flower-girls entered, strewing flowers. The distant trumpets and shouts of the people, the slow march, and at last the appearance of the King, crowned and under a golden canopy, and the universal burst of the assembly at seeing him, affected everybody After the banquet was over came the most imposing scene of all, the championship. Wellington, in his coronet, walked down the Hall, cheered by the officers of the Guards. He shortly returned, mounted, with Lords Anglesea and Howard. They
rode gracefully to the foot of the throne, and then backed out. The Hall doors opened again ; and outside, in twiliaht, a man in dark-shadowed armour appeared against the shining sky. He then moved, passed into darkness under the arch, and suddenly Wellington, Howard, and the champion stood in full view, with doors closed behind them. This was certainly the finest sight of the day.

The herald then read the challenge: the glove was thrown down. They all then proceeded to the throne.”

The coronation of George IV., in the Abbey, is described at p. 133 ; and the ceremony and the banquet in the admirable letter by Sir Walter Scott. The bill of fare of the banquet in the Hall is printed in Mr. Kirwan’s very interesting Host and Guest, and is as follows : —

Sot Dishes. — 160 tureens of soup ; 80 of turtle; 40 of rice; 40 of vermicelli; 80 dishes of turbot; 40 of trout; 40 of salmon ; 80 dishes of venison; 40 of roast beef; 3 barons of beef; 40 dishes of mutton and veal; 160 dishes of vegetables; 4S0 sauce boats; 240 lobsters; 120 of butter; 120 of mint. — Cold Dishes.— 80 of braised ham; 80 of savoury pies; 80 of geese, d la daube, two in each dish; 80 of savoury cakes ; 80 of braised beef; 80 of braised capons, two in each dish; 1190 side dishes ; 320 of
mounted pastry ; 400 of jellies and creams ; fcO of lobsters ; 80 of cray-fish ; 161 of roast fowls ; 80 of house lamb.

Total Quantities. — Beef, 7442 lbs.; veal, 7133 lbs.; mutton, 2474 lbs.; house lamb, 20 quarters; legs of ditto, 20 ; lamb, 5 saddles ; grass lamb, 65 quarters; lamb sweetbreads, 160; cow-heels, 389 ; calves’ feet, 400; suet, 250 lbs. ; geese, 160; pullets and capons, 720; chickens, 1610; fowls for stock, 620; bacon, 1730 lbs. ; lard, 550 lbs.; butter, 912 If*. ; eggs, 8400.

The Wines.— Champagne, 100 doz. ; Burgundy, 20 doz. ; claret, more than 200 doz. ; hock, 50 doz. ; Moselle, 60 doz. ; Madeira, 50 doz. ; sherry and port, about 350 doz. ; iced punch, 100 gallons.

Dessert. — The glut of fruit was unprecedented : a gentleman of Lambeth cut 60 ripe pine-apples on the occasion ; and many hundreds of pines, remarkable for size and flavour, were sent from all parts of the country; one from Lord Cawdor’s weighed 10 lbs., and formed part of the royal dessert. The expenses of the above Banquet and the Coronation together amounted to more than 268,O00Z. The Coronation (crowning only — no banquet) of William IV. did not cost 50,0002.

Besides the Coronation Banquets, we have record of many others from the earliest time. On New Year’s Day, 1236, King Henry the Third feasted 6000 poor men, women, and children. In 1241 the same King sumptuously entertained there the Pope’s Legate and his nobility; and again in 1243 he celebrated there the nuptials of his brother, Bichard, Earl of Cornwall, with a banquet, at which it is said there were no less than 30,000 dishes, though where room was found for them it is difficult to imagine. When the repairs of the Hall were completed in 1399, King; Bichard the Second is recorded to have plentifully entertained 10,000 in it : it is cautiously noted, ” in other rooms of the palace ;’ for it is clear that the guests would not otherwise have had elbow-room. Fabyan relates in his Chronicle that Henry the Seventh, in the ninth year of his reign, kept a royal feast there ; and the same King used the Hall for certain entertainments under the name of ” disguisyngs,” which were exhibited to the people at Christmas ; and we have the following proof that they were provided or assisted by the Government. An entry occurs in the Issue Roll of a payment of 282. 3». 6f d. (a large sum in those days) to Bichard Doland, ” for providing certain spectacles or theatres, commonly called scaffolds,” for these performances.

Westminster Hall is called the Great Hall, to distinguish it from the Little or Lesser Sail, the House of Commons after the fire of 1834. The Great Hall is erroneously stated to be the widest in Europe without any intermediate support, for there are two roofs in Italy which surpass it. The next largest ancient apartment in England is the dormitory attached to the great monastery of Durham.

In the hall have been found, in a crevice of the masonry of the old walls, the leather sheath of a knife, stamped with fleurs-de-lis and with lions passant, together with a
quantity of bones, &c, remnants of the royal feasts held in the hall, and which had probably, together with the sheath, been dragged into the holes and crevices by rats and mice.

WHITECHAPEL,

” A VERY extraordinary spacious street, between Whitechapel Bars (to which the -^1- freedom reaches) W., and the road to Mile-end E.” (Halton, 1708). It was, until the construction of the Eastern Counties Railway, the great Essex road : hence its numerous inns, some with old galleried yards. Upon the south side, west end, among the butchers’ shops, is No. 76, a picturesque house-front, bearing the Prince of Wales’s feathers and H. S. (Henry Stuart), the arms of Westminster, the fleur-de-lis of France, and the thistle of Scotland. On the north side was a prison for debtors, in the manor of Stepney, under the sum of 51., of which there is in the Beaufoy Collection a Token, 1656 ; also a Whitechapel pawnbroker’s Token, thought to be unique Defoe lived here in safety during the Great Plague year j and he describes the richer sort of people thronging out of town from the City hy this road, with their families and servants.

Whitechapel has been sanitarily improved by the furnaces of the factories consuming their own smoke. In Wentworth-street are the Model Baths and Wash-houses, established 1845. St. Mary’s Church, Whitechapel, is described at p. 146, Here was the offensive altar-piece, painted by W. Fellowes, in which Judas the traitor greatly resembled Dean Kennet {see the print in the Society of Antiquaries’ Library) : the picture, now in St. Albans Abbey-church, is attributed to Sir James Thornhill.

In Colchester-street, Leman-street, in 1854, was burnt the house No. 1, built 16S7, and noted as the rendezvous of Claude Duval, the highwayman. Near the lower end of Whitechapel-lane was a Roman cemetery, in which was found, in 1776, a monumental stone inscribed to a soldier of the 24th legion. In 1854, there was living in the Whitechapel-road a corn-dealer aged 107, active in business as a man of 60. At No. 267, Whitechapel-road, is the Bell-foundry of Chas. and Geo. Mears, where have been cast many thousands of single bells : they have often 30 tons of molten metal in their furnaces. Here were cast, in 1835, ” the New Great Tom of Lincoln,” 5 tons 8 cwt.; the Great Bell of Montreal, 13 tons 10 cwt.; Great Peter of York, 11 tons; the bells of the New Royal Exchange, &c. And here was re-cast the Great Bell for Westminster clock, ” St. Stephen,”.

WHITEFRIARS,

THE streets, lanes, and alleys between Water-lane (now Whitefriars-street) and the Temple, and Fleet-street and the Thames ; formerly the site of the house and gardens of a convent of Carmelites, or White Friars, founded by Sir Richard Gray in 1241, upon ground given by King Edward I. The church was rebuilt by Hugh Courtenay, Earl of Devon, about 1350 ; and Robert Marshall, Bishop of Hereford, about 1420, added the steeple, as shown in the Sutherland View of London, 1543.

Stow gives a long list of benefactors and nobles buried in the church. At the Reformation, the chapter-house was given by Henry VIII. to his physician, Dr. Butts. In the next reign, the church, with its stately tombs, was demolished ; and in its place were ” many fair houses built, lodgings for noblemen and others” (Stow). Here lived Sir John Cheke, Tutor and Secretary of State to Edward VI. The hall or refectory of the dissolved monastery was used as the Whitefriars Theatre. The precinct had long possessed the privileges of Sanctuary, which were confirmed by charter of James I. in 1608 ; hence it became the asylum of characterless debtors, cheats, and gamblers, here protected from arrest : it acquired the cant name of ” Alsatia,” and is the scene of Shadwell’s Squire of Alsatia, the characters of which ” dare not stir out of Whitefryers :” one of its cant-named portions, Lombard-street (its ” lewd women” were complained of by the Friars in the reign of E«’ward III.), exists to this day ; as does
Lombard-street in the Southwark Mint. Poets and players were attracted to Whitefriars by the contiguous theatre in Dorset Gardens: dancing-masters and fencing-masters flocked here ; and here, in the reign of James I., Turner the fencing-master was assassinated by two ruffians hired by Lord Sanquhar, whose eye Turner had put out during a fencing lesson several years before, but he had been forgiven the accident.

The two assassins were hanged opposite Whitefriars gates in Fleet-street ; and Lord Sanquhar was hanged in Old Palace-yard. In the Friary -house, Selden lived with Elizabeth, Countess-dowager of Kent, who bequeathed him the mansion : he died here, Nov. 30, 1654, and was buried in the Temple Church. The finest edition of Selden’s works, by Wilkins, 3 vols, folio, was printed in Whitefriars by William Bowyer, father and son ; their printing-office was the Qeorge Tavern, Dogwell-court, a scene in Shadwell’s Squire of Alsatia ; in this house, William Bowyer, jun., was born in 1699.

The premises are now the printing-office of Bradbury, Evans, and Co., who maintain the excellence of their predecessors. Few other traces of old Whitefriars remain.

Hanging- Sword- Alley, east of Water-lane, is named from ” a house called the Hanging Sword,” mentioned by Stow. In Temple-lane are the Whitefriars Glass-works, established circa. 1700.

The White Friars spared no cost to procure books for their monastery : no book was to be sold, but they had their emissaries provided with money to buy it.

WHITEHALL

THAT part of “Westminster which extends from near Charing Cross to Canon-row, and from the Thames to St. James’s Park, was the site of the royal Palace of “Whitehall from 1530 to 1697. It was formerly called York-place, from having heen the town residence of the Archbishops of York : one of whom, Walter de Grey, purchased it in 1248 from the Convent of Black Friars of Holborn, to which it had been bequeathed by Hubert de Burgh, the Justiciary of England, and famous minister of Henry III., who had bought the inheritance from the monks of Westminster for 140 marks of silver. The property was conveyed by Walter de Grey to his successors in the see of York. Cardinal Wolsey was the last Archbishop of York by whom the palace was inhabited : he built extensively, and ” lived a long season ” here, in sumptuous state :

” Where fruitful Thames salutes the learned shore
Was this grave prelate and the muses plac’d,
And by those waves he builded had before
A royal house with learned muses grac’d,
But by his death imperfect and defac’d.”

Storer’s Metrical History of Wolsey, 1599.

Upon the fall of Wolsey, in 1529, York Place was taken from him by Henry VIII., and the broken-hearted prelate left in his barge on the Thames for Esher. The name of the palace was then changed to White Hall,* possibly from some new buildings having been constructed of white stone, at a time when bricks and timber were generally used, —

” You must no more call it York Place — that is past :
For since the Cardinal fell, that title’s lost;
’Tis now the King’s, and call’d White Hall.”

Shakspeare’s King Henry VIII., act iv. sc. 1.

Here Henry and Anne Boleyn were married in a garret of the palace, says Lingard ; Stow says, in a closet. Henry built a noble stone gallery, from which, in 1539, he reviewed 15,000 armed citizens : from this gallery also the court and nobility witnessed the jousts and tournaments in the Tilt-yard, now the parade-ground of the Horse Guards. The King ” most sumptuously and curiously builded many beautiful, costly, and pleasant lodgings, buildings, and mansions;” and added a tennis-court, bowling-alleys, and a cock-pit, ” for his pastime and solace.”

Whitehall was seven years in building ; and in 1536 (the old palace of Edward the Confessor having been in utter ruin and decay since the fire in 1512), it was enacted by Parliament that all the ground, mansion and buildings, the park, and the entire space between Charing Cross and the Sanctuary at Westminster, from the Thames on the east side to the park-wall westward, should be cleared and called the King’s Palace of Westminster. Here Henry VIII. assembled many pictures, which afterwards became the nucleus of the splendid collection of Charles I. Henry made munificent proposals to Raphael and Titian, and the former painted for him a ” St. George.” The King also took into his service Hans Holbein, and gave him apartments at Whitehall, with a pension, besides paying him for his pictures. Holbein built, opposite the entrance to the Tilt-yard, a magnificent Gate-house, of small squared stones and flint boulder, glazed and tessellated : on each front were four terra-cotta busts, naturally coloured, and gilt. This gate was removed in 1750, when it was begged by William Duke of Cumberland, son of George II., with the intention of rebuilding it in the Great Park at Windsor ; the stones were numbered for this purpose, which was never fulfilled. Three of the busts, Henry VII. and VIII. and Bishop Fisher, are now at Hatfield Priory, Essex. The Gate-house was used as a State-paper Office many years before its removal, and was known as the Cockpit Gate. At Whitehall, on December 30, 1546, Henry signed his will, and on January 28 expired. Edward VI. held a Parliament at Whitehall : 1553. “And this y ere the furst day of (March was the) parlament, and kepte wythin the kyngcs pallys at Westmyster, YVhythalle.” — Chron. Grey Friars Lond.

The ” White Hall ” was a name not unfrequently given by our ancestors to the festive halls of their habitations : there was a White Hall at Kenilworth ; and the Hall formerly the House of Lords was the White Hall of the royal Palace of Westminster, and is so called by Stow.

Bisbop Latimer preached before the Court in the Privy Garden, the King sitting at one of the palace windows. Queen Mary went from Whitehall by water to her coronation at Westminster, Elizabeth bearing the crown before her. Whitehall palace was attacked by Sir Thomas Wyat’s rebels, who “shotte divers arrowes into the courte, the gate beying open ;” and looking out over the gate, the Queen pardoned the Kent men, with baiters about their necks. From the palace the Princess Elizabeth was taken captive to the Tower on Palm Sunday, 1554. At Whitehall, November 13, 1555, did Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester and Lord Chancellor of England, at midnight, exclaiming : ” I have sinned, I have not wept with Peter.” Hentzner describes,

in 1598, Elizabeth’s library of Greek, Latin, Italian, and French books ; a little one, in her own handwriting, addressed to her father ; and a book of prayers written by Elizabeth in five languages, with her own miniature and that of her suitor, the Duke d’Anjou. In her 67th year, ” she appoints a Frenchman to doe feates upon a rope in the conduit court. To-morrow she hath commanded the bear, the bull, and the ape to be bayted in the tilt-yard. Upon Wednesday she will have solemn dawncing.” (Sotvland White.)

Elizabeth revived the pageants and joustings at Whitehall ; and here she built ” the Fortress or Castell of perfect Beautie,” a large wooden banqueting-house on the north-west side of the palace. In 1561 Sackville and Norton’s tragedy of Ferrex and Forrex was acted here by gentlemen of the Inner Temple.

In the great gallery, Elizabeth received the Speaker and Commons House, when they came ” to move her grace to marriage.” On March 24, 1603, ” then deceased,” from Richmond, ” the Queen was brought by water to Whitehall.”

In the Orchard of Whitehall the Lords in Council met; and in the Garden, James I. knighted 300 or 400 judges, Serjeants, doctors-at-law, &c. Here the Lord Monteagle imparted to the Earl of Salisbury the warning letter of the Gunpowder Plot; Guy Fawkes was examined in the King’s bedchamber, and carried hence to the Tower. In 1617, when James visited Scotland, Lord Keeper Bacon resided at Whitehall. James L, in 1608, had “the old, rotten, slight-builded Banqueting House” removed, and next year rebuilt ; but it was destroyed by fire in 1619. In this reign were produced many ” most glorious masques” by Inigo Jones and Ben Jonson ; and Inigo designed a new palace, the drawings for which are preserved in Worcester College, Oxford.

In magnitude, Inigo Jones’s plan would have exceeded that of the palace of Diocletian, and would have covered nearly 24 acres. It was to have consisted of seven courts, to have extended 874 feet fronting the Thames, and the same length along the foot of St. James’s Park : presenting one front to Charing Cross, of 1200 feet long; and another, the principal, of similar dimensions towards Westminster Abbey. A more distinct idea may be formed of this extent by comparing it with that of other palaces : thus, Hampton Court covers 8 or 9 acres, St. James’s 4, Buckingham 2½ acres.

Of Jones’s magnificent design, only the Banqueting-house was completed. Charles I. commissioned Kubens to paint the ceiling, and by his agency obtained the Cartoons of Kaphael. In the Cabinet- room of the palace, built also by Inigo Jones, fronting westward to Privy Garden, Charles assembled pictures of almost incalculable value ; the royal collection containing 460 paintings, including 28 by Titian, 11 by Correggio, 16 by Julio Komano, 9 by Kaphael, 4 by Guido, and 7 by Parmegiano. Upon the Civil War breaking out, Whitehall was seized by the Parliament, who, in 1645, had ” the boarded masque-house” pulled down, sold great part of the paintings and statues, and burnt the ” superstitious pictures.” Here, Jan. 30, 1649, in the Cabinet-room Charles last prayed ; in the Horn-chamber he was delivered to the officers, and thence led out to execution upon a scaffold in front of the Banqueting-house.

The King was taken on the first morning of his trial, Jan. 20, 1649, in a sedan-chair, from Whitehall to Cotton House, where he slept pending his trial in Westminster Hall ; after which the king returned to Whitehall ; but on the night before his execution he slept at St. James’s. On Jan. 30 he was ” most barbarously murthered at his own door, about two o’clock in the afternoon.” (Histor. Guide, 3d imp., 1688.) Lord Leicester and Dugdale state that Charles was beheaded at Whitehall gate. The scaffold was erected in front of the Banqueting-house, in the street now Whitehall; and Herbert states that the king was led out by ” a passage broken through the wall,” on to the scaffold ; but Ludlow states that it was out of a window, according to Vertue, of a small building north of the Banqueting-house, whence the king stepped upon the scaffold. A picture of the sad scene, painted by Weesop, in the manner of Vandyke, shows the platform, extending only in length, before two of the windows, to the commencement of the third casement. Weesop visited England from Holland in 1641, and quitted England in 1650, saying ” he would never reside in a country where they cut off their king’s head, and were not ashamed of the action.” — (See painful inquiries upon the identity of the place of execution, in Notes and Queries, 3rd s. iii. 213, 292 ; iv. 195.

Cromwell, by vote of Parliament in 1650, had ” the use of the lodging called the Cockpit, of the Spring Garden, and St. James’s House, and the command of St. James’s Park,” for some time before he assumed the supreme power. To Whitehall, in 1653, April 20th, he returned with the keys in his pocket, after dissolving the Long Parliament, which he subsequently explained to the Little or Barebones Parliament assembled in the Council-chamber of Whitehall. Here the Parliament desired Cromwell to ” magnify himself with the title of King ;” here Milton was Cromwell’s Latin Secretary, Andrew Marvell his frequent guest, with Waller his friend and kinsman, and sometimes the youthful Dryden. Cromwell repurchased the Cartoons and many other pictures, and in 1656 Evelyn found the palace ” very glorious and well-furnished.”

Here Cromwell expired, Sept. 3, 1658, ” the double day of victory and death.” Richard Cromwell resided here. Charles II., at the Restoration, came in grand procession of seven hours from the City to Whitehall. To the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury Charles assigned the Cockpit ; and in this locality their chambers have ever since remained. Charles collected by proclamation the plate, hangings, and paintings, which had been pillaged from the palace : he also built a stone gallery to flank Privy
Garden, and below it suites of apartments for his ” Beauties.” Evelyn describes the Duchess of Portsmouth’s apartment, ” twice or thrice pulled down and rebuilt to satisfy her prodigal and expensive pleasures ;” its French tapestry, ” Japan cabinets, screens, pendule clocks, great vases of wrought plate, table-stands, chimney-furniture, sconces, branches, brasenas, &c., all of massive silver, and out of number.” Evelyn also sketches a Sunday evening in the palace :

” The king sitting and toying with his concubines, Portsmouth, Cleveland, and Mazarin, &c. ; a French boy singing love-songs in those glorious galleries ; whilst about twenty of the great courtiers and other dissolute persons were at Basset round a large table, a bank of at least 2000/. in gold before them. Six days after all was in the dust.”

In Vertue’s plan are shown the buttery, bakehouse, wood and coal yards, charcoal-house, spicery, cider-house ; and, beneath the Banqueting-house, the king’s privy cellar.

Owing to its low level, Whitehall was liable to floods from the Thames. Pepys, in 1663, records a high tide having drowned the whole palace ; and Charles II., when he
received the Lords and Commons in the Banqueting-hall at the Restoration, desires them to mend the ways, so that his wife ” may not find Whitehall under water.”

At Whitehall Charles collected about 1000 volumes, dedicated or presented to him : including an illuminated Breviary given by Henry VII. to his daughter, Margaret Queen of Scots, with his autograph ; a curious MS. in high Dutch on the Great Elixir ; a French MS. 300 years old, with paintings of plants in miniature ; and a journal, &c. in the handwriting of Edward VI. Charles II. died at Whitehall, Feb. 6, 1685; and his successor was immediately proclaimed at the palace-gate. James II. resided here : he washed the feet of the poor with his own hands on Maundy Thursday in the Chapel Royal : here he admitted Penn, the Quaker, to his private closet ; and he rebuilt the chapel for Romish worship, with marble statues by Gibbons, and a fresco by Verrio.

The King also erected upon the Banqueting-house a large weathercock, that he might calculate by the wind the probable arrival of the Dutch fleet. (See Canaletti’s view.)

On Dec. 18, 1688, James left Whitehall in the state-barge, never to return. In 1691 a destructive fire reduced the palace to ” nothing but walls and ruins :” 150 houses were burned down, and twenty blown up with gunpowder. In 1697 a fire broke out in the laundry ; all the pictures in the palace were destroyed, and twelve persons perished. The remaining portions of the site of Whitehall were given away by the Crown. Charles Duke of Richmond had a mansion on the south-east side of Privy Garden : it was rebuilt from a plan by the Earl of Burlington, and was burnt down in 1791 ; its site is now occupied by Richmond-terrace.

His Grace was a liberal patron of the fine arts, and in 1758 ordered a room to be opened at his house in Whitehall, containing a large collection of original plaster casts, from the best antique busts and statues at Rome and Florence, to which all artists, and youths above twelve years of age, had ready access : he also bestowed two medals annually on those who executed the two best models.

In Privy Garden was also built Pembroke House ; and subsequently, Guoydir House, now the Office of the Poor-Law Board.

Gardens and Dials. — Whitehall gardens were laid out in terraces and parterres, and ornamented with marble and bronze statues, a few of which are now at Hampton Court and Windsor. In Privy Garden was a dial set up by Edward Gunter, professor of astronomy at Gresham College (and of which he published a description), by command of James I., in 1624. A large stone pedestal bore four dials at the four corners, and ” the great horizontal concave ” in the centre ; besides east, west, north, and south dials at the sides. In the reign of Charles II. this dial was defaced by an intoxicated nobleman of the Court :

” This place for a dial was too unsecure, Since a guard and a garden could not defend ; For so near to the Court they will never endure Any witness to show how their time they misspend.” — Marvell.

In the court-yard facing the Banqueting-house was another curious dial, set up in 1669 by order of Charles II. It was invented by one Francis Hall, alias Lyne, a Jesuit, and professor of mathematics at Liege. This dial consisted of five stages rising in a pyramidal form, and bearing several vertical and reclining dials, globes cut into
planes, and glass bowls ; showing ” besides the houres of all kinds,” ” many things also belonging to geography, astrology, and astronomy, by the sun’s shadow made visible to the eye.” Among the pictures were portraits of the King, the two Queens, the Duke of York, and Prince Rupert. Father Lyne published a description of this dial, which consisted of seventy-three parts : it is illustrated with seventeen plates. (The details are condensed in No. 400 of the Mirror.) About 1710, William Allingham, a mathematician in Canon- row, asked 500Z. to repair this dial : it was last seen by Vertue at Buckingham House.

Remains of ancient Whitehall have been from time to time discovered. In 1831, Mr. Sydney Smirke, F.S.A., in the basement of ” Cromwell House,” Whitehall-yard, found a stone-built and groined Tudor apartment — undoubtedly a relic of Wolsey’s palace, and corresponding with the wine-cellar in Vertue’s plan, — which is remarkably larger than the chapel. Mr. Smirke also found a Tudor arched doorway, with remains of the arms of Wolsey and the see of York in the spandrels; a portion of the river-wall and circular bastions ; and two stone mullioned Tudor windows, at the back of the Almonry-office, corresponding with the back wall of the apartments of ” the Yeomen of the Wood-yard,” in Vertue’s plan. In 1847 were removed the last remains of York House, a Tudor embattled doorway, which had been built into a later facade of the Treasury. (Archceologia, vol. xxv.)

Among the relics, comparatively but little known, is a range of chambers, with groined roofings of stone, at the Rolls Offices in Whitehall-gardens, which, probably, are a portion of the ancient palace of Whitehall. Part of the external wall of these remains is still visible opposite the statue of James II. — H. Mogford, F.S.A.

Upon the site of the small-beer cellar (engraved in No. 4 of Hollar’s prints of Whitehall) is the house of the Earl of Fife. Here were some fine Gobelins tapestry ; a marble picture of Mary Stuart, with her infant ; and in Pennant’s time here was a head of Charles I. when Prince of Wales, said to have been painted at Madrid by Velasquez, in 1625* The mansion was sold, in 1809, for 12,000Z. to the Earl of Liverpool, who possessed it until his death in 1828. In an adjoining wall is the Tudor arched eutrance to the palace water-stairs. In Privy Garden was the celebrated Museum formed by the Duchess of Portland : here Pennant was shown a rich pearl surmounted with a crown, which was taken out of the ear of Charles I. after his head was struck off: here also was the Barberini or Portland Vase, purchased by the Duchess of Sir William Hamilton for 1800 guineas. The museum was sold by auction, in lots, April 24, 1786, when the vase was bought by the Duke of Portland for 1029 guineas, and deposited by his grace in the British Museum in 1810.

In Whitehall Yard is the United Seetice Institution Museum, described at page 545. No. 3 is the Office of the Comptroller General of the Exchequer, where is held “the Trial of the Pyx.”

» In 1845, Mr. Snare, of Reading, bought at a sale of pictures at Radley Hall a painting which he believed to be ” the lost portrait ” of Prince Charles by Velasquez, and so denoted by the Earl of fife in a catalogue of his pictures at Fife House, in 1798. (See Account of the Picture, &c. Beading, 1847.)

SCOTLAND YARD

” The Scottish Kings appear to have been anciently regarded as members of the English Parliament; and there are instances, among the Tower records, of the issuing of writs to summon their attendance. In Pinkerton’s Iconograpkia Scotica is engraved Edward I. sitting in Parliament, with Alexander, King of Scots, on his right, and Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, on his left hand : this is stated to have been taken from a copy of an ancient limning, formerly in the English College of Arms. When the Scottish Sovereigns, in later times, attended to do homage for their fiefs of Cumberland and Westmoreland, they usually lodged in their palace, in Scotland-yard.” — Noib : in Brayley’s Londiniana, ii. 277-8. Scotland-yard is now the head-quarters of the Metropolitan Police. See pp. 681 — 683.

Here are Palace-row, and a large Conduit-house. Milton, when Latin Secretary to Cromwell, had apartments in Scotland-yard, where died the poet’s infant son. The Crown Surveyor had his official residence in Scotland-yard; and here lived Inigo Jones, Sir John Denham, and Sir Christopher Wren, who successively filled the above office.

Near his house in Scotland-yard, Inigo Jones, uniting with Nicholas Stone, the sculptor, buried his money in a private place. ” The Parliament published an order encouraging servants to inform of such concealments ; and as four of the workmen were privy to the deposit, Jones and his friend removed it privately, and with their own hands buried it in Lambeth Marsh.” — Life by Cunningham.

Here Sir John Vanbrugh built himself a house out of the ruins of Whitehall Palace : Swift has ridiculed the house of ” brother Van” for its resemblance to a goose-pie : Vanbrugh died here in 1726.

WINDOWS OF PAINTED AND STAINED GLASS.

THE more noteworthy specimens in the Metropolis are incidentally noticed in describing the edifices which contain them. The following are recent additions : — ¦ St. Paul’s Cathedral. — One of a series of windows is that presented by Mr. Thomas Brown, late of the house of Longman and Co. — the subjects depicted being from the Life of St. Paul. The cartoons were designed by Schnorr, and Professor Strahuber is the artist, who was asked by Schnorr himself to carry his designs into effect. Inspector von Ainmiller was requested in like manner to take in hand the architectural accessories. The window is divided into two parts. The upper and principal part represents the ” Vision ” seen by the Apostle, and in the lower portion Ananias is seen coming to St. Paul when blind. To the right and left, the donor and his wife are represented in a kneeling posture, and beneath are their coats of arms and other decorations. The composition and the architectural portion — chiefly from motifs by the English architect, Penrose, who superintends the works of restoration-are excellent.

Mr. Sydney Smirke, F.S.A., in the basement of ” Cromwell House,” Whitehall-yard, found a stone-built and groined Tudor apartment — undoubtedly a relic of Wolsey*s palace, and corresponding with the wine-cellar in Vertue’s plan, — which is remarkably larger than the chapel. Mr. Smirke also found a Tudor arched doorway, with remains of the arms of Wolsey and the see of York in the spandrels; a portion of the river-wall and circular bastions; and two stone mullioned Tudor windows, at the back of the Almonry -office, corresponding with the back wall of the apartments of ” the Yeomen of the Wood-yard,” in Vertue’s plan. In 1847 were removed the last remains of York

House, a Tudor embattled doorway, which had been built into a later facade of the Treasury. {Archceologia, vol. xxv.)

Among the relics, comparatively but little known, is a range of chambers, with groined roofings of stone, at the Rolls Offices iu Whitehall-gardens, which, probably, are a portion of the ancient palace of Whitehall. Part of the external wall of these remains is still visible opposite the statue of James II. — H. Mogford, F.S.A.

Upon the site of the small-beer cellar (engraved in No. 4 of Hollar’s prints of Whitehall) is the house of the Earl of Fife. Here were some fine Gobelins tapestry ; a marble picture of Mary Stuart, with her infant ; and in Pennant’s time here was a head of Charles I. when Prince of Wales, said to have been painted at Madrid by Velasquez, in 1625* The mansion was sold, in 1809, for 12,000£. to the Earl of Liverpool, who possessed it until his death in 1828. In an adjoining wall is the Tudor arched entrance to the palace water-stairs. In Privy Garden was the celebrated Museum formed by the Duchess of Portland : here Pennant was shown a rich pearl surmounted with a crown, which was taken out of the ear of Charles I. after his head was struck off: here also was the Barberini or Portland Vase, purchased by the Duchess of Sir William Hamilton for 1800 guineas. The museum was sold by auction, in lots, April 24, 1786, when the vase was bought by the Duke of Portland for 1029 guineas, and deposited by his grace in the British Museum in 1810.

In Whitehall Yard is the United Service Institution Museum, described at page 545. No. 3 is the Office of the Comptroller General of the Exchequer, where is held “the Trial of the Pyx.”

* In 1845, Mr. Snare, of Beading, bought at a sale of pictures at Badley Hall a painting which he believed to be ” the lost portrait ” of Prince Charles by Velasquez, and so denoted by the Earl of Fife in a catalogue of his pictures at Fife House, in 1798. (See Account of the Picture, &c. Beading, 1847.)

The ceremony of the Pyx is a very ancient custom, and takes place every five, six, or seven years, at the above offices, or in Old Palace-jard. It is a sort of trial of the Masters and Officers of the Mint, to ascertain if the coinage which they have issued is pure and standard gold and silver, fair weights, and proper quantities of alloy. A jury of eminent goldsmiths being sworn, the Master of the Mint produces the great pyx box. The chest, which requires six men to carry it, contains several thousand sovereigns and some silver — principally florins, shillings, sixpenny, and threepenny pieces — the results of the accumulation since the previous trial. As soon as the chest is full the trial must take place.

The chief clerk of the Exchequer produces the box containing “the pyx,” that is, a plate of gold and one of silver, made in the time of George III. The pyx is always kept in the ancient chapel at Westminster; the Controller of the Exchequer, Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Treasury, each possessing a separate key of the box in which the pix is kept. After the usual formalities, the Lord Chancellor cuts off two strips of metal from the pix plates, one from the gold and the other from the silver, and hands them to the foreman of the jury of goldsmiths, by whom the assay is to be made. After this the pix is taken back to the Chapter-house and locked up, while the jury and the chief clerk, with the standard weights, proceed to Goldsmiths’ Hall, where the coins from the Mint pix box are assayed by the acid test and weight. The ceremony and the actual process are well described in the Times, Jan. 20, 1866.

In Whitehall Gardens (till our time called by the old name, Privy Garden) is Montague House {see p. 553) ; No. 4 is Sib Robert Peel’s (see p. 555). No. 7 is Pembroke House (formerly the Earl of Harrington’s) : in 1854, it was fitted up for the War Minister.

Whitehall commences at Scotland-yard, named from its having been the site of tbe palace ” for receipt of the Kings of Scotland, when they came to the Parliament of England :” to this statement by Stow, it has been objected that Scotland has always been an independent nation — a short period of possession under the Edwards excepted.

Strype, quoting a pamphlet of 1548, states the Palace to have been built by Kenneth III., King of Scotland, in 959, on ground given him by King Edgar, for his making thither an annual journey to do homage for the kingdom of Scotland: but this account is less credited than Stow’s.

“The Scottish Kings appear to have been anciently regarded as members of the English Parliament; and there are instances, among the Tower records, of the issuing of writs to summon their attendance. In Pinkerton’s Iconographia Scotica is engraved Edward I. sitting in Parliament, with Alexander, King of Scots, on his right, and Llewellyn, Prince of Wales, on his left hand : this is stated to have been taken from a copy of an ancient limning, formerly in the English College of Arms. When the Scottish Sovereigns, in later times, attended to do homage for their fiefs of Cumberland and Westmoreland, they usually lodged in their palace, in Scotland-yard.” — Note : in Brayley’s Londinianu, ii. 277-8.

Scotland-yard is now the head-quarters of the Metropolitan Police.

Here are Palace-row, and a large Conduit-house. Milton, wben Latin Secretary to Cromwell, had apartments in Scotland-yard, where died the poet’s infant son. The Crown Surveyor had his official residence in Scotland-yard ; and here lived Inigo Jones, Sir John Denham, and Sir Christopher Wren, who successively filled the above office.

Near his house in Scotland-yard, Inigo Jones, uniting with Nicholas Stone, the sculptor, buried his money in a private place. ” The Parliament published an order encouraging servants to inform of such concealments ; and as four of the workmen were privy to the deposit, Jones and his friend removed it privately, and with their own hands buried it in Lambeth Marsh.” — Life by Cunningham.

Here Sir John Vanbrugh built himself a house out of the ruins of Whitehall Palace : Swift has ridiculed the house of ” brother Van” for its resemblance to a goose-pie : Vanbrugh died here in 1726.

WINDOWS OF PAINTED AND STAINED GLASS.

THE more noteworthy specimens in the Metropolis are incidentally noticed in describing the edifices which contain them. The following are recent additions : — St. Paul’s Cathedral. — One of a series of windows is that presented by Mr. Thomas Brown, late of the house of Longman and Co. — the subjects depicted being from the Life of St. Paul. The cartoons were designed by Schnorr, and Professor Strahuber is the artist, who was asked by Schnorr himself to carry his designs into effect. Inspector von Ainmiller was requested in like manner to take in hand the architectural accessories. The window is divided into two parts. The upper and principal part represents the ” Vision ” seen by the Apostle, and in the lower portion Ananias is seen coming to St. Paul when blind. To the right and left, the donor and his wife are represented in a kneeling posture, and beneath are their coats of arms and other decorations. The composition and the architectural portion — chiefly from motifs by the English architect, Penrose, who superintends the works of restoration- are excellent.

The Guildhall. — Amongst the enrichments of the Hall are several windows, one of whir h, presented hy Mr, Cornelius Lea Wilson, is of fine historical design, hy Gibbs. It is in four compartments, the subjects being the presentation of the four principal charters of the City ; the figures are richly coloured and jewelled on diapered backgrounds, and are surmounted by canopies on a rich ruby ground; the arms of the City and those of the donor are introduced in the tracery lights. The first subject is William the Conqueror holding in his hand the first charter granted to the City. The second subject is Henry I. presenting the charter granting to the City to hold Middlesex with London, and the right of hunting in the forests. The third subject is Richard I. granting the charter to the City of the conservancy of the river Thames, in order that the fishery might be nurtured and preserved, and the navigation encouraged and protected. The fourth and last subject is Edward VI. presenting the charter of the four Royal Hospitals.

A large specimen of Glass-painting was exhibited at No. 15, Oxford-street, in 1830.

The subject was the Tournament of the Field of Cloth-of-Gold, between Henry VIII. and Francis I., at Ardres ; the last tourney, June 25, 1520 : painted by Thomas Wilmshurst (the horses by Woodward), from a sketch by R. T. Bone. This window was 432 square feet, or 18 by 24 feet; and consisted of 350 pieces, fitted into metal astragals, falling with the shadows, so that the whole picture appeared an entire sheet of glass; it was exhibited in a first-floor room, decorated in the taste of the time of Henry VIII. The picture was composed from the details of Hall’s Chronicle, and contained upwards of 100 life-sized figures (40 portraits, mostly after Holbein) : including the two Queens, Wolsey, Anne Boleyne, and the Countess of Chateaubriant ; Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk ; Queen Mary, Dowager of France ; the ill-fated Duke of Buckingham, &c. The gorgeous assemblage of costume, gold and jewels, waving plumes, glittering arms, velvet, ermine, and cloth-of-gold, with heraldic emblazonry, picturesquely managed. The work cost the artist 3000,5. On the night of Jan. 31, 1832, the house was destroyed in an accidental fire, and with it the picture; not even a sketch or study was saved, and the property was wholly uninsured.

Curiosities of London: S

This was scanned in from an old document which has caused numerous misreadings of words. As time moves on, this will be improved.


SAVOY {THE).

ON the spot, south side of the Strand, and which still bears the name of Savoy, but is now mostly occupied by Wellington-street and Lancaster-place, was anciently a noble palace, magnificently rebuilt by Henry, first Duke of Lancaster. Here was confined John King of France, taken prisoner by Edward the Black Prince, at Poictiers, in 1356 ; ” and thyder came to se hym the kyng and the quene often tymes, and made hym gret feest and cheere :” he was released in 1360 ; but returning to captivity, died in the Savoy, ” his antient prison,” in 1364. The demesnes descended to John of
Gaunt : here the poet Chaucer was his frequent guest ; some of his poems were written in the Savoy ; and Chaucer’s Dream allegorises his own marriage with Philippa, a lady of the duchess’ household. But Gaunt, a staunch Wickliffite, had his palace attacked by the Londoners in 1377. In 1381 it was burnt by Wat Tyler’s rebels : the costly plate and furniture were destroyed or thrown into the Thames, and the great hall and several houses were blown up. Shakspeare lays a scene of his Richard II. in a room of the Savoy, which, however, was then in rums. Thus it lay until 1505, when was commenced building the Hospital of St. John the Baptist, the history of which, and its celebrated Chapel Eoyal, is narrated at pp. 142-144. Here Charles II. established “the French Church in the Savoy;”* and here were churches for the Dutch, High Germans, and Lutherans; the German- Lutheran church has been rebuilt. (Savoy Prison, see p. 703.)

SCHOOLS, PUBLIC.

THE great Schools of London are as follow : Chaeterhottse, described at pp. 86-88;

Christ’s Hospital (Blue-coat School), described at pp. 95-101. The City OF London School occupies the site of Honey-lane Market, in the rear of the houses facing Bow Church, and was designed by J. B. Bunning ; the first stone laid by Lord Brougham, Oct. 21, 1835. The style is Elizabethan, with earlier and more enriched principal windows and entrance; the latter, a rich arched doorway, sur
mounted by a lofty gable pediment, and above, an open gallery of five trefoiled pointed arches on lofty pillars, flanked by buttress-turrets 76^ feet high, is novel and picturesque. The cost of the edifice, about 12,000/., was defrayed by the Corporation of London, who gave the site, which produced a yearly rental of 300/. The school, for 400 scholars, is partly supported with 900/. a-year derived from certain lands and tenements bequeathed by John Carpenter, Town-Clerk and ” Secretary” of London in the reign of Henry VI. ; and who several times represented the City in Parliament, and was ” executor of the will of Bichard Whityngton.” Carpenter’s bequest, originally but 19/. 10*. per annum, was “for the finding and bringing up of four poor men’s children with meat, drink, apparel, learning at the schools, in the universities, &c, until they be preferred, and then others in their places for ever.” (Stow.)

The bequest was thus appropriated in 1633, when the boys wore ” coats of London russet,” with buttons; and they were accustomed from time to time to show their copy-books to the Chamberlain, in proof of the application of the Charity. In 1827 it was extended to the education of four boys, sons of freemen, and nominated by the Lord Mayor, at the Tonbridge Grammar School ; each boy, on quitting, received 100/., thus increasing the annual expense to about 420/. In the lapse of nearly four centuries, the value of Carpenter’s estates had augmented from 19/. 10s. to 900/., or
nearly five-and-forty fold, when the school was re-established as above. The form of admission must be signed by a member of the Corporation of London ; the general course of instruction includes the English, French, German, Latin, and Greek languages. The school is mainly indebted to Mr. Alderman Hale (Lord Mayor 1864-5), for its re- establishment and great extension.

* The first five churches in London appropriated to the Protestants of France were the old Temple in Threadneedle-street, and those of the Savoy, Marylebone, and Castle-street ; and a church in Spitalfields, added upon the application of the consistory to James II. To these were successively added twenty-six others, mostly founded during the reigns of William III., Queen Anne, and George I. :— That of Leicester-fields, founded in 1688, of which Saurin was minister; that of Spring-gardens, whose first pastor was Francis Flahaut ; that of Glasshouse-square, formed in 1688 ; Swallow-street, Piccadilly, 1692 ; Berwick-street, 1689 ; Charenton, in Newport-market, 1701 ; West-street, Seven Dials, which the refugees called the Pyramid, or the Tremblade; the Carre, Westminster, 1689; the Tabernacle, 1696; Hungerford. 1689, which subsisted until 1832 ; the Temple of Soho, or the Patent, erected in 1689 ; Eyder’s-couro, 1700; Martin’s-lane, City, 1686; St. James’s, 1701; the Artillery, Bishopsgate, 1691; Hoxton, 1748; St. John, Shoreditch, 1687 ; the Patent, in Spitalfields, or the New Patent, 1689; Crispin-street, 1693; Peart-street, 1697; Bell-lane, Spitalfields, 1718; Swanfields, 1721; Wheeler-street, Spitalfields, 1703; Petticoat-lane, Spitalfields, 1694; Wapping, 1711; Blackfriars, 1716. Several of these churches ultimately adopted the Anglican ritual.— Weiss’ Hist. French Protestant Refugees,

There are eight free foundation scholarships available as exhibitions to the Universities, in addition to the following: the Times’ scholarship {see Cheist’s Hospital, p. 99), three Beaufoy scholarships, the Salomons scholarship, and the Travers’ scholarship, and the Tegg scholarship (“Sheriff’s Fine”), varying-from 35/. to 501. a year each ; and there are other valuable prizes determinable by examination at Midsummer.

Upon the great staircase of the school is a statue, by Nixon, of John Carpenter, in the costume of his period ; he bears in his left hand his Liber Alius, a collection of the City laws, customs, and privileges, compiled in 1419, and still preserved in the Corporation archives; translated 1861. The statue is placed upon a pedestal inscribed with a compendious history of the founder, and his many benevolent acts.*

Mercers’ School, College-hill, Dowgate, was founded and endowed by the

Mercers’ Company, for seventy scholars of any age or place. It is mentioned as early

as 1447, and was then kept at the Hospital of St. Thomas of Aeon ; but was removed

to St. Mary Colechurch, next the Mercers’ Chapel. After the Great Fire of 1666,

the school-house was rebuilt on the west side of the Old Jewry. In 1787 it was

removed to 13, Budge-row ; in 1804, to 20, Eed Lion-court, Watling-street ; and from

thence, in 1808, to premises on College-hill. The present school, designed by George

Smith, is an elegant stone structure (adjoining St. Michael’s Church), on the site of

Whittington’s Almshouses, removed to Highgate to make room for it. The education,

classical and general, is free ; the boys being selected in turn by the Master and three

Wardens of the Mercers’ Company. Among the early scholars were Dr. Colet, Sir

Thomas Gresham, and Bishop Wren.

Merchant Taylors’ School, Suffolk -lane, Cannon-street, was founded in 1561 by

the Merchant Taylors’ Company, principally by the gift of 500Z., and other sub-

scriptions by members of the Court of Assistants, among whom was Sir Thomas White,

sometime Master of the Company, and who had recently founded St. John’s College,

Oxford. With these funds was purchased part of ” the Manor of the Rose,” a palace

originally built by Sir John Poultney, Knt., five times Lord Mayor of London, in the

reign of Edward III.; the estate successively belonged to the De la Pole or Suffolk

family (whence Suffolk-lane), and the Staffords, Dukes of Buckingham :

” The Duke being at the Kose, within the parish

Saint Lawrence Poultney.” — Shakspeare, Henry VIII, act i. sc. 2.

Hence, also, ” Duck’s-Foot-lane” (the Duke’s foot-lane, or private way from the

garden to the Thames), which is hard by. These ancient premises were destroyed in

the Great Fire of 1666, and the present building was erected on the same site, in

1675, by Wren : it is a large brick edifice, with pilasters ; the upper school-room, and

library adjoining, supported by stone pillars, forming a cloister ; there are also other

rooms, and the head master’s residence. The boys are admitted at any age, on the

nomination of the forty members of the Court of the Company in rotation ; and the

scholars may remain until the Monday after St. John the Baptist’s Day preceding

their nineteenth birth. Hebrew, Greek, and Latin have been taught since the

foundation of the school ; mathematics, writing, and arithmetic were added in 1829,

and French and modern history in 1846. The boys are entitled to thirty-seven out of

the fifty fellowships at St. John’s College, Oxford, and several other exhibitions at both

the Universities; the election to which takes place annually on St. Barnabas’ Day,

June 11, when the school prizes are also distributed: there is another speech-day,

“Doctors’ Day,” in December. Plays were formerly performed by the Merchant

Taylors’ boys, who, in 1664, acted Beaumont and Fletcher’s Love’s Pilgrimage in the

Company’s Hall, but under order that this ” should bee noe precident for the future.’*

Amongst the eminent scholars educated at Merchant Taylors’ were, Bishops Andrewes, Dove, and

Tomson, three of the translators of the Bible ; Archbishop Juxon, who attended Charles I. to the scaf-

fold ; Bishop Hopkins (of Londonderry) ; Archbishops Sir William Dawes, Gilbert, and Boulter ; Bishop

Van Mildert, and eleven other prelates; Titus Oates, who contrived the “Popish Plot;” James

* At the expense of John Carpenter was ” artificially and richly painted” the Dance of Death upon

the north cloister of St. Paul’s, and thence called the ” Dance at Paul’s.” It consisted of a long train

of all orders of mankind; each figure having for a partner the spectral Death leading the sepulchral

dance, and shaking the last sands from his hour-glass : intended as a moral memorial of the Plague and

Famine of 1438. Among Carpenter’s property is a lease of premises in Cornhill, granted by the City, for

eighty years, at the annual service of a red rose for the first thirty years, and a yearly rent of 208. for

the remainder of the term.

3a2

724 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

Whitelock, Justice of the King’s Bench; Bulstrode Whitelock, who wrote his Memorials; Shirley,

the dramatic poet, contemporary with Massinger; Charles VVheatley, the ritualist; Neal, the historian

of the Puritans; Edmund Calamy, and his grandson Edmund, the Nonconformists— the former died in

1666, from seeing London in ashes after the Great Fire; the great Lord Clive; Dr. Vicesimus Knox, one

of the ” British Essayists;” Dr. William Lowth, the learned classic and theologian; Nicholas Amhurst,

associated with Bolingbroke and Pulteney in the Craftsman ; Charles Mathews, the elder, come.lian ;

Lieut.-Col. Denham, the explorer of central Africa; and J. L. Adolphus. the barrister, who wrote a History of the Reign of George III. Also, Sir John Dodson, Queen’s Advocate ; Sir Henry Ellis, and Samuel Birch, of the British Museum; John Gough Nichols, F.S.A.; Albert Smith, litterateur.

St. Olave’s and St. John’s Feee Gbammab- School (originally St. Olave’s) was founded by the inhabitants in ( 1561 ; and endowed, among otber property, with the ” Horseydowne” field, at the yearly rent of a red rose, which is paid by the Church-wardens and Overseers previously to the annual commemoration sermon on Nov. 17, by presenting to each of the School Governors a nosegay of fiowcrs with a rose in it.

The School originated in the bequest of a wealthy brewer named Leeke, who in 1561 left 81. a-year for a free school in St. Savyor’s, which bequest, however, was to go to St. Olave’s, if within two years of his death a school should be built and established there. St. Olave’s contrived to secure the legacy ; and in 1 567 the school was made free, and incorporated by Queen Elizabeth ; charter extended by Charles II., 1674.

In 1579, Horseydowne (now Horselydown;, was passed over by the parish to the use of the School. It was originally a large grazing field, down, or pasture, for horses and cattle, containing about sixteen acres ; but having long since been covered with houses erected on building leases, which have fallen in, the yearly income of the School from this source is upwards of 20001. The old school, in Churchyard-alley, was taken down about 1830, for making the approaches to the new London Bridge, when a piece of ground in Duke-street was granted by the City of London as a site for a new school ; but this ground was exchanged with the London and Greenwich Railway Company for a site in Bermondsey-street, where the school was rebuilt, and opened Nov. 17, 1835.

It was in the latest Tudor or Elizabethan style, of red brick, with an octangular embattled tower, lantern-roofed j James Field, architect. In 1849, this new building being required for the enlargement of the terminus of the London, Brighton, and South-Coast Railway Company, they paid a considerable sum of money for it, the Governors undertaking to find another site for the school, and rebuild the same ; the tuition being in the meantime carried on in a temporary building in Maze Pond.

The School is free to ” children and younglings,” rich or poor, inhabitants of St. Olave’s and St. John’s parishes, admitted by presentation from the Governors. The Classical School consists of about 220 boys ; and the branch or English School, in Magdalen-street, and built in 1824, contains about 260 boys. The Governors also award annually four exhibitions at Oxford or Cambridge University, besides apprentice-fees for poor scholars, and funds for other benevolent purposes. Commemoration-day, Nov. 17 (accession of Elizabeth).

“The seal of the corporation, dated 1576, and distinguished by a rose displayed, the ancient cog-

nizance of Southwark, represents the master sitting in a high-backed chair at his desk, on which is a

book, and the rod is conspicuously displayed, to the terror of five scholars standing before him.” — G. B.

Corner, F. S. A.

St. Paul’s School, east end of St. Paul’s Churchyard, was founded in 1512, by Dr.

John Colet, son of Sir Henry Colet, mercer, and lord mayor in 1486 and 1495 ; and it

is ” hard to say whether he left better lands for the maintenance of his school, or wiser

laws for the government thereof” (Fuller). The school is for 153 boys of “every

nation, country, and class;” the 153 alluding to the number of fishes taken by St.

Peter (John xxi. 2). The education is entirely classical ; the presentations to the

school are in the gift of the Master of the Mercers’ Company; and scholars are

admitted at fifteen, but eligible at any age. The original school-house was built

1508-12 : this was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, but was rebuilt by Wren ; this

second school was taken down in 1824, and the present school built of stone from the

designs of George Smith : it has a handsome central portico upon a rusticated base,

projecting over the street pavement. The original endowment, and for several years

the only endowment of the school, was 551. 14?. 10^d., the value of estates in Bucking-

hamshire, which now produce 1858Z. 16*. 10^d. a-year ; and with other property make

the present income of the school upwards of 50001. Lilly, the eminent grammarian,

the friend of Erasmus and Sir Thomas More, was the first schoolmaster of St. Paul’s,

and ” Lilly’s Grammar” is used to this day in the school : the English rudiments were

written by Colet, the preface to the first edition by Cardinal Wolsey j the Latin syntax

SCHOOLS, PUBLIC. 725

chiefly by Erasmus, and the remainder by Lilly. Colet directed that the children should

not use tallow but wax candles in the school ; 4d. entrance-money for each was to be given

to the poor scholar who swept the school j and the masters were to have livery-gowns

” delivered in clothe.” The present teachers consist of a high-master, salary 618/. per

annum, with spacious house j sur-master, 307/. ; under-master, or ancient chaplain,

227/. ; assistant-master, 257/. : the last master only having no house. The scholars’

only expense is for books and wax tapers. There are several very valuable exhibitions,

decided at the Apposition, held in the first three days of the fourth week after Easter,

when a commemorative oration is delivered by the senior boy, and prizes are presented

from the governors. In the time of the founder, the ” Apposition dinner” was ” an

assembly and a litell dinner, ordayned by the surveyor, not exceedynge the pryce of four

nobles.”

In the list of eminent Paulines are — Sir Anthony Denny and Sir William Paget, privy councillors

to Henry VIII.; John Leland, the antiquary; John Milton, our great epic poet ; Samuel Pepys, the

diarist; John Strype, the ecclesiastical historian; Dr. Calamy, the High Churchman; the great Duke

of Marlborough : It. W. Ellistou, the comedian : Sir C. Mansfield Clarke, Bart. ; Lord Chancellor

Truro, &c.

On Apposition Day, June 4, 1851, were announced these three additional prizes : 1. ” The Chancellor’s

Prize,” by Lord Truro, 1000£.; the interest to be applied in awarding a gold medal, value ten guineas,

and a purse of twenty guineas, or books to that amount, each yearly Apposition, to the author of the

best English Essay. 2. ” The Milton Prize,” by Sir C. M. Clarke, Bart., for English Verses on a sacred

subject, annually. 3. “The Thurston Memorial,” an annuai prize for a copy of Latin Lyrics, given by

the parent of a student named Thurston, recently deceased ; the High Master to apply a portion of the

endowment to keeping up the youth’s gravestone in the Highgate Cemetery.

St. Saviour’s Grammar-School, Sumner-street, Southwark-Bridge-road, was re-

built 1830-9, nearly adjoining St. Peter’s Church. The school was founded by

parishioners in 1562, and chartered by Queen Elizabeth ; the original endowment being

40/. a-year. The scheme, approved by the Court of Chancery in 1850, provides six

governors to manage the school property ; the instruction to comprise religion, classical

learning, English composition, grammar, arithmetic, history, geography, mathematics,

&c, subject to the approval of the Bishop of Winchester ; the head master to be a Master

of Arts, and to be appointed in conformity with the statutes of 1614. Small prizes are

adjudged yearly, and there are two University exhibitions. Among the olden rules for

the choice of a master are the following :

The master to be ” a man of a wise, sociable, loving disposition, not hasty or furious, or of any ill

example ; he shall be wise and of good experience, to discern the nature of every several child ; to work

upon the disposition for the greatest advantage, benefit, and comfort of the child ; to learn with the

love of his book.” It was necessary then, as now, to add, ” if such an one may be got.” — The corpora-

tion seal represents a pedagogue seated in a chair, with a group of thickly-trussed pupils before him ;

date, 1573.

The original school-house, on the south side of St. Saviour’s churchyard, was burned in

1676, but was immediately rebuilt : it had a richly-carved doorway-head. This build-

ing was taken down after the erection of the new school in Sumner-street. Among the

donations is 500/. by Dr. W. Heberden, the celebrated physician, who is said to have

been partly educated in the school.

Westminster School (St. Peter’s College), Dean’s-yard, was originally founded by Henry VIII., on the remodelling of the Abbey establishment ; but inadequately supported until 1560, when Elizabeth restored its revenues, and the foundation of an Upper and Lower Master, and 40 scholars, and gave the present statutes. The College consists of a Dean, 12 Prebendaries, 12 Almsmen, and the above 40 ¦ Queen’s Scholars,” with a Master and Usher ; maintained, since the Restoration, by the common revenues of St. Peter’s Collegiate Church (the Abbey), at 12,000/. a year.

These scholars wear a cap and gown ; and there are four ” Bishop’s boys,” educated free, who wear a purple gown, and have 60/. annually amongst them. Besides this foundation, a great number of sons of the nobility and gentry are educated here. Of the Queen’s Scholars, an examination takes place on the first Tuesday after Rogation Sunday, when four are elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, and four to Christ Church, Oxford ; scholarships about 60/. a year. The scholars from the 4th, 5th, and Shell Forms ” stand out” in Latin, Greek, and grammatical questionings, to fill up the vacancies on the Wednesday before Ascension Dayj when the ” Captain of the Election” is chaired round Dean’s-yard. There are other funds available to needy scholars.

Any boy may enter at Westminster School ; the entire annual charges (including board and lodging) are from 76 to ’83 guineas ; or if he board and lodge at home, 25 guineas. From the boarders are elected the Queen’s Scholars, who, after four years’ residence, have the chance of obtaining good scholarships; they are charged about 401. a year.

The entrance to the school-court, Little Dean’s-yard, is under a low groined gateway : the school-porch is said to have been designed by Inigo Jones ; and adjoining is the paved racket-court. The venerable School was once the dormitory of the monks : it is 96 feet long and 34 feet in breadth, and has a massive open chestnut roof; at one end is the Head Master’s table, and four tiers of forms are ranged along the east and western walls.* The Upper and Lower Schools are divided by a bar, which formerly bore a curtain : over this bar on Shrove Tuesday, at 11 o’clock, the College cook, attended by a verger, having made his obeisance to the Masters, proceeds to toss a pancake into the upper school, once a warning to proceed to dinner in the Hall.

Upon the walls are inscribed many great names ; in the library is preserved part of the form on which Dryden once sat, and on which his autograph is cut.

In the Census Alumnorum, or list of foundation scholars, are Bishops Overall and Ravis, translators of the Bible ; Hakluyt, collector of Voyages ; Gunter, inventor of the Scale ; ” Master George Herbert ;’* the poets Cowley and Dryden ; South ; Locke ; Bishops Atterbury, Sprat, and Pearce ; Prior and Stepney, poets and statesmen ; Rowe and ” Sweet Vinny Bourne,” the poets ; Churchill, the satirist ; Warren Hastings; Colman the Elder; Everard Home, surgeon; Dr. Drury, of Harrow School, &c.

Among the other eminent persons educated here were Lord Burghley; Ben Jonson ; Nat Lee; Sir Christopher Wren; Jasper Mayne, the poet; Barton Booth, the actor, Blackmore, Browne, Dyer, Hammond, Aaron Hill, Cowper, and Southey, the poets ; Home Tooke; Gibbon, the historian ; Cumberland, the dramatist; Colman the Younger; Sir Francis Burdett; Harcourt, Archbishop of York; the third Marquis of Lansdowne ; Lord John Russell ; the Marquis of Anglesey ; Sir John Cam Hobhouse (Lord
Broughton), &c.

Among the eminent Masters are Camden, ” the Pausanias of England,” who had Ben Jonson for a scholar; and Dr. Busby, who had Dryden, and who, out of the bench of Bishops, taught sixteen.

Between the years 1810 and 1856 only seven officers of the British army (royalty excepted) rose to the rank of Field Marshal. Of these seven, five were brought up at Westminster, one at Eton, and one at a private school. The five Westminster boys were — Thomas Grosvenor, Henry Paget, John Byng, Stapleton Cotton, and Fitzroy Somerset; the Etonian was Arthur Wellesley; and the seventh, Henry Hardin ge.

The College Hall, originally the Abbot’s refectory, was built by Abbot Litlington, temp. Edward III. : its dimensions are 47 feet by 27^ feet in width ; the floor is paved with chequered Turkish marble ; at the south end is a musicians’ gallery, now used as a pantry, and behind are butteries and hatches ; upon the north side, upon a dais, is the high table ; those below, of chestnut- wood, are said to have been formed out of the wreck of the Armada; and the roof- timbers spring from carved corbels, with angels bearing shields of the Confessor’s and Abbot’s arms. A small louvre l-ises above the central hearth, upon which, in winter, a charcoal fire used to burn until 1850. The Library is a modern Italian room, and contains memorials of the attachment of ” Westminsters.” The old dormitory, built in 1380, was the granary of the monastery ; and was replaced by the present dormitory in 1722, from the designs of the Earl of Burlington : it is 161 feet long by 25 feet broad, and its walls are inscribed with names.

Here Latin plays are represented upon the second Thursday in December, and the Monday before and after that day ; those acted of late years were the Andria, Phormio, Uunuchus, and Adeljphi, of Terence, with Latin prologue and epilogue/f Warton mentions, ” this liberal exercise is yet preserved, and in the spirit of true classical purity, at the College of Westminster.” The scenery was designed by Garrick ; the modern dresses formerly used were exchanged for Greek costume in 1839. Boating is a favourite recreation of the Westminsters, who have often contested the championship of the Thames with Eton. On May 4, 1837, the Westminsters won a match at Eton.

There exists to this day, at Chiswick, the house which was purchased as a retiring-place for the Master and scholars of Westminster : it was for many years well known as ” The Chiswick Press,” having been long occupied by Mr. Whittingham, and previously by his uncle, who there executed many works of remarkable typographical beauty. The present tenant is bound, as were Messrs. Wbifc-

* The basement story beneath the school serves as an undercroft, has semicircular groined Saxon arches, considered to be of the time of Edward the Confessor, whose steward, Hugolin, was buried here. Here is deposited the standard money, which, when there is a new Master of the Mint, is taken out to be carried to the Exchequer, for a Trial of the Pix. The outer doors have seven locks, each lock a different key, and each key a different possessor ; so that the seven holders assemble on the above occasion. The last trial of the Pix was in 1851, on the admission of Sir John F. W. Herschel, Bart., to the Mastership of the Mint, which office was held by Sir Isaac Newton from 1699 until 1728.

t These performances superseded the old Mysteries and Moralities in the reign of Queen Mary, when the boy-actors were chiefly the acolytes who served at mass.

A large field at the back of the house, known as ” The Home Field,” is held upon the same condition.

(See The Great Schools of England, by Howard Staunton, 1865.)

SEWAGE OR DRAINAGE.

A SEWER is, according to Lord Coke, a place where water issues ; or as is said vulgarly, ” suer,” whence the word suera or sewer. Callis derives it from the Saxon sai-wceer, that is — a sea fence, a protection against sea-tides ; but this derivation is ill-founded. The subject is too large for treatment here ; but we may note that the Institution of Civil Engineers recognise the commissioners of Sewers as first instituted in the reign of Henry VI., when they acted in every part of the country, having jurisdiction on the borders of tidal rivers. Their duties were to repair sea or river banks, and to keep the main drains and outfalls of level districts in repair, and keep them clear for the passage of water.

The first general measure was the ” Bill of Sewers,” in 1531 ; superseded, in 1848, by the “Metropolitan Commission of Sewers,” whose jurisdiction extended 12 miles round St. Paul’s, and for whom a new block plan of the metropolis was prepared by the Ordnance Office. By this map, the sewerage amounted to upwards of 7 millions of cubic feet on the north side of the Thames, and nearly 2 millions on the south side.

The great receptacle was the Thames ; and of the new system, from 1848 to 1854, there were constructed 80 miles of brick sewers, and 346 miles of pipe-drainage. The oldest and largest sewer is the Fleet Sewer, which drains, or drained, by collateral sewers, an area six or seven times the size of the City of London. (See p. 348.)

The new Main Drainage, by Mr. Bazalgette, engineer, has been executed by the Metropolitan Board of Works. As much as possible of the sewage is removed by gravitation ; and for this purpose there are three lines of sewers at each side of the Thames, termed respectively High, Middle, and Low Level. The two former discharge by gravitation ; but pumping is required for the third ; and for this purpose double-acting rotative beam engines, with plunger and ram-pumps, have been adopted.

The intercepting plan, as its name implies, consists in cutting three great main drains on both sides of the river, and which, instead of running due north and south like the former system, run from west to east. These great main lines intercept and cut oif all the existing lines of drains from the river, carry their contents away down below Barking Creek and Erith Marshes, where they are poured into gigantic reservoirs, and afterwards, when deodorized, turned into the river at high tide, and swept away by the ebb almost to sea. Thus, the sewage is not only turned out free from smell, but turned out into a body of water nearly thirty times as great as that into which it used to be poured, and becomes lost in the volume of water which rolls down between the marshes on each side of the river to far below Gravesend. The maximum quantity of sewage to be lifted by the engines at Crossness Point will ordinarily be about 10,000 cubic feet per minute : but during the night that quantity will be considerably reduced, while, on the other hand, it will be nearly double on occasions of heavy rainfall. These works were publicly opened by the Prince of Wales April 4, 1867. The Sigh Level, on the north side, is about eight miles in length, and runs from Hampstead to Bow, being at its rise 4 ft. 6 in. in diameter, and thence increasing in circumference as the waters ot the sewers it intercepts require a wider course, to 5 feet, 6 feet, 7 feet, 10 feet 8 inches, 11 feet 6 inches; and at its termination, near. Lea Biver, to 12 ft. 6 in. in diameter. Its minimum fall is 2 feet in the mile; its maximum at the beginning, nearly 50 feet in the mile. It is laid at the depth of from 20 feet to 26 feet below the ground, and drains an area of fourteen square miles. The Middle Level, as being lower in the valley on the slope of which Loudon is built, is laid at a greater depth, varying from 30 feet to 36 feet, and even more, below the surface. This extends from Kensal Green to Bow. The Low Level will extend from Cremorne to Abbey Mills, on the marshes near Stratford, and one portion of it will pass through the Thames Embankment. At Bow, the Low Level waters of the sewer will be raised by engines at a pumping station to the junction of the High and Middle Level ducts, thence descending by their own gravity through these tunnels to the main reservoir and final outfall at Barking. On the south side of the Thames the three great sewer arteries are constructed on similar plans — the High Level from Dulwich to Deptford; the Middle from Clapham to Deptford; and the Low Level from Putney to Deptford.

At this point is a pumping station, \ Inch raises the water from the low to the high level, whence it flows away through a 10 feet tunnel to Crossness Point. One part of this tunnel, passing under Woolwich, is a mile and a half in length, without a break, and driven at a depth of 80 feet from the surface. At the outfall another pumping station lifts the water to the reservoir. The southern reservoir is only five acres in extent ; that on the north is fourteen. In the reservoir takes place the deodorisatkm.

The two culverts which carry the sewage to the east and west pumping stations are as large almost as railway tunnels, Before the entrance to the pumps are massive iron strainers, which keep out all the coarse refuse brought down the sewer, and which is afterwards dredged up by the filth hoist into the filth chamber, which is flushed into the river at low water.

There are now about 1 300 miles of sewers in London, and 82 miles of main intercepting sewers. Three hundred and eighteen millions of bricks and 880,000 cubic yards of concrete have been consumed, and three and a half million cubic yards of earth have been excavated in the execution of these main drainage works. The total pumping power employed is 2380 nominal horse-power ; and if at full work night and day 44,000 tons of coal per annum would be consumed. The sewage, north of the Thames, at present (1867) amounts to 10,000,000 cubic feet a day, and on the south side to 4,000,000 cubic feet per day ; but provision is made for an anticipated increase up to 11£ millions on the north side, and 5f millions on the south side, in addition to 28″ target=”_top”> million cubic feet of rainfall per diem on the north side, and 17 million cubic feet per diem on the south side, or a total of 63 million cubic feet per diem, which is equal to a lake of 482 acres, 3 feet deep, or fifteen, times as large as the Serpentine in Hyde Park. The cost of these stupendous works had, in 1867, only amounted to little more than 4,000,000/.

SHERIFFS.

THAT London had its Sheriffs, or ” Bailiffs,” as they were originally styled (or Shire Keve, scygerefa, from the Saxon reqfan, ” to levy, to seize”) prior to the Norman Conquest, is attested by William the Conqueror’s second charter being addressed to William the Bishop and Sweyn the Sheriff. The union of the sheriffwick of London and Middlesex took place in the reign of Henry I., of whom the citizens purchased the power of electing the sheriff of Middlesex, ” to farm for 300/. :”* the mayor and citizens now hold the office in fee, and appoint two sheriffs for London, which by charters is both a city and a county, though they make but one sheriff jointly for the county of Middlesex. The third charter of King John and the first charter of Henry TIL minutely describe the sheriff’s office and duties. Any citizen is eligible, unless he swear himself not worth 15,000?. ; and no alderman can be chosen lord mayor unless he has served as sheriff. A list of citizens is nominated on Midsummer-day, when two are elected by the Livery in Common Hall. Much of the pomp and circumstance of past times incident to the ceremony are still maintained, and there is a good deal about it that is sentimental and picturesque. The floor of the platform, as of old, is still strewn over with cut flowers and green herbs, mint and thyme prevailing, and each high City functionary, from the chief magistrate downwards, carries a bouquet of flowers ; the persons chosen are obliged to serve, under a penalty of 400/. and 20 marks ; and the fines paid within the present century have exceeded 70,000/. In 1734 there were fined 35 persons, and 11 excused. The fine is 413/. 6s. 8d., with an additional 2001. if the lesser fine is not paid within a certain time. In 1806 the fines amounted to 10,306/. 135. Ad., and to 9466/. 13s. Ad. in the year 1815. But the election is sometimes contested, as in 1830, when there were six candidates. The sheriffs-elect were formerly presented for approbation to the Cursitor Baron of Exchequer, as the representative of the Sovereign : that being found most inconvenient, a short Act of Parliament was passed to do away with the ceremony of presentation, but reserving all the other ancient ceremonies, appointing the Barons, or their chief officer, the Queen’s Remembrancer, to see the ceremony performed, on the morrow of St. Michael, as described at pp. 508-509. The numerous trusts of the sheriffs are mostly performed by the under-sheriffs, but the State-duties by the sheriffs themselves. They receive from the City about 1000/. during their year of office ; but the State and hospitality they are expected to maintain usually cost each sheriff upwards of 2000 guineas : for
State-chariot, horses, and State-liveries ; the inauguration dinner. The mayor’s banquet, at Guildhall, on the 9th of each November, throws on the lord mayor and corporation but one-third of its cost; the remaining two-thirds devolve on the unhappy sheriffs, although but eight of their private friends can be invited to the feast. The cost of this is generally 800/. to each of the sheriffs, being 200/. for each of their guests : the Old Bailey dinners {see p. 506) ; besides meat at the City prisons, which the sheriffs * This fee-farm rent has lpng since been given away by the Crown, is now private property, and is paid half-yearly by the sheriff. In the charters granted to the City of London by Henry II., Richard I., and in the first charter of King John, no mention whatever is made of the sheriffwick. There are many City ordinances for the office of sheriff, disobedience to which is in some cases marked by dismissal. A History of the Sheriffdom was published in 1723.

The sheriffs are always sworn in on the eve of Michaelmas-day, upon which the Livery-men meet at Guildhall to elect the Lord Mayor for the ensuing year, and their first duty is to take part in that ceremony. The first Jew sheriff was Mr. David (now Alderman) Salomons, 1835 ; and the first Roman Catholic sheriff was Mr. Richard Swift, M.P., 1851 : the latter was attended in State hy a Romish priest as his chaplain. A factious sheriff (Slingsby Bethel) is thus commemorated, as Shimei, by Dryden :

” No Kechabite more shunn’d the fumes of wine ;
Chaste were his cellars, and his shrieval board
The grossness of a City feast abhorr*d ;
His cooks, with long disuse, their trade forgot —
Cool was his kitchen, though his brains were hot.”

Absalom and Achitophel.

One of the oldest shrievalty customs was that of the Lord Mayor drinking to persons for nomination to the office : it was revived in 1682, at the request of Charles II., with a factious object ; when Sheriffs Shute and Pilkington were committed by the King to the Tower, upon a false charge of riot. In 1685, Alderman and Sheriff Cornish, being implicated in the Rye-house Plot, was hanged, drawn, and quartered at the end of King-street, Cheapside, fronting his own house.

Sheriff Hoare has left a journal of his shrievalty, in 1740-41, in his own handwriting : describing his investiture in his scarlet gown, the gold chain taken off the former sheriff and put on him ; the delivery of the prisoners and prison-keys, and the keeper’s treat of sack and walnuts, Sept. 28th ; how the sheriffs, April 6tb, entertained the Exchequer officers with 52 calves’-heads, dressed in different manners ; how, Sept. 2nd (anniversary of the Fire of London), the sheriffs went to St. Paul’s, in their ” black gowns, and no chains, and heard a sermon ;” how, Sept. 8th, they went with the lord mayor to proclaim Southwark Fair ; the Christ’s Hospital treat of sweet cakes and burnt wine, on St. Matthew’s day (Sept. 21st) ; and sack and walnuts on Sept. 28th, when the sheriff returned home, to his ” great consolation and comfort.” In the permission granted to sheriffs to keep condemned prisoners in the Sheriffs’ own houses, as well as in the gaols, is thought to be traceable the origin of the ” Sponging-house.”

The Sheriffs Fund was established by Sir Richard Phillips, sheriff 1807-8, who, in his Letter to the Livery of London, tells us that, after a few visits to Newgate, he discovered so many well-founded claims of a pecuniary nature on his charity, that it became impossible to meet a tenth part of them.

A Sheriffs Fund was therefore publicly announced, and the design was generally applauded, if not generally aided ; though the Sheriff collected, in the course of the year, about 500?., and assisted and relieved many thousands of distressed individuals and their families, a trifling balance was handed over to his successors in the Shrievalty. The Sheriffs’ Fund, in 1867, amounted to nearly 13,000?.

In 1840, Sheriffs Evans and Wheelton were imprisoned by the House of Commons at Westminster, for an alleged breach of privilege.

SHOREDITCH,

AN ancient manor and parish, extending from Norton Folgate to Old-street, and from part of Finsbury to Bethnal-green. It was originally a village on the Roman military highway, called by the Saxons Eald (i.e., Old) Street. Stow declares it to have been called Soersditch more than 400 years before his time : and Weever states it to have been named from Sir John de Soerdich, lord of the manor temp. Edward III.,* and who was with that king in his wars with France. The legend of its being called after Jane Shore dying in a ditch in its neighbourhood, is a popular error, traceable to a hlack-letter ballad in the Pepys Collection, entitled, The Woful Lamentation of Jane Shore, a Goldsmith’s Wife in London, some time King Edward IV. his Concubine

” I could not get one bit of bread,
Whereby my hunger might be fed;
Nor drink, but such as channels yield,
Or stinking ditches in the field.
Thus, weary of my life at lengthe,
I yielded up my vital strength

* The same family of Soerdich, or Shordich, it is believed, possessed the manor of Ickenham, near Uxbridge, and resided at Ickenham Hall, from the reign of Edward III. to our own time. The last of this family, Paul Ricaut Shordiche, civil engineer, grandson of Michael Shordiche, of Ickenham Manor, died at Antigua, July 13, 1865.

Within a ditch of loathsome scent,
Where carrion dogs did much frequent :
The which now, since my dying daye,
Is Shoreditch call’d, as writers saye.”

But this ballad is not older than the middle of the 17th century ; and no mention is made of Jane so dying in a ballad by Th. Churchyard, dated 1587. Dr. Percy erroneously refers Shoreditch to ” its being a common sewer, vulgarly shore, or drain.”

It is sometimes called Sorditch, which is the most correct, according to the above explanation. An archer of this parish, named Barlo, was styled ” Duke of Shoreditch ** by Henry VIII., for having outshot his competitors in a shooting match at Windsor ; and the Captain of the Company of Archers of London was long after styled ” Duke of Shoreditch.” In the Beaufoy Collection are four Shoreditch tokens, one with figures of Edward IV. and his mistress ; and the sign of Jane Shore is extant at a public-house in the High-street.

Shoreditch is the scene of another apocryphal tragedy ; the old ballad laying here the locus in quo of George Barnwell’s dissipation, where lived Mrs. Millwood, who led him astray :—

” George Barnwell, then quoth she,
Do thou to Shoreditch come,
And ask for Mrs. Millwood’s house,
Next door unto the Gun.”

Now, Shoreditch was formerly notorious for the easy character of its women ; and to die in Shoreditch was not a mere metaphorical term for dying in a sewer. {Cunningham). See the story in Romance of London, vol. i. pp. 314 — 324. James Smith wrote the ballad of ” George Barnwell travestie ;” and Thackeray a famous caricature romance, entitled ” George de Barnwell.”

Holywell Lane and Mount (” heightening of the ground for garden-plots,” Stow), and Holywell Row, in Shoreditch, are named from a holy well there ; and a house of Benedictine nuns of that name, founded by a Bishop of London, and rebuilt, with the Church of St. John and the chapel, by Sir Thomas Lovel, of Lincoln’s Inn, Treasurer of the Household to King Henry VII., K.G., &c.

Sir Thomas Lovel was buried there June 8, 1525, ” in a tombe of whyte marbell, on the southe syde of the quyre of the saide churche.” — (Book of the College of Arms) At his funeral there were present the Bishop of London, Lord St. John, Sir Eichard Wyngfield, and many others, nobles and gentlemen.

The Abbot of Waltham, the Prior of St. Mary Spital, four orders of friars, the Mayor and all the aldermen of London, gentlemen of the Inns of Court, the Lord Steward, and all the clerks of London attended.

Part of the Chapel remains under the floor of the Old King John, and the stone doorway into the porter’s lodge of the Priory still exists. (Notes and Queries, No. 179.) Shoreditch Cross is believed to have stood on the west side of Kingsland-road, and to have been demolished in 1642.

St. Leonard’s Church, at the north end of Shoreditch, is described at p. 173. Near the altar is a tablet to the memory of a descendant of the royal house of Hungary ; and in the crypt is the noble altar-tomb of a descendant of the great John Corvinus Huniades, whose son was elected King of Hungary. In the belfry are recorded several feats of bell-ringing, including 16 March, 1777, when the ” College Youths” performed 11,000 changes in eight hours, adding that their names would be handed down to posterity, “insaturated with glory.” In the churchyard is buried Gardner, the worm destroying doctor of Long Acre ; his tombstone inscribed, ” Dr. John Gardner’s (intended) last and best bed-room.” In 1811, a writ of arrest was served by a sheriffs officer upon a dead body, as it was being conveyed to this churchyard ; which occasioned Lord Ellenborougb to declare the process altogether illegal. In St. Leonard’s Church is some painted glass from one of the Priory windows. ” Neare thereunto are builded two publique houses for the acting and shewe of comedies, tragedies, and histories, for recreation. Thereof one is called the Courtain, the other the Theatre, both standing on the south-west toward the field.” (Stow, 1st edit, p. 349.) Hence the Curtain Theatre, built in Holy well-lane, and Curtain-road; in the latter, at the Blue Last public-house, porter is traditionally said to have been first sold, about 1730.

A Public Hall has been built for St. Leonard’s, facing Old-street, of Corinthian and Doric architecture ; in the basement are the parochial offices ; and on the first-floor the Great Hall, to hold 1800 persons. In 1854 were erected almshouses in Brunswick-street, Hackney-road, for twenty aged women of the parish; the architecture is Jacobean. The Great Eastern Railway crosses the main street, and near the station is the first of the buildings erected by the trustees to whom the disposal of Mr. Peabody’s munificent gift to the City of London was referred. Hard by is Colombia Market, erected at the expense of Miss Burdett Coutts (see p. 558). Philanthropy has long been at work here, but much remains to be done.

The people of St. Philip’s, Shoreditch, are types of a class which is no small one — the quiet poor, the people who struggle earnestly to obtain subsistence out of the workhouse, who abstain from beggary, and who arc not brought under our notice by their crimes. This district of Bethnal-green seems to •consist almost wholly of such persons. A small space of ground is there covered with about fourteen thousand of them, weavers, costermongers, and others, each family lodged in a single room. The mass of this population subsist upon earnings that average little more than threepence a-day, for the maintenance of each body, great and small, with shelter, food, and clothing. They are not squalid or vicious, they will work their hearts away for the most miserable hire, they work and help each other, they work and grieve and die. In this one district of St. Philip’s, Shoreditch, which is but a little island in the world of sorrow, there is work for thousands of warm-hearted people, who with scanty aid may do great service. — Examiner, abridged.

SKINNER- STREET AND SNOW-HILL.

SKINNER-STREET, extending from Newgate-street to Holborn-hill, was built about 1802, to avoid the circuit of Snow-hill, also called Snor, Snore, and Sorrhill; the projector of the improvement was Alderman Skinner. Here was a large seven-storied house, burnt down in 1813, estimated loss 25,0O0£. At No. 41, “William Godwin, author of Caleb Williams kept a bookseller’s shop, and published his juvenile works under the name of Edward Baldwin : over his shop-door is an artificial stone relief of J2sop narrating his tables to children. Opposite No. 58, in 1817, was hung Cashman the sailor, who had joined a mob in plundering the gunsmith’s shop at the above house.

In a shop-window on Snow-hill, Vandyke saw the picture by Dobson, which led him to seek out the painter in a garret, and recommend him to Charles I. At the sign of the Star, on Snow-hill, at the house of his friend Mr. Strudwick, a grocer, died 12th August, 1688, John Bunyan, author of the Pilgrim’s Progress, and was buried in that friend’s vault in Bunhill-fields burial-ground. At No. 37, King-street, Snowhill, was formerly the Ladies’ Charity . School, which was established in 1702, and remained in the parish 145 years. Mrs. Thrale and Dr. Johnson were subscribers to this school ; and Johnson drew from it his story of Betty Broom, in The Idler. In the school minutes, 1763, the ladies of the committee censured the schoolmistress for listening to the story of the Cock -lane Ghost, and ” desired her to keep her belief in the article to herself.” The School-house is No. 30, John-street, Bedford-row. Great part of Skinner-street has been taken down in clearances for the Holborn- valley and the Metropolitan Railway works.

SMITHFIELD,

ANCIENTLY just outside the City wall, was the great public walk of the citizens, their race-course, and live market (see p. 561; vulgo, Smiffel). It was a great field for quintain-matches, and was called ” Ruffians’ Hall,” for its frays and common fighting with sword and buckler, superseded by the deadly fight of rapier and dagger. Ben Jonson, in his Bartholomew Fair, speaks of ” the sword and buckler age in Smithfield ” having but recently passed away ; and in the Two Angry Women of Abingdon, 1599, complaint is made that “the sword and buckler fight begins to grow out of use.” The town-green had its clump of trees, ” the Elms,” which was the place of public execution until the middle of the 13th century, when it was removed to Tyburn. At the Elms suffered William Fitzosbert (Longbeard) ; here ” Mortimer was executed, and let hang two days and two nights, to be seen of the people ;” and here perished the patriot Wallace, on St. Bartholomew’s even, 1305 — the place of blood being in Cow-lane, close to the end of St. John’s-court. At Smithfield, on Saturday, June 15th, 1381, Richard II. met Wat Tyler and his ” shoeless ribalds,” the King towards the east, near St. Bartholomew’s Priory, and the Commons towards the west ; when Tyler, seizing the boy -king’s horse, was stabbed by Walworth, mayor of London ; and a few days after, Jack Straw, the second rebel in command, was hanged at the Elms. But Smithfield has its sunnier epoch of jousts, tournaments, and feats of arms. Here Edward III. commemorated the brilliant realities of Cressy and Poictiers ; and here the doting monarch feasted Alice Pierce (” the lady of the sun”) with seven days’ chivalric sports. Richard II. held “a great justing” here in 1390, when was ” given first the badge of the White Hart, with golden chains and crowns •” and here, in 1396, the king celebrated his marriage by three days’ tournament. In 1393 ” certain lords of Scotland came into England, to get worship by force of arms in Smithfield” (Froissart). This was likewise the scene of ordeal combats, when the place of battle was strewed with rushes : here was fought the whimsical combat of Horner and Peter, as told by Holinshed, and dramatized by Shakspeare {King Henry VI., Part II.)

The reality is thus recorded in the Grey Friars’ Chronicle, Hen. VI. : ” xxv° A 0- Thys yere was a fyghtynge in Smythfelde betwene ane armerar of fletstret and his servant, for worddes agenst the kynge, whereof hys servant asseld hym; and the servant slew the master in the felde.”

In the play of Henry VI. is the king’s sentence : *’ The witch in Smithfield shall be burn’d to ashes.”

The martyrology of Smithfield forms a still more terrible page of its history. Here were burnt the martyrs, from John Rogers, ” the protomartyr of the Marian persecution,” in 1555, to Bartholomew Leggatt, in 1611, the last martyr who suffered at the stake in England. Of the 277 persons burnt for heresy in the reign of Mary, the great majority suffered in Smithfield : a large gas-light (in the middle of the pens) denoted the reputed spot ; but the discovery in 1849 of some blackened stones, ashes, and charred human bones, at 3 feet from the surface, opposite the gateway of St.
Bartholomew’s Church, induces the belief that here was the great hearth of the bigot fires. Charred human bones and ashes were also discovered, at 5 feet from the surface, at the west end of Long-lane, in July, 1854. In Smithfield, likewise, poisoners were ” boiled to death” by statute, in the reign of Henry VIII.

” xiij° A°” Thys yere was a man soddyne in a cautherne (boiled in a cauldron) in Smythfelde, and lett up and downe dyvers tymes tyll he was dede, for because he wold a poyssynd dyvers persons.”

“xxij°A° – This yere was a coke boylyd in a cauderne in Smythfeld, for he wolde a powsynd the bishoppe of Rochester, Fy cher, with dyvers of hys servanttes ; and he was locky d in a chayre, and pully up and downe with a gybbyt, at dyvers tymes, till he was dede.”

xxxiij° A 0- The x day of March was a mayde boyllyd in Smythfelde, for poysyng of dyvers persons.”

— Chronicle of the Grey Friars of London, edited by J. Gough Nichols, F.S.A. Printed for the Camden Society, 1852.

From this Chronicle we learn that the gallows was ” set up at sent Bartylmewys gate.”

The entries of burnings for ” errysee ” are also very numerous. Burning for other crimes was, however, continued : Evelyn records, ” 1652, May 10. — Passing by Smithfield, I saw a miserable creature burning who had murdered her husband.”

In Stow’s time, the encroachments by ” divers fair inns, and other buildings,” had left but a small portion of Smithfield for the old uses. After the Great Fire, the houseless people were sheltered here in huts. Over against Pie-corner is Cock-lane : Goldsmith’s pamphlet respecting the Cock -lane ghost was first included in his collected Works edited by Peter Cunningham, F.S.A., 1854. This ancient locality has been much disturbed by the removal of the old market, and by railway encroachments.

Bartholomew Faire, held in Smithfield from the reign of Henry I. to our own time, is described at p. 32-36. The Fair was finally abolished in 1853. The Churches of St. Bartholomew and St. Bartholomew-the-Less are noticed at pp. 152, 153.

SMITHFIELD, FAST,

BETWEEN Little Tower-hill and Ratcliff-highway, was, according to Stow, before the reign of King Stephen, made a vineyard by the Constables of the Tower, being forcibly taken by them from the Priory of the Holy Trinity, within Aldgate.

Here Edward III. founded New Abbey, in 1359, called the White Order, and named Eastminster. Spenser the poet is said to have been born in East Smithfield ; and here, 24th July, 1629, Charles I. killed a stag, which he had hunted from Wanstead, in Essex. (Stow.) A plan of East Smithfield in Elizabeth’s reign shows the site of an ancient stone cross, and the stocks and cage.

SOCIETY OF ARTS. 733

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES.

THE early history of this Society, from 1707, when the few members first met, ” upon pain of forfeiture of sixpence,” is noted at page 530 : the plan was drawn up by Humphrey Wanley; and the minutes date from Jan. 1, 1718, when the members brought to the weekly meetings, coins, medals, seals, intaglios, cameos, manuscripts, records, rolls, genealogies, pictures, drawings, &c. The first president was Martin Folkes, 1751. The Society occupy apartments in Somerset House, formerly the Royal Society’s. The president is Earl Stanhope, the accomplished historian.

Terms of admission reduced in 1853 from eight to five guineas entrance fee ; and from four to two guineas annual subscription. The strict form of admission is by the president or presiding officer placing upon his head a cocked-hat ; in one hand he holds the Society’s iron gilt mace, and with the other hand he welcomes the new Fellow, saying : ” By the authority and in the name of the Society of Antiquaries of London, I admit you a Fellow thereof.” To the names of the members are usually appended F.S.A. The Obligation Book contains the signatures of the leading antiquaries, Fellows of the Society. The Society possess a Library, noticed at page 516 ; and a Museum, see page 590. A synopsis of the contents of the Museum is presented to the Fellows. The old paintings and memorials in the Meeting-room are curious.

The Society’s Transactions (Archaologia), published annually, date from 1770. Among their other publications are Vetusta Monumenta, vol. vi., illustrating the Baieux tapestry; Folkes’s Tables of English Silver and Gold Coins ; Wardrobe-book of Edward I. ; Ordinances and Regulations of the Royal Households, from Edward III. to William and Mary ; Roy’s Military Antiquities of the Romans in Britain ; Account of the Collegiate Chapel of St. Stephen, at Westminster ; Accounts of the Cathedrals of Exeter, Durham, and Gloucester, and of Bath and St. Alban’s Abbey Churches ; Csedmon’s Metrical Paraphrase of the Holy Scriptures in Anglo-Saxon. The Society have also published large historical prints of the Field of the Cloth-of-Gold, 1520; Francis I.’s attempt to invade England, 1545; the Procession of King Edward VI. from the Tower to Westminster; Aggas’s Plan of London, &c.

SOCIETY OF ARTS.

THE Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, originated with William Shipley, a drawing-master, and brother to the Dean of St. Asaph. With the concurrence of Jacob Viscount Folkestone, Robert Lord Romney, and Dr. Maddox, Bishop of Worcester, the Society first met, March 29, 1754, at Rawthmell’s Coffee-house, Henrietta-street, Covent-garden : Shipley acting as Secretary ; and the plan of the Society being drawn up by William Baker, the microscopist.

Oliver Goldsmith took great interest in the early proceedings of the Society, in a magazine published by Newbery ; and the Doctor was a candidate for the secretary-ship. Much attention was then bestowed upon ” the polite arts :” among the first objects was the offer of premiums for drawings by girls and boys under 16 years of age. The Society next met, 1754-5, in apartments over a circulating-library in Crane-court, Fleet-street ; next in Craig’s-court, Charing-cross ; at the corner of Castle-court, Strand; in 1759 they removed to a house (afterwards Dibdin’s Sans Souci) opposite Beaufort-buildings ; and next to their new house in John-street, Adelphi, in 1774. Presidents: Viscount Folkestone, 1755-1761; Lord Rodney, 1761-1793; the Duke of Norfolk, 1793-1815 ; the Duke of Sussex, 1815-1843 ; Prince Albert, 1843-1861 ; and the present President, the Prince of Wales.

’Early Award* of the Society. — The first prize to Richard Cosway, then 15. In 1758, Bacon, the sculptor, for a small figure of Peace ; and he gained 9 other high prizes ; 1761, Nollekens, for an alto-relievo of Jephtha’s Vow, and in 1771 for a more important piece of sculpture; in 1768, Flaxman, and in 1771 the Society’s Gold Medal. Lawrence, when 13, received a silver-gilt palette and 5 guineas for his crayon-drawing of the Transfiguration. In 1807, to Sir William Ross, then 12, a siver-gilt palette for a drawing of Wat Tyler ; in 1810, a similar reward to Sir Edwin Landseer for an etching ; and to B. Wyon, in 1818, the Gold Medal for a medal die. Among the other recipients of prizes may be named Allan Cunningham, Mulready, and Millais.

The first public Exhibition of the works of British Artists was held at the Society’s house in the Strand, in 1760 : hence originated the Royal Academy, who, in 1776, with Sir Joshua Reynolds at their head, refusing to paint the Society’s Great Council-room at the Adelphi, next year Barry, who had signed the refusal with the rest, volunteered to decorate the room without any remuneration at all : the pictures are described at page 603 : the room is 47 feet in length, 42 feet in breadth, and 40 in height. Among the prime objects of the Society were the application of Art to the improvement of Design in Manufactures, now developed in ” Art Manufactures ;” the improvement of Agriculture and Horticulture ; and in 1783 a reward was offered for a reaping-machine.

The Society has distributed more than 100.000Z. in premiums and bounties. The growth of forest-trees was one of its early objects of encouragement ; and among the recipients of its Gold Medal (designed by Flaxman) were the Dukes of Bedford and Beaufort, the Earls of Winterton, Upper Ossory, and Mansfield; and Dr. Watson, Bishop of Llandaff. Then came Agriculture, Chemistry, Manufactures, and Mechanics, including tapestry and the imitation of Turkey carpets, Marseilles and India quilting, spinning and lace-making, improved paper, catgut for musical instruments ; straw bonnets and artificial flowers. Among the Society’s colonial objects were the manufacture of potash and pearlash, the culture of the vine, the growth of silk-worms, indigo, and vegetable oils. Very many rewards have been given by the Society to poor Bethnal-green and Spitalfields weavers for useful inventions in their manufacture.

The Society’s Libeaet is described at page 525 ; and its Museum of Models, and the Pictures and Sculpture, at pp. 603. Dr. Johnson says of Barry’s paintings, ” There is a grasp of mind there which you will find nowhere else.” The Society held the first regular Exhibition of Useful Inventions in 1761, when a Mr. Bailey explained the several articles to the visitors. The Premiums are annually presented in the Great Boom, where have been held Exhibitions of Decorative Art unequalled in this country. The Society chiefly prepared the public mind for the Great Exhibition of 1851 ; and here Mr. Paxton first developed his plan of its stupendous building, Nov. 13, 1850. Annual Subscription to the Society, two guineas. Among the Special Prizes is the bequest of Dr. Svviney of 100 guineas, in a Silver Cup of the same value, to be given every fifth year for the best treatise on Jurisprudence ; the Cup, designed by D. Maclise, R.A., is surmounted by figures of Justice, Vengeance, and Mercy ; in the centre is a niello of a hall of justice; and at the base are four kneeling slaves. The Centenary of the Society of Arts was celebrated July, 1854, by a banquet in the Crystal Palace, Sydenham.

For many years the office of Secretary was filled by Arthur Aikin, eldest son of Dr. Aikin, the friend of John Howard, and brother of Lucy Aikin ; and who published a Manual of Mineralogy, Arts and Manufactures, and a Chemical Dictionary. He died in 1854, aged 80. Among the Society’s Vice-Presidents was Thomas Hope, author of some tasteful works on costume, furniture, and decoration; and whose house in Duchess-street was a model of artistic design (described at page 551) : here was a piece of carved furniture, which, many years after it was executed, was specially noticed by Sir Francis Chantrey : on being asked the reason, he replied, ” That was my first work.”

SOHO,

A DISTRICT north-east of Piccadily, extending to Oxford-street. Mr. Cunningham has found the name ” Soho” in the rate-books of St. Martin’s as early as the year 1632 ; thus invalidating the tradition by Pegge and Pennant, that Soho* being the watchword at the battle of Sedgemoor, in 1685, it was given to King-square, in memory of the Duke of Monmouth, whose mansion was upon the south side. The boundaries of Soho are Oxford-street, north ; Crown-street, east ; King-street, south ; and Wardour-street and Princes-street, west. Soho-square and the adjoining fields passed by royal grants to the Earl of St. Albans, the Duke and Duchess of Monmouth, and the Earl of Portland; and the streets are named from this appropriation, or from their builders. The houses in Soho-square and the streets adjoining are remarkably well built, and were tenanted by nobility and gentry until our time. Carlisle Souse and Street, named from having been the residence of the Earls of Carlisle, are described at p. 446 : here lived Bach and Abel, the musical composers. Greek-street and Church-street are named from the Greek Church in Crown-street. In Greek-street the elder Wedgwood had warerooms before he removed to St. James’s ; and Mr. (after Sir Thomas) Lawrence, R.A., was living here in 1806. In Wardour-street (Old Soho) French Protestants were early * ” Soho is the same as ’.pray stop* ” (Booth’s Analytical Diet.) -. hence it may have been appliecl, in the above instance, to the extension of building in this direction, more especially as it was prohibited by a proclamation in 1671.

Settlers, and probably brought the trade in foreign art. Berwick-street is described by Hatton (1708) as ” a kind of row ; the fronts of the houses resting on columns, make a small piazza.” In Dean-street lived Sir James Thornhill, at No. 75, which has the staircase-walls of his painting; and at No. 33 died young, in 1819, Harlowe, the painter of the Trial of Queen Katharine.

Gerard-street is named from Gerard, Earl of Macclesfield, the owner of the site, formerly ” the Military Garden” of Henry Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I. {see p. 458) ; and Princes-street is built upon part of the ground : here, in 1718, lived Halley the astronomer. The landlord’s title is also preserved in Macclesfield-street. In Gerard House lived the profligate Lord Mohun.

At No. 43, Gerard- street, John Dryden resided with his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard : his study was the front parlour ; Dryden died here in 1700. In Gerard-street lived Edmund Burke at the time of Warren Hastings’ trial; and here at the Turk’s Head, (removed from Greek-street, where met the Loyal Association of 1745), Johnson, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Burke founded the Literary Club in 1764 {see p. 251). Here a Society of Artists met in 1753 ; and another Society, including West, Wilson, Wilton, Chambers, Sandby, &c, who, from the Turk’s Head, petitioned George III. to patronize a Royal Academy of Art. In Gerard-street was formerly the chief receiving-house of the Twopenny Post. Compton-street was built in the reign of Charles II., by Sir Francis Compton; and New Compton-street was first named Stiddolph-street, after Sir Richard Stiddolph, the owner of the land. — Dr. Rimbault, in Notes and Queries, No. 15. {See Sqt/abes : Soho.)

The Lion Brewery, in Soho, was formerly the property of the uncle of Sir Richard Phillips, who was brought up in this establishment, to which he was heir. This prospective fortune did not, however, overcome his distaste for the business of a brewer ; and a passion for literature, particularly mathematics and natural philosophy, led him, at the age of 17, to detach himself from his family connexions, and seek his own chance of life.

SOMERSET HOUSE, OLD, OR, SOMERSET-PLACE, on the north side of the Strand, was commenced building about 1547, by the Protector Somerset, maternal uncle of Edward VI. To obtain space and materials, he demolished Strand or Chester’s Inn, and the episcopal houses of Lichfield, Coventry, Worcester, and Llandaff, besides the church and tower of St. John of Jerusalem ; for the stone, also, he pulled down the great north cloister of St. Paul’s ; St. Mary’s Church too was taken down, and the site became part of the garden. The Duke’s cofferer’s account shows the building, in 1551, to have
cost 10,091Z. (present money, 50.000Z.). The architect was John of Padua, contemporary with Holbein ; and there is a plan of the house among Thorpe’s drawings in the Soane Museum ; it was the first building of Italian architecture erected in England.

Stow describes it in 1603, as ” a large and beautiful house, but yet unfinished.” The Protector did not inhabit the palace; for he was imprisoned in the Tower in 1549, and beheaded in 1552. Somerset Place then devolved to the Crown, and was assigned by Edward VI. to his sister the Princess Elizabeth.

” Feb. 1566-7, Cornelius de la Noyne, an alchymist, wrought in Somerset House, and abused many in promising to convert any metall into gold.” — Lord Burghley’s Notes.

In 1570, Queen Elizabeth went to the Royal Exchange, ” from her house at the Strand, called Somerset House ;” it also occurs as ” Somerset Place, beyond Strand Bridge.” The Queen lent the mansion to her kinsman, Lord Hunsdon, whose guest she occasionally became. At her death, the palace was settled as a jointure-house of the queen-consort; and passed to Anne of Denmark, queen of James I., by whose command it was called Denmark House. Inigo Jones erected here ” new buildings and enlargements.” Here the remains of Anne and James I. lay in State. For Henrietta Maria, queen of Charles I., Inigo Jones built a chapel, with a rustic arcade and Corinthian columns, facing the Thames ; and here the Queen established a convent of Capuchin friars ; in the passage leading from east to west, under the quadrangle of the present Somerset House, are five tombstones of the Queen’s attendants.

From a manuscript inventory in the library of Mr. Gough, ” the chappel goods at Somerset House” were numerous and costly. Of the goods and furniture appraised in 1649, the arras hangings and tapestry were of great value; the state-beds, pavilions, canopies, cloths-of-state, carpets, mantles, table-linen, &c., were very rich : one of the beds of embroidered French satin was valued at 10CKM. Among the pictures were the Madonna by Raphael, valued at 2000J. ; a Sleeping Venus by Correggio, at 10CXK. ; and many by Titian, And. del Sarto, Julio Romano, Guido, Correggio, Giorgione, Vandyke, &c.

Of the tenements ” belonging unto Somerset House” (20 inns), the Bed Lion, nearly opposite, in the Strand, is the only remaining one among the signs in the list : the sculptured sign-stone is built into the house No. 342, Strand.

Inigo Jones died here in 1652. During the Protectorate, the altar and chapel were ordered to he burnt ; and in 1659 the palace was about to be sold for 10,000Z. ; but after the Restoration, the Queen-mother Henrietta returned to Somerset House, which she repaired; hence she is made to exclaim, in Cowley’s courtly verse:—

” Before my gate a street’s broad channel goes,
Which still with waves of crowding people flows ;
And every day there passes by my side,
Up to its western reach, the London tide,
The spring-tides of the term. My front looks down
On all the pride and business of the town.”
Waller’s adulatory incense rises still higher :
” But what new mine this work supplies ?
Can such a pile from ruin rise ?
This like the first creation shows,
As if at your command it rose.”

Upon her Majesty’s New Buildings at Somerset House.

Here was introduced into England the inlaying of floors with coloured woods.

Pepys gossips of ” the Queen-mother’s court at Somerset House, above our own Queen’s ; mass in the chapel; the garden; and the new buildings, mighty magnificent and costly,” ” stately and nobly furnished ;” and ” the great stone stairs in the garden, with the brave echo.” The Queen-mother died abroad in 1669. In 1669-70 the remains of Monk, Duke of Albemarle, ” lay for many weeks in royal state” at Somerset House ; and thence he was buried with every honour short of regality. Thither the remains of Oliver Cromwell were removed from Whitehall in 1658, and were laid in State in the great hall of Somerset House, ” and represented in effigy, standing on a bed of crimson velvet ;” he was buried from thence with great pomp and pageantry, which provoked the people to throw dirt, in the night, on his escutcheon that was placed over the great gate of Somerset Place ; his pompous funeral cost 28,000£. On the death of Charles II., in 1685, the palace became the sole residence of the Queen Dowager, Catherine of Braganza ; and in 1678 three of her household were charged with the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, by decoying him into Somerset House, and there strangling him. (See Pkimeose Hill, p. 692.) The Queen had here a small establishment of Capuchins, who inhabited ” the New Friary,” as did the Capuchins in Henrietta Maria’s time, ” the Old Friary ;” both are shown in a plan 1706.

Strype describes the palace about 1720 ; its front with stone pillars, its spacious square court, great hall or guard-room, large staircase and rooms of State, larger courts, and ” most pleasant garden ;” the water-gate with figures of Thames and Isis ; and the water-garden, with fountain and statues. Early in the last century, court masquerades were given here : Addison, in the Freeholder, mentions one in 1716 ; and in 1763 a splendid fete was given here by Government to the Venetian Ambassador. In 1771, the Royal Academy had apartments in the palace, granted by George III. In 1775, Parliament settled upon Queen Charlotte Buckingham House, in which she then resided, in lieu of Old Somerset House, which was given up to be demolished, for the erection upon the site of certain public offices ; the produce of the sale of Ely House being applied towards the expenses. The chapel, which had been opened for the Protestant service, by order of Queen Anne, in 1711, was not closed until 1777. The venerable court-way from the Strand, and the dark and winding steps which led down to the garden beneath the shade of ancient and lofty trees, were the last lingering features of Somerset Place, and were characteristic of the gloomy lives and fortunes of its royal and noble inmates. ” The best view of the ancient house is preserved in the Dulwich
Gallery.”— Charles Seed, F.S.A.

SOMERSET HOUSE

OCCUPIES the site of the old palace, an area of 800 feet by 500, or a few feet less than the area of Russell-square. It is the finest work of Sir William Chambers: the first stone was laid in 1776 ; and the Strand front, 7 stories high, was nearly-completed in 1780.* It consists of a rustic arcade basement of 9 arches, supporting Corinthian columns, and an attic in the centre, with a balustrade at each extremity ; the whole in Portland stone. The key-stones of the arches are colossal masks of Ocean, and the eight great rivers of England, — the Thames, Humber, Mersey, Medway, Dee, Tweed, Tyne, and Severn — sculptured by Carlini and Wilton. In the frieze of the three middle windows are medallions of George III., his queen, and the Prince of Wales. In the attic are statue3 of Justice, Truth, Valour, and Temperance ; the summit being surmounted by the British Arms, supported by Fame and the Genius of England. The vaultings of the vestibule are enriched with sculptures from the antique, and are supported by two ranges of coupled Doric columns. On the east side are the entrances to the apartments of the Royal Society, the Society of Antiquaries, the Royal Astronomical Society, and the Geological Society ; and on the west were those of the Royal Academy, subsequently of the School of Design, next of the University of London Board. Over the central doorway, east, is a bust of Newton west, of Michael Angelo j by Wilton, R. A.

Facing the vestibule is a massive bronze group of George III. leaning upon a rudder, backed by the prow of a Roman (!) vessel, and a couchant lion j and at the monarch’s feet is a figure of the Thames, with an urn and cornucopia : the work of John Bacon, R.A. ; cost 200W.

The inner side of the Strand front has in the attic statues of the four quarters of the globe ; and over the centre are the British Arms, supported by marine deities holding a festoon of netting filled with fish, &c. Ornaments of antique altars and sphinxes screen the chimneys ; and on the key-stones are sculptured masks of tutelar deities.

The east, west, and south sides of the edifice are Government Offices, which occupy, besides the superstructure, two stories below the general level of the quadrangle, the passages to which are skilfully contrived. The centre of the south side is enriched with Corinthian columns and pilasters, and a pediment with a bas-relief of the arms of the navy of Great Britain, a sea-nymph, sea-horses, and tritons ; trophies, vases, &c.

The Thames front, 800 feet in length, is in the Venetian style, and is enriched with columns, pilasters, pediments, &c. : at each extremity is an archway opening to Somerset-place on the west, and King’s College on the east ; the latter built by Sir Robert Smirke, in 1829, in accordance with Chambers’s design. In each end a portico stands on the summit of a semicircular arch, the bases of two out of its four columns resting on the hollow part, giving an air of insecurity intolerable in architecture.

The Terrace is 50 feet in width, and raised 50 feet above the bed of the river, upon a massive rustic arcade, which has a central water-gate surmounted with a colossal mask of the river Thames. The side arches are flanked by rustic columns, and surmounted by stone couchant lions, between 8 and 9 feet in length. The terrace is skirted with a balustrade ; and here again is a colossal figure of the Thames. The walk was formerly opened to the public on Sundays : the prospect includes the river, with its magnificent bridges and picturesque craft ; the city, with its domes, towers, and spires j the forest of masts ; and the Surrey hills on the south : recalling Cowley’s lines:

” My other fair and most majestick face
(Who can the fair to more advantage place ?)
For ever gazes on itself below,
In the best mirrour that the world can show ;
And here behold, in a long bending row,
How two joynt cities make one glorious bow ;
The midst, the noblest place, possessed by me ;
Best to be seen by all, and all o’ersee.
Which way soe’er I turn my joyful eye,
Here the great Court, there the rich Town I spy.
On either side dwells safety and delight ;
Wealth on the left, and Power on the right.”

In the quadrangle are the Admiralty Offices, where are the Model Room ; the Audit Office, the Legacy Duty Office, and Inland Revenue Office (Stamps, Taxes, and Excise). The mechanical stamping is executed in the hasement : the presses for stamping postage envelopes, hy Edwin Hill, are the perfection of automatic machinery.

In Somerset-place, west, is the office of the Tithe Commission and of the Registrar-General : to the latter are transmitted registers of a million hirths, deaths, and marriages in a year.

Over the entrance to the Stamps and Taxes Office, on the south side, is a watch-face, popularly believed to be the watch of a bricklayer, and placed there as a memorial of his life having been saved in his fall, when the wall was building, by his watch-chain catching in some portion of the scaffold. Such is the traditional story ; but the watch-face was really put up some forty years since as a meridian-mark for a transit instrument in a window of the Boyal Society’s ante-room, in the inner face of the north front.

Mr. Cunningham, in his Handbook of London, relates the following interesting circumstance, which he was told by an old clerk on the establishment of the Audit Office, at Somerset House : — ” When I
first came to this building,” he said, ” I was in the habit of seeing, for many mornings, a thin, spare naval officer, with only one arm, enter the vestibule at a smart step, and make direct for the Admiralty over the rough, round stones of the quadrangle, instead of taking what others generally took, and continue to take, the smooth pavement of the sides. His thin, frail figure shook at every step, and I often wondered why he chose so rough a footway ; but I ceased to wonder when I heard that the thin, frail officer was no other than Lord Nelson, who always took,” continued my informant, ” the nearest way to the place he wanted to go to.”

Telford, the engineer, when he came to London in 1782, got employed on the quadrangle, then erecting hy Sir William Chambers.

Somerset House is almost the only public building which distinguishes the reign of George III. : it cost half a million of money by the extant accounts. The style is Italian, ” refined to a degree scarcely excelled by Palladio himself.” (Elmes.) The exterior is the perfection of masonry. The Ionic, Composite, and Corinthian capitals throughout the building were copied from models executed at Rome, by Chambers, from antique originals : the sculptors employed in the decorations were Carlini, Wilton, Ceracci, Nollekens, Bacon, Banks, and Flaxman.

The west wing, left incomplete by Sir W. Chambers, was resumed in 1852 (for the Inland Revenue Office), Pennethorne architect : this wing, 300 feet in length, will face Wellington-street ; its south end was completed in 1853 : the details are copied from the main building; but the ornamental sculpture is very inferior. The central mass is composed of a pediment, the tympanum of which is filled with the Royal arms, surrounded with foliage, and the national emblems of the rose, thistle, and shamrock in high relief. On the apex of the pediment is a sitting statue of Britannia, 7 feet in height and 4 feet in width at the base ; at the extreme ends are sea-horses. On the lower range of the facade, standing on pedestals, there are colossal statues, 7 feet 6 inches high, emblematic of Glasgow, Edinburgh, London, Manchester, Dublin, and -Belfast; and over the principal entrance a group, the centre of which contains a medallion of Queen Victoria, surrounded by a wreath of laurel, and supported by recumbent female figures of Fame and History. Somerset House covers 12 acres.

SOUTH-SEA HOUSE, THE,

THREADNEEDLE-STREET and Old Broad-street, was the office of the South-Sea Company, originated by Harley, Earl of Oxford, and Sir John Blunt (” much injured Blunt”), in 1711, for the discharge of nearly ten millions of public debt ; for which they were granted, in 1720, the monopoly of the trade to the South Seas and the mines of Spanish America. In April, 1720, the Company’s stock rose to 319Z. per cent. ; and early in June it had risen to 890Z. per cent. The Directors then opened fresh books for a subscription of 4,000,000Z. at 1000Z. per cent. Before the expiration of the month, the subscription was at 200Z. per cent premium, and the stock at nearly 1100Z. Newton, on being asked as to the continuance of the rising of the South-Sea Stock, answered, that ” he could not calculate on the madness of the people.” Prior writes : ” I am tired of politics, and lost in the South Sea. The roaring of the waves and the madness of the people were justly put together.” A journal of Aug. 5 says :

” Our South-Sea equipage increases every day ; the City ladies buy South-Sea jewels, hire South-Sea coaches, and buy South-Sea estates.” With the connivance of the Government, the scheme reached this climax, when the frauds of the Directors transpired : within three months the stock fell to 86Z. per cent, and ” the South Sea-Bubble” burst. (See Exchange Alley, p. 333.)

The South-Sea scheme was lampooned by Swift, and satirized by Pope :

” Statesmen and patriots plied alike the stocks,
Peeress and butler shared alike the box;
And judges jobbed, and bishops bit the town,
And mighty dukes packed cards for half-a-crown :
Britain was sunk in lucre’s sordid charms.”

Among the victims was the poor maniac, “Tom of Ten Thousand” (Eustace Budgell), who lost his whole fortune and his reason. The Duke of Chandos lost 300,0002. Gay, the poet, possessed 20,0002.

South-Sea Stock, which he neglected to sell, and thus lost profit and principal. (See Mackay’s Popular Delusions.)

The Company has long ceased to be a trading body : and in 1853-4 the South-Sea Stock, to the amount of ten millions, was converted or paid off. The original office (formerly the Excise Office) was in Old Broad-street, and was known as ” the Old South-Sea House.” The new building in Threadneedle-street had a Doric portico, and incloses a quadrangle, with a Tuscan colonnade and a fountain : but it had latterly ” few or no traces of goers-in or comers-out — a desolation something like Balclutha’s.” (C. Lamb.) The great hall for sales and the dining-room were hung with portraits of governors and sub-governors, huge charts, &c. Underneath are vaulted cellars, wherein were once deposited dollars and pieces of eight. The premises, sold for 53,0001., are now let in suites of chambers.

SOUTHWARK.

OF the etymology of this ancient suburb, Mr. Ralph Lindsay, F.S.A., has collected ninety -seven authorities, commencing with SuSpepke, during the Saxon Heptarchy : but there is abundant proof that it was an extensive station and cemetery of the Romans during an early period of their dominion in Britain, attested by the fictile vases and pavements (portions of Roman houses) found in Southwark.

In November, 1866, there were found in digging the foundation of a warehouse, between Southwark-square and Winchester-street, in a space of about 100 feet by 40 feet, sixteen pits, each disclosing Roman pottery above piles and puddled clay ; and when this was removed, shells, pebbles, and refuse, such as is always seen along the water’s-edge, although the spot in question is now full 300 yards from the Thames shore. The piles were of oak and beech, with pointed bases, and masses of Kentish rag, which Mr. Syer Cuming thinks these groups of piles once supported as lake dwellings, similar to those formerly in Finsbury and Moorfields; each group with a kitchen-midden; latest food relics, oyster-shells, may indicate the presence of Romans in the neighbourhood; and near the piles was found a pavement of red tessellse, broken fictilia, piece of a Samian bowl, &c, the remains, probably, of a Boman villa. The evidence of the age of the piles is questionable; but these discoveries, made north and south of the Thames, manifest how appropriate and descriptive was the British name of our ancient metropolis, Lyn Din, the lake-town. — Proc. British Archaeological Association.

It was embanked, contemporaneously with the three great Roman roads shown to have terminated in St. George’s Fields, and to have communicated with the City by a trajectus, or ferry, over the Thames to Dowgate, from Stoney-street, Bankside ; and another to the Tower, or Arx Palatina, from Stoney-lane, Tooley-street. To its fortification may be traced the Saxon name, Sudwerche, the south work of London.

It is called Surder-virke in a Danish account of a battle fought here by King Olaf in 1008 j and Suth-weorce in the narrative of Earl Godwin’s attack in 1052, when here was a wooden bridge.

Southwark was burnt by William the Conqueror. In Domesday-book the Bishop of Baieux hath here one monastery (Bermondsey), and one haven (St. Saviour’s dock). On coins of William I. we find Svethewer, or Svetherk; on pennies of William II., Svthevk, Svthewi, and Svthewr; and about 1086, the annual revenue derived from it was only 162″. In 1327, upon the complaint that Southwark was the refuge of felons and thieves, Edward III. sold the vill or town to the citizens of London, — the king still being lord of the manor, and appointing the bailiff.

Edward IV. granted the citizens an annual Fair ; by charter of Edward VI., the full control of Southwark was vested in the citizens ; and by Act of Common Council, 1550, was constituted a ward of the City, by the name of Bridge Without, — the first alderman of which was Sir John Ayliffe, 1551. Southwark has sent members to parliament since temp. Edward I. It was formerly famous for its artists in glass, who, temp. Henry VIII., glazed the windows of King’s College Chapel, Cambridge.

On July 1, 1450, Jack Cade arrived in Southwark; and on Feb. 3, 1554, Sir Thomas Wyat and the ” Kentyshemen” appeared here ; both, probably, in St. George’s Fields.

” At this time was Wyat entered into Kent-street, and so by Sainct George’s Church into Southwarke. Himselfe and part of his companye cam in goode array down Barmesey-strete.” — The Chronicle of Queen Jane, Queen Mary, &c.

In 1642, Southwark was defended by a fort with four half bulwarks, at the Log and Duck, St. George’s Fields ; a large fort with four bulwarks, near the end of Blackman-street; and a redoubt with four flanks, near the Lock Hospital, Kent-street. The ancient town, however, was but a small portion of what we know as the Borough, and was the Guildable Manor, extending from St. Mary Overy’s Dock westward to Hay’s-lane ; Tooley-street, eastward ; south as far as the Town-hall, thence to Counter-street and St. Mary Overy’s Dock. The other portions — viz., the King’s Manor and the Great Liberty Manor, were not part of the Borough until they were purchased by the Corporation of London from King Edward VI. ; the Corporation being the Lords.

Southwark was first called the Borough in the eighteenth century ; it occupies an area nearly equal to that of the City of London itself. The principal street, from the south end of Old London Bridge to St. Margaret’s Hill, was formerly called Long Southwark (Howell’s Londinopolis), afterwards High-street, but is now Wellington-street ; thence St. Margaret’s Sill; and next Sigh-street, Blackman-street, and Newington Causeway. The old High-street had many picturesque gabled houses in the present century, thelast of which were removed for the approach to New London Bridge {see p. 450) .

On the east side remain several old inns (see p. 456) ; one of the taverns on the west side

was the Tumble-down- Lick, in our time painted as a drunken toper, but originally a

caricature of the downfall of Richard Cromwell, ” the new Protector.” Nearly opposite

the east end of St. Saviour’s Church and tower, and the Lady-chapel, was built in

1854 a clock-tower, resembling a market-cross, of Gothic design, with a canopied

niche for a statue of the great Duke of Wellington. Adjoining the Railway Station,

was St. Olave’s School, taken down in 1849 (see p. 726). Here also was St. Thomas’s

Hospital, described at p. 435. Tooley-street (eastward of London Bridge) is corrupted

from St. Olave’s, or St. Olaff’s, street. Here, were the Bridge Souse and Yard, for

the stowage of materials for the repairs of London Bridge; besides corn granaries,

public ovens, and a public brew-house; the site is now Cotton’s Wharf and Hay’s

Wharf. The site of the Borough Compter, a prison, in Mill-lane, was formerly occupied

by the Inn of the Abbot of Battle, its mill, &c.

Southwark possessed two Mints for coinage, described at pages 508 and 509 : the

ancient mint is thought to have stood upon the site of the house of the Prior of Lewes,

in Carter-lane, nearly opposite St. Olave’s Church, in Tooley-street. (See Ceypts,

p. 302.) Here too was ” the Abbot’s Inn of St. Augustine” (deed 1280), afterwards

belonging to the St. Leger family : and thence called Sellinger (i.e. St. Leger’s), now

Chamberlain’s, Wharf. Next was the Bridge-house ; and then, eastward, the Inn of

the Abbot of Battle ; and Battle-bridge, over a water-course pertaining to the Abbey.

The Manor of the Maze, Sir John Burcettor’s, temp. Henry VI., is kept in memory

by Maze-lane and Maze-pond ; and upon the site of ” St. Thomas’s Tents” the Pro-

testant refugees of the Palatinate in Germany ” pitched their tents” in the reign of

Queen Anne. The Maze was built upon in Aubrey’s time, 17th century.

Sorselydown extends from Tooley-street to Dockhead : it was temp. Elizabeth, a

grazing-field (Horseydowne.) Here was rebuilt, upon a handsome scale, St. Olave’s

Grammar-school for 600 boys (see p. 726.)

” This street, Horselydown, (as I was told by a sober counsellor-at-law, and who said he had it from

an old record,) was so called, for that the water, formerly overflowing it, was so effectually drawn off,

that the place became a plain green field, where horses and other cattle used to pasture and lye down,

before the street was built.” — Hatton, 1708.

On May 11, 1854, Mr. G. B. Corner, F.S.A., communicated to the Society of Antiquaries Notices of a

Drawing in the Society’s possession, being a copy of a picture at Hatfield House, representing s.fete on

Horselydown ; and of a plan of Horselydown in 1544, belonging to the governors of St. Olave’s and St.

John’s Grammar-School. The picture shows a view of the Tower of London in the distance. The fore-

ground is occupied by holiday groups ; cooks are preparing a large repast at a kitchen ; and in the mid-

distance are the stocks with a solitary tenant. Underneath a tree are two figures, supposed to represent

Ben Jonson and Shakspeare, who are not unlikely to have been present at this/e/e. To Mr. Corner we

are indebted for many valuable illustrations of the antiquities of Southwark.

The Friory of St. Mary Overie, and Church of St. Saviour, are described at

SOUTHWARK. 741

pp. 199-202 : in the Cotton Collection is a book which formerly belonged to a Prior.

The church was approached from High-street by ” Chain Gate” (the Priory gates).

The restoration of the tower and choir, and the Lady Chapel, by George Gwilt, F.S.A., attest Mr.

Gwilt’s scrupulous accuracy in following the mouldings and detail of the former design, and the care

and attention which he has bestowed on the restoration of those parts which had been entirely lost:

of this the gables are instances. A beautiful drawing of the choir, by the architect’s eldest son, George

Gwilt, hangs in the vestry : for which this young and promising architect was presented with 100 guineas.

Suffolk House, which is prominent in the foreground of Wyngrerde’s view, was

sumptuously built, almost directly over against St. George’s Church, by Charles Brandon

(Duke of Suffolk) early in the reign of Henry VIII. ; but coming into the king’s

hands, it became Southwark Place, and a Mint of Coinage, as described in p. 569.

After the death of King Henry VIII., Southwark Place became neglected. Edward

VI. occasionally visited it, and feasted here the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs. Queen

Mary granted Southwark Place to Nicholas Heath, Archbishop of York, as a recom-

pense for York House at Westminster. The Archbishop disliking the situation of

Suffolk Place, sold the buildings, and the estate. The purchasers had most of the

buildings taken down, sold the materials, and a number of small houses were erected

on the site. That part of the building left standing was purchased by Alderman

Broomfield, Lord Mayor, whose son marrying the daughter of Thomas Lant, Esq.,

the estate devolved to the Lant family. Thus, Suffolk -street, Lant-street, the

Mint, and other places in Southwark obtained their names from the owners or occu-

piers of Suffolk-place, and its extensive park. ” Brandonne’s Place, in Southwerke,”

is mentioned in Sir John Howard’s Expenses under the year 1465. One of the last

of the barbers who let blood, and drew teeth, was Middleditch, of Great Suffolk-street,

Southwark, in whose shop-window were displayed heaps of drawn teeth, and at his

door the barber’s pole.

Southwark is a Shakspearean locality. The site of the Globe Theatre is believed

to be included in that of Barclay and Perkins’s Brewery. All vestiges of times as

old as Shakspeare and the playhouses there seem to have vanished, except a house

which some think may be part of the the original Falcon Tavern. This is situated

not far from Pellatt’s Falcon Glass-works. The register of the burials in St. Mary Overie’s,

1607, has ” Edmund Shakspeare, the Poet’s brother, player, in the church.” Gerard

Johnson, the sculptor of Shakspeare’s bust on his tomb, in the church, at Stratford-on-

Avon, lived in St. Thomas Apostle’s parish, not far from the Globe, and he must often

have seen Shakspeare, as Dugdale assures us. In the Vestry-room of St. Saviour’s

church long hung a presumed portrait of Shakspeare, which is now in the collection of

pictures at the Foundling Hospital.

Montague-close, adjoining St. Saviour’s Church, was the cloister of the monastery;

and, after the Dissolution, appertained to the mansion built by Sir Anthony Browne

(Viscount Montague), who obtained a grant of the site of the Priory of St. Mary Overie,

and the messuages, wharfs, shops, &c. ; and in St. Mary Overy’s Dock was situated the

Priory mill.

Bankside, “the Bank” (Thames-bank in Domesday -book), extends from near St.

Saviour’s Church to Blackfriars-bridge. Here were two ” Beare-gardens, places wherein

were kept beares, bulls, and other beasts, to be bayted; as also mastives, in several

kenles, nourished to bayt them” (Stow). Here Edward Alleyn, the founder of Dulwich

College, kept the Bear-garden, temp. Elizabeth and James I.; but “His Majesty’s

Bear-garden” was removed to Hockley -in-the- Hole, Clerkenwell, in 1686-7. Here

also were the Globe, the Rose, the Hope, and the Swan Theatres (see Theatees).

The Stew-houses were put down by sound of trumpet, by Henry VIII. Before the

Restoration the theatres had disappeared, and Bankside became the abode of dyers, for

” the conveniency of the water.” Here are Rose Alley and Globe Alley, from the old

theatres. Pike Garden is named in a parliamentary survey of 1649 as ” late parcel

of the possessions of Charles Stuart, late king of England ;” and in another survey,

made in 1652, occurs ” the late king’s barge-house on the Bankside.” (See also p. 31.)

Winchester Souse, or Palace, founded about 1107, by Bishop Walter Giffard, with

its court, offices, and water-stairs, occupied great part of the ” Bank ;” and had, on the south, gardens, statues, fountains, and a spacious park : hence Park-street. The decaying palace was let as warehouses and wharfs ; and the venerable remains of its great

hall, with a grand circular gable-window, of rare tracery, were laid open by a fire in

August, 1814. The Vinegar-works of Messrs. Pott are upon a part of the park site, and

are held of the see of Winchester. Adjoining was Rochester House, the residence of

the Bishops of Rochester : it stood on the nortb side of the Borough Market-place, part

of which was Rochester-yard ; and Rochester-street still exists. This estate, anciently

called Grimes Croft, was granted by William, second Earl of Warren, to the monks of

Rochester, by placing his knife upon the altar of St. Andrew. Rochester House was

taken down in the year 1604.

Deadman’s-place, west of the Market, is said to be corrupted from Desmond -place,

where dwelt the Earl of Desmond : here are the College founded by Thomas Cure,

saddler to Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth ; almshouses built by Edward Alleyn, 1616,

and other almshouses.

Southwark Tokens. — In the Beaufoy Collection, at Guildhall, are “the Bore’s Head,” 1649 (between

Nos. 25 and 26, High-street) : it was leased to the family of the author of the present volume, and was

sublet in tenements, as ” Boar’s-Head-court,” taken down in 1830. Next also is a “Dogg and Dvcke”

token, 1651 (St. George’s Fields) ; “the Greene Man,” 1651 (which remains in Blackman-street) ; “ye

Bull Head Taveme,” 1667, mentioned by Edward Alleyn, founder of Dulwich College, as one of his

resorts; “Duke of Suffolk’s Head,” 1669; and the “Swan with Two Necks.”

Southwark and the adjacent districts are noted for their manufactures : as rope-

walks and tan-pits at Bermondsey; barge and boat-builders, sawyers and timber-

merchants, at Rotherhithe; also, hat making, brewing, vinegar-yards, and distilleries,

glass-houses, potteries, and soap and candle works.

The High-street is crossed nearly opposite St. Saviour’s church by an ugly railway

bridge, and the line trends thence, anaconda-like, along the south bank of the Thames,

which it crosses by three bridges. In the railway works were demolished some Eliza-

bethan houses in Stoney-street, close to the palaces of the Bishops of Rochester and

Winchester, between the bear-gardens of Bankside and the Clink Prison, chiefly occu-

pied by the licensed keepers of houses of infamous resort, from the twelfth till the six-

teenth century, when that nuisance was at length suppressed by law. Almost parallel

extends SouthwarJc-street, flanked with groups of lofty warehouses, banking-houses,

Hop Exchange, &c. ; eastward, the street is continued into Bermondsey and Rotlier-

hithe, and is a noble improvement. A subway* is formed in the centre of the road,

and is thus described : —

This subway is an arched passage, 12 ft. wide and nearly 7 ft. high, from which are side passages

leading to cellars built beneath the footwalks. In the subway the gas, water-mains, and telegraph-

wires are laid, the side passages conveying the two former necessaries direct into the cellars, and

thence into the houses themselves. The object of this new work is, of course, to do away with the nuisances

caused by the stoppage of thoroughfares to repair a gas or water main. This subway is wide and high

enough to allow of any repairs of this kind being carried on. The drains from the houses are formed of

strong stoneware pipes, passing at a rather steep incline beneath the subway into the main sewer, which

is placed below the floor of the passage in the centre, but not so deep but that it can instantly be opened

for repairs or removal of stoppages. Every part of the subway is ventilated in the most perfect manner.

The Southwark arms are, Arg., a rose displayed. The Bridge-house mark is usually,

but erroneously, used to designate Southwark, because the manors form part of the

Bridge-house estates. That mark is, Azure, an annulet ensigned with a cross patee, or,

interlaced with a saltire conjoined in base, of the second. The City jurisdiction, ac-

cording to the inscription upon the boundary-stone at the western extremity of Beth-

lehem Hospital wall, and other parts of the liberties, extends northward to the Thames,

and eastward to St. Thomas-a- Watering in the Kent-road j comprehending the parishes

of St. George, St. Saviour (exclusive of the Clink Liberty), St. Thomas, St. Olave, and

St. John. Southwark occupies an area of 590 acres ; the City of London 600 acres.

At No. 6, Blackman-street, Sir James South (eldest son of a dispensing chemist in

the High-street) made several valuable astronomical observations. (See Kensington,

p. 488.) At No. 104, High-street, sign of the Golden Key (of which a Token exists),

lived Mr. Elliotson, chemist and druggist, father of John Elliotson, M.D., F.R.S.

The historic Inns of Southwark are described at p. 456.

* Subways, or passages beneath the streets of the metropolis, were advocated in 1828, by Mr.

Williams, of Birchin-lane, in a bulky octavo volume. In 1859, this great improvement was commenced

by the Board of Works under the new street leading from Cranbourn-street to Covent-garden.

SOUTHWARK FAIR,

ANCIENTLY called ” Our Lady Faire in Southwark,” was granted by Edward VI., in 1550, when the sum of 647Z. 2s. Id. was paid by the Corporation of London for

the two manors and divers lands and tenements. The Fair, held on September 7th,

8th, and 9th, was opened by the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs riding to St. Magnus’ Church

after dinner, at two o’clock in the afternoon : the former vested with his collar of SS. f

without his hood ; and all dressed in their scarlet gowns, lined, without their cloaks.

They were attended by the Sword-bearer, wearing his embroidered cap, and carrying

“the pearl sword;” and at the church were met by the aldermen, all of whom, after

evening prayer, rode over the bridge in procession, passed through the Fair, and con-

tinued either to St. George’s Church, Newington Bridge, or to the stones pointing out

the City liberties at St. Thomas-a- Watering. They then returned over the bridge, or

to the Bridge House, where a banquet was provided, when the aldermen took leave of

the Lord Mayor ; and all parties being returned home, the bridge-masters gave a supper

to the Lord Mayor’s officers. Sheriff Hoare thus describes the ceremony in 1741 : On

the 8th of September the Sheriffs waited on the Lord Mayor in procession, ” the City

music going before, to proclaim Southwark Fair, as it is commonly called ; although

the ceremony is no more than our going in our coaches through the Borough, and

turning round by St. George’s Church, back again to the Bridge House ; and this is to

signify the licence to begin the Fair.” ” On this day the Sword-bearer wears a fine

embroidered cap, said to have been worked and presented to the City by a monastery.”

Evelyn and Pepys describe the Fair. Jacob Hall was one of its famous rope-dancers j

and early in the last century, Crawley’s puppet-show of the Creation, ” with the addi-

tion of Noah’s Flood,” Squire and Sir John Spendall; Dancing Dogs, and “the Ball of

Little Dogs,” danced before Queen Anne ; were Southwark Fair sights. Hogarth, in

his plate of the Fair, shows Figg the prize-fighter, and Cadman the rope-flyer. In

1743 the Fair continued fourteen days, and extended to the Mint : an attempt was

then made to put down the shows, but the Fair was not finally suppressed until 1763 i

the booth-keepers used to collect money here for Marshalsea prisoners.

SPITALFIELDS

INCLUDES large portions of Bethnal-green, Shoreditch, Whitechapel, and Mile-end New- town. Part of the site was anciently Lolesworth, a cemetery of Roman London, in breaking up which, “for clay to make brick,” about 1576, were found several urns full of ashes and burnt bones, and copper coins of Claudius, Vespasian, Nero, Antoninus Pius, Trajan, &c. ; also fragments of Roman Pottery and glass. (See Stow, p. 64.)

At the same time were found some stone coffins (British or Saxon), which are preserved in the vaults of Christchurch.

Spitalfields is named from its having been the site and property of the Priory and

Hospital of St. Mary Spittle without Bishopsgate, founded in 1197, by Walter Brune,

citizen of London, and Rosia his wife, for Augustine canons; at the Dissolution in

1534 it had 130 beds for the receipt of the poor of charity. Bagford, in Leland’s Col-

lectanea, mentions the priory, then standing, strongly built of timber, with a turret at

one angle : its ruins were discovered early in the last century north of Spital-square.

In one of the houses built here lived the celebrated Lord Bolingbroke. At the north-

east corner of Spital-square was placed the Pulpit-cross, whence were preached, in the

open air, the Spital Sermons* (see p. 157) : the pulpit was destroyed in the Civil Wars.

In the Map executed in the reign of Elizabeth, the Spittle fields are at the north-east

extremity of London, with only a few houses on the site of the Spital. The map of a

century later shows a square field bounded with houses, with the old Artillery Ground

on the west, which was let by the last prior to the Artillery Company, and is now

the site of Artillery-street. ” A Faire in Spittlefields” is described in a scarce pamphlet in the British Museum, whereat William Lilly announces his astrological wares for sale ; and Nicholas Culpepper, the herbalist, says :

” Bid money, tho’ but little ;
For night comes on, and” we must leave the Spittle.”

Culpepper occupied a house then in the fields, and subsequently a public-house at the corner of Red-Lion-court. Hard by the priory site is Paternoster-row, where, and not in Paternoster -row, St. Paul’s (see p. 668), some antiquaries maintain, Tarlton, the player at the Curtain Theatre, “kept an ordinary in these pleasant fields.”

An Order in Council, 5th March, 1669, states, the inhabitants of the pleasant locality of Spitalflelds petitioned the Council to restrain certain persons from digging earth, and making and burning bricks in these fields, which would not only render them ” very noisome,” but ” prejudice the cloathes which are usually dryed in two large grounds adjoyning, and the rich stuffs of divers colours which are made in the same place, by altering and changing their colours,” &c.

Bethnal-green and Spitalfields were grassy open spaces in the last century; but Spital- square, at the south-east corner, has been the heart of the silk district since ” the poor Protestant strangers, Walloons and French,” driven from France by the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, settled here, and thus founded the silk-manufacture in England; introducing the weaving of lustrings, alamodes, brocades, satins, paduasoys, ducapes, and black velvets : in 1713 it was stated that silks, gold and silver stuffs, and ribbons, were made here as good as those of French fabric ; and that black silk for hoods and scarfs was made annually worth 300,000£. Tapestries and hangings of the interiors of English houses were manufactured in Spitalfields, even before the settlement of the French refugees in that district. In the Queen’s Bedchamber at Windsor Castle was a bed of state, of rich flowered velvet, made at Spitalfields in the reign of Queen Anne.

About this time, bedchambers were hung with tapestry made in Spitalfields, where an

artist, named Boyston, excelled in tapestries of harvest-fields and other ruralities. After

the discontinuance of the use of tapestry, the skill of the weavers was confined mainly to

the manufacture of silks and velvets. During the reigns of Anne, George I. and II.,

the Spitalfields weavers greatly increased : in 1832, 50,000 persons were entirely

dependent on the silk-manufacture ; and the looms varied from 14,000 to 17,000. Of

these, great numbers are often unemployed ; and the distribution of funds raised for

their relief has attracted to Spitalfields a large number of poor persons, anil thus

pauperized the district. The earnings of weavers in 1854 did not exceed 10s. per

week, working from 14 to 16 hours a day : the weaving is either the richest or the

thinnest and poorest. In 1867, the Rev. Isaac Taylor, Incumbent of St. Matthias’, in

a terrible and touching picture of the condition of his parish, stated :

“The great difficulty which confronts us is the dead level of excessive poverty. A skilful workman,

making costly velvets or rich silks, and labouring from 12 to 16 hours a day, will only earn, on an average,

about 128. a week. There are many who do not earn above 7s. or 8*. ; and the labour required to gain

these miserable wages is great and excessive. To make a single inch of velvet, the shuttle has to be thrown

180 times, 180 times the treadles have to be worked, 60 times the wire has to be inserted, 60 times to

be withdrawn, 60 times the knife has to be guided along the whole breadth of the work, and 60 times

the pressure of the chest has to be exerted on a heavy beam, which is used to compress the work. 600

distinct operations are thus required to make one single inch of velvet, the average payment for making

which is Id. The women, whose strength does not enable them to move so heavy a beam with the

chest, are employed in making velveteens, chenilles, silk and cotton trimmings, and bead trimmings.

They earn about one-third the wages of the men. For fancy braid the payment is one halfpenny a yard.

Even at these starvation wages work is very scarce ; the men are often for weeks together out of employ,

or, as it is termed by a wretched mockery, ’ at play.’ Yet these poor people, with all the burden of their

poverty, are wonderfully uncomplaining and self-reliant.”

The weavers are principally English, and of English origin ; but the manufacturers

or masters are of French extraction ; and the Guillebauds, the Desormeaux, the Chabots,

the Turquands, the Mercerons, and the Chauvets, trace their connexion with the

refugees of 1685. Many translated their names into English, by which the old

families may still be known : thus, the Lemaitres called themselves Masters ; the

Leroys, King; the Tonneliers, Cooper; the Lejeunes, Young; the Leblancs, White;

the Lenoirs, Black ; the Loiseaus, Bird. Many of the weavers still cherish proud

traditions of their ancestry ; though now, perhaps, only clad in rags, they bear the old

historic names of France — names of distinguished generals and statesmen; names

such as Vendome, Ney, Racine, De Foe, La Fontaine, Dupin, Bois, Le Beau, Auvache, Fontaineau, and Montier.

The weavers’ houses, built in narrow streets, have wide latticed windows in the upper stories, which light the work-room. Upon the roofs are bird-traps and other bird-catching contrivances; for the weavers supply London with singing-birds, as linnets, woodlarks, goldfinches, greenfinches, and chaffinches ; and many, in October and March, get their livelihood by systematic bird- catching ; matches of singing or “jerking ” call-birds are determined by the burning of an inch of candle.

Spitalfields weavers have extremely small heads, 6″ target=”_top”>, 6^, and 6f inches being the prevailing widths; and the same fact is observable in Coventry; the medium size of the male head in England is 7 inches. The weavers’ practice of singing at their looms was doubtless brought with them from the Continent, as was the custom of woollen-weavers.

” I would I were a weaver, I could sing all manner of songs.” — Fahtaff, in Henry IV. Part I. act ii.
” He got his cold with sitting up late, and singing catches with clothworkers.” — Cublard, in Ben Jonson’s Silent Woman, act iii. sc. 4.

Spitalfields was a hamlet of Stepney until 1729, when it was made a district parish, and Christchurch was consecrated (see p. 157). Among the parochial charities is ” cat and dog money,” an eccentric bequest to be paid on the death of certain pet cats and dogs : a sickening bequest in such a locality of poverty and starvation.

The Sisters of Charity have been working in these districts since the winter of 1854 ; they visit an extent of several miles of habitations of the poor, tending, washing them, and nursing them, and supplying them with warm food, clothes, and other things necessary to sickness ; and these ministering angels nurse the sick, who cannot be removed to hospitals, in their own houses.

In Crispin-street is the Government School of Design, where are awarded prizes for

designs for fabrics, drawing and painting from nature, crayon-drawing, &c. Spitalfields

Market is mentioned by Hatton, in 1708, as fine for ” flesh, fowl, and roots.” In the

district are Victoria Park (see p. 655), and the City Consumption Hospital.

In Crispin-street, until 1845, the Mathematical Society occupied large apartments, for their philo-

sophical instruments and library of 3000 volumes. The Society, which also cultivated electricity, was

established in 1717, and met at the Monmouth’s Head in Monmouth-street, until 1725, when they

removed to the White Horse Tavern, in Wheeler-street ; from thence, in 1735, to Ben Jonson’s Head, in

Pelham-street ; and next to Crispin-street. The members were chiefly tradesmen and artisans ; among

those of higher rank were Canton, Dollond, Thomas Simpson, and Crossley. The Society lent their

instruments (air-pumps, reflecting telescopes, reflecting microscopes, electrical machines, surveying

instruments, &c), with books for the use of them, on the borrowers giving a note of hand for the value

thereof. The number of members was not to exceed the square of seven, except such as were abroad or

in the country ; but this was increased to the squares of eight and nine. The members met on Saturday

evenings : each present was to employ himself in some mathematical exercise, or forfeit one penny ; and

if he refused to answer a question asked by another in mathematics, he was to forfeit twopence. The

Society long cherished a taste for exact science ; but in 1845, when on the point of dissolution, the few

remaining members made over their books, records, and memorials to the Royal Astronomical Society,

of which these members were elected fellows. — Abridged from Weld’s History of the Soyal Society,

vol. i. pp. 467-8. At Bethnal-green, in 1648, Sir Balthazar Gerbier established ” The Academy for Foreign Languages, and all Noble Sciences and Exercises.”

SPRING GARDEN,

ORIGINALLY an appurtenance to the palace of Whitehall, and situate on the north-western verge of St. James’s Park, is named from its water-spring or fountain, set playing by the spectator treading upon its hidden machinery — an eccentricity of the Elizabethan garden. Spring Garden, by a patent which is extant, in 1630 was made a bowling-green by command of Charles I. ” There was kept in it an
ordinary of six shillings a meal (when the King’s proclamation allows but two elsewhere) ; continual bibbing and drinking wine all day under the trees ; two or three quarrels every week. It was grown scandalous and insufferable : besides, my Lord Digby being reprehended for striking in the King’s garden, he said he took it for a common bowling-place, where all paid money for their coming in.” — (Mr. Garrard to Lord Strafford.)

In 1634 Spring Garden was put down by the King’s command, and ordered to be hereafter no common bowling- place. This led to the opening of ” a New Spring Gar-

den” (Shaver’s Hall), by a gentleman-barber, a servant of the lord chamberlain’s.

The old garden was, however, re-opened ; for 13th June, 1649, says Evelyn, ” I treated divers ladies of my relations in Spring Gardens :” but 10th May, 1654, he records that

Cromwell and his partisans had shut up and seized on Spring Gardens, ” w ch till now

had been y e usual rendezvous for the ladys and gallants at this season.”

Spring Garden was, however, once more re-opened ; for, in A Character of England,

1659, it is described as

” The inclosure not disagreeable, for the solemnness of the grove, the warbling of the birds, and as it

opens into the spacious walks at St. James’s It is usual to find some of the young company

here till midnight; and the thickets of the garden seem to be contrived to all advantages of gallantry,

after they have refreshed with the collation, which is here seldom omitted, at a certain cabaret in the

middle of this paradise, where the forbidden fruits are certain trifling tarts, neat’s tongues, salacious

meats, and bad Rhenish.”

” The New Spring Garden”* at Lambeth (afterwards Vauxhall) was nourishing in

1661-3 j when the ground at Charing Cross was built upon, as ” Inner Spring Garden”

and ” Outer Spring Garden.” Buckingham-court is named from the Duke of Buck-

ingham, one of the rakish frequenters of Spring Garden ; and upon the site of Drum-

mond’s banking-house was ” Locket’s Ordinary, a house of entertainment much

frequented by gentry,” and a relic of the Spring Garden gaiety :

” For Locket’s stands where gardens once did spring.”

Dr. King’s Art of Cookery, 1709.

In Outer Spring Garden lived, 1661, Sir Philip Warwick, author of the Memoirs

which bear his name : ” Warwick-street, adjoining, was, I believe, named after him.”

{Cunningham.) Here, too, lived Philip, Earl of Chesterfield, 1667-1670. Prince

Rupert resided here from 1674 to his death :

” 1682, Nov. 29. — Died of a fever and pleurisy, at his house in the Spring Garden, Rupert, Prince

Palatine of the Rhine, &c., in the 63rd year of his age.”— Historian’s Guide, 3rd edit. 1688.

Sir Edward Hungerford lived here in 1631, after he had parted with his estate for

the site of Hungerford Market.

Milton, when first appointed Latin secretary, lodged at one Thomson’s, at Charing

Cross, opening into the Spring Garden. Here the witty and beautiful dramatist, Mrs.

Centlivre, died, December 1, 1723, at the house of her third husband, Joseph Centlivre,

” Yeoman of the Mouth” (head cook) to Queen Anne. Colley Cibber lived ” near the

Bull-head Tavern, in Old Spring Garden,” from 1711 to 1714. George Canning, in

1800, resided at No. 13, right-hand corner at Cockspur-street.

Spring Garden was formerly noted for its sights : the Incorporated Society of

Artists exhibited here ; here, in 1806, at Wigley’s Rooms, were shown Serres’s Pano-

rama of Boulogne ; foreign cities and sea-pieces j also Maillardet’s automatic figures,

including a harpsichord-player, a rope-dancer, and a singing-bird. Here also was

exhibited Marshall’s Peristrephic Panorama of the Battle of Waterloo, which the

spectators viewed turning round.

Berkeley House, on the right as you enter by the Spring-garden-gate, St. James’s Park, the mansion of the Berkeley family, was taken down in 1862, and upon its site has been erected the chief office of the Metropolitan Board of Works, of poor but pretentious design.

SQUARES

THE garden-spaces or planted Squares are the most recreative features of our metropolis ; in comparison with which the piazze, plazas, and places of continental cities are wayworn and dusty areas, with none of the refreshing beauty of a garden or green field :

“Fountains and trees our wearied pride do please,
Even in the midst of gilded palaces;
And in our towns the prospect gives delight,
Which opens round the country to our sight.”

Sprat, quoted in Wren’s Parentalia.

Yet the majority of the London Squares are the growth of the last century ; and few * Named from the Garden at Charing Cross, as we do not trace any “water-spring” at Vauxhall. Sir John Hawkins says : — ” Sir Samuel Morland having planted the large garden with stately trees, and laid it out in shady walks, it obtained the name of Spring Gardens. There was likewise a ’New Spring Garden’ at Pimlico, the name having been applied to a public garden generally.” of the western Squares existed before 1 770 ; their sites being then mostly sheep-walks,

paddocks, and kitchen-gardens. It was at first attempted to name squares ” quad-

rates :” in 1732 Maitland wrote, ” the stately quadrate denominated King-square, but

vulgarly Soho-square j” and the phrase is retained in Maitland’s edition of 1756.

Bedford Square, which appears in Harwood’s Map, 1799, was formerly ” St.

Giles’s ruins.” The centre house on the east side used to be the official residence of

the Lord Chancellor. Lord Loughborough lived there, and at the time of the Corn-

law Riots it was occupied by Lord Eldon. The mob made an attack on the house at

night, when Lord and Lady Eldon escaped over the back wall into the British Museum

Gardens, and took refuge in the guard-house. Here it was that the Prince of Wales

called upon the Chancellor, and got from him, as he lay in bed with gout, a vacant

Mastership in Chancery for the Prince’s friend, Jekyll. The keystone over the en-

trance doorway of some of the houses displays a very fine made head. (Builder,

No. 651.) Some of the houses were designed by Sir William Chambers.

Belgrave, Chester, and Eaton Squares, named from their ground-landlord, the

Marquis of Westminster, are noticed at p. 37 : the centres of the first and third

were nursery-grounds. At No. 19, Chester-square died, in 1852, Dr. Mantell, F.R.S.,

the eminent geologist.

Berkeley Square, built 1698, is named from Berkeley House, which occupied the

site of Devonshire House. On the south side of this square is Lansdowne House (see

p. 551) : the beehive upon the gate-piers is one of the family crests. At No. 11 died

Horace Walpole in 1797. No. 44, built by Kent, has a noble staircase and saloon.

At No. 45 Lord Clive destroyed himself in 1774. A few link-extinguishers remain

flanking doorways : the trees in the centre are old and picturesque : here was formerly

an equestrian statue of George III.

Bloomsburt, first named Southampton, Square, from Southampton House upon

its north side, was built by the Earl of Southampton, whose daughter, Lady Rachel

Russell, dates her Letters from here. Evelyn, in 1665, notes it as ” a noble square or

piazza, a little towne,” with ” good aire.” The site formerly constituted the manor of

Lomesbury, in which, according to Hughson, the kings of England anciently had their

stables until removed to the Mews, near Charing-cross. Coming into the hands of

the Russell family, by marriage with the Earl of Southampton, it was called first

Southampton-square, and then Bloomsbury-square. Bedford House has been ascribed

to Inigo Jones, but it would seem erroneously. It was built a few years after his

death. Thornhill’s copies of Raffaelle’s Cartoons were in one of the wings of this

house. It was sold by auction in the year 1800, and immediately pulled down. Pope

alludes to this once fashionable quarter of the town : —

” In Palace-yard, at nine, you’ll find me there,

At ten, for certain, sir, in Bloomsbury-square.”

The Grand Duke Cosmo was taken to see Bloomsbury as one of the wonders of

England. Baxter, the Nonconformist divine, lived here when he was persecuted by

Judge Jeffreys. The Earls of Chesterfield had a mansion here. Sir Hans Sloane

lived on the south side ; and here Dr. Franklin came to see Sloane’s Curiosities, ” for

which,” says Franklin, ” he paid me handsomely.” Dr. Radcliffe lived here when he

gave 5201. to the poor Nonjuring clergy. Lord Mansfield’s house was at the north-

east corner, when it was burnt to the walls by the rioters of 1780 j and his books,

papers, and furniture made into a bonfire in the square. Lord and Lady Mansfield

escaped by a back door from the mob. On the north side is a bronze sitting statue of

Charles James Fox, by Westmacott. Ralph describes this side as ” one of the finest

situations in Europe for a palace,” with gardens and view of the country. Dr. Aken-

side, and the elder Mr. Disraeli, resided in this square. The latter compiled the

Curiosities of Literature in No. 6, which house was built in 1766, by Isaac Ware, the

editor of Palladio, originally a chimney-sweep, and whose skin, it is said, was so

engrained with soot, that he bore till his dying day the marks of his early calling.

Bridgewater Square, Barbican, was once the site of the mansion and gardens

of the Earl of Bridgewater. ” The middle is neatly enclosed with palisado pales

and set round with trees, which renders the place very delightful.” — Strype.

Brunswick and Mecklenburgh Squares, with the Foundling Hospital and grounds between them, form an airy group ; northward is Torrington Square : No. 55, residence of Sir Harris Nicolas, the genealogist.

Beyanston and Montague Sqtjaees were built on Ward’s Field, and the site of Apple Village, by David Porter, who was once chimney-sweeper to the village of Marylebone. At St. Mary’s Church, Bryanston-square, June 7, 1838, Miss London (L. E. L.) was privately married, by her brother, to George Maclean, governor of Cape Coast Castle. The Rev. Dr. Dibdin was Rector (see p. 198).

Cavendish Square (between two and three acres), named from the Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holies, the wife of Harley, Earl of Oxford, was planned on the north side of Tyburn-road in 1715, when the locality was infested by footpads, who often robbed and stripped persons in the fields between London and Marylebone. Margaret-street Chapel about seventy years since was an isolated building in Marylebone-fields : a shady ” Lover’s Walk” passed close by the chapel to Manchester-square ; another walk led through the fields to Paddington. The Square was laid out about 1717; the whole of the north side being taken by “the Grand Duke” of Chandos, who proposed to build here a palatial residence, and to purchase all the property between Cavendish-square and his palace of Canons at Edgeware, so that he might ride from town to the country through his own estate. In the British Museum is a view of the mansion, designed by John Price : the wings only were built ; one being the large mansion at the corner of Harley-street, which was occupied by the Princess Amelia, aunt to George III. ; also by the Earl of Hopetoun, and the Hopes of Amsterdam ; next by George Watson Taylor, Esq., who assembled here a very valuable collection of paintings. The other wing of the Duke’s plan is the corresponding mansion at the corner of Chandos-street. The centre is principally occupied by two splendid mansions, with Corinthian columns, designed by James of Greenwich. At this period Harcourt House on the west side was the only other house here : ” it presents, with its high court-walls and porte-cochere, more the appearance of a Parisian mansion than any other house in London.” (S. Angell.) The ground was first sold at 2s. 6d. per foot. In the centre of the Square is an equestrian metal statue of William Duke of Cumberland ; and on the south side a colossal standing bronze statue of Lord George Bentinck, third son of the Duke of Portland. Southward is Holies-street, where, at No. 24, Lord Eyron was born. Mr. Coke, in 1833, told Haydon, the painter, that he remembered a fox killed in Cavendish-square, and that where Berkeley-square now stands was an excellent place for snipes.

Charterhouse Square is described by Hatton (1708) as “a pleasant place of good (and many new) buildings, the whole in the form of a pentagon.” Here was Rutland House, in which the Venetian ambassadors lodged. Baxter the Nonconformist died in this square in 1691. It has been partly taken down. On the north side is the Charterhouse, see pp. 85-88.

Covent Garden, see pp. 292-296.

Devonshiee Squaee, Bishopsgate Without, ” a pretty though very small square inhabited by gentry and other merchants” (Hatton, 1708), was named from the Earls of Devonshire having lived there in a mansion previously possessed by the Earl of Oxford : ” the Queen’s majesty Elizabeth hath lodged there” (Stow.) The mansion was built in the midst of gardens and bowling-alleys, by Jasper Fisher, one of the six Clerks in Chancery, who thereby outrunning his income, the house was mockingly called ” Fisher’s Folly.” It next became a conventicle ; hence ” Fisher’s Folly congregation” (Hudibras.) Here Murray and Dockwra set up the Penny Post in 1680.

Murray also introduced the Club of Commerce (one of a trade) ; and at Devonshire House he opened a Bank of Credit, where money-bills were advanced upon goods deposited.

Euston Square, St. Pancras, is named from the ground-landlords, the Dukes of Grafton and Earls of Euston. Upon the site of the north side of the square, then a nursery-garden, Dr. Wolcot, the political satirist (Peter Pindar), ended his misspent life in blindness.

Finsbury Square was built in 1789, by George Dance, R.A., on the north side of Moorfields. At the north-east corner lived the estimable Dr. Birkbeck, the founder of Mechanics’ Institutions: he died here December 1, 1811, the eighteenth anniversary of the establishment of the first Mechanics’ Institution in London.

Fitzroy Square is named from Charles Fitzroy, second Duke of Grafton : the E. and S. sides were commenced by W. and J. Adam in 1790. On the south side lived Sir W. C. Ross, R.A., the celebrated miniature-painter; and at No. 7, Sir Charles L. Eastlake, President of the Royal Academy.

Golden Square, Westminster, ” not exactly in anybody’s way, to or from anywhere,” was ” so called from the first builder, a very new and pleasant square” (Hatton, 1708) ; contemporary evidence, more reasonable than Pennant’s hearsay anecdote that the name was Gelding, altered from the sign of a neighbouring inn.

One of its earliest inhabitants was Lord Bolingbroke, when secretary -at-war, 1704-8.

In the centre of the square is a statue of George II., formerly at Canons, near Edgeware. Golden-square is a locality of Smollett’s Humphrey Clinker, and of Dickens’s Nicholas Niclcleby.

Haydon Square, Minories, is named from Alderman Haydon, the ground-landlord.

Close by were found, in 1852, sculptured gravestones and urnsj and in 1853 a sarcophagus ; all of Roman work. In Haydon-square lived Sir Isaac Newton when Master of the Mint : the house was taken down about 1852. Here is Allsopp’s Burton Ale Depot, occupying 20,000 square feet ; cargoes of ale are sent here from Burton, by railway (140 miles), in an afternoon ; and the platforms and wagons are lowered by hydraulic cranes into the vast cellars. Here also is the spring of pure water, which formerly supplied the priory of the Holy Trinity upon this spot.

Gordon Square, New-road, has at the south-west angle the Catholic Apostolic Church : cathedral-like Early English exterior, and Decorated interior, with a triforium in the aisle-roof; the ceilings are highly enriched, and some of the windows are filled with stained glass ; the northern doorway and porch, and the southern wheelwindow, equal old examples; and gothic houses, with projections and gables, pointed-headed windows, and traceried balconies, group around the church : architects, Brandon and Ritchie. ” Near the spot occupied by Gordon-square, a circular enclosure was constructed, about the year 1803, for the exhibition of the ” first locomotive,” the production of Trevithick. Its performance was then so satisfactory that a bet was offered by the proprietors to match the engine to run a greater number of miles in twenty-four hours than any horse that could be produced, but there were no takers. — Communicated to The Builder.

Gough Square, between Fetter-lane and Shoe-lane, contains the house, No. 17, wherein Dr. Johnson compiled most of his Dictionary ; his amanuenses working in the garrets.

Grosvenor Square, six acres, is named from Sir Richard Grosvenor, who died in 1732. The houses, some of rubbed bricks with stone finishings, are spacious. The centre landscape-garden was laid out by Kent, and the stone pedestal in the centre once bore an equestrian statue of George I.; the line of fortification during the Civil War ran across the space now the square. It is a place of high fashion ; and Dr. Johnson once desired to be ” Grosvenor of that ilk.” Here lived Lord North and John Wilkes ; and at No. 39 (the Earl of Harrowby’s) his Majesty’s Ministers were to have dined on the evening the Cato-street conspirators had planned to assassinate them, and to bring away the heads of Lords Liverpool and Castlereagh in two bags !

Hanover Square, built about 1718, was named in honour of George I., when it was proposed to change the place of execution from Tyburn elsewhere, lest the procession of malefactors might annoy the inhabitants of the new square. Here lived Field-Marshal Lord Cobham, the owner of princely Stowe. Admiral Lord Rodney died here in 1792. On the east side are the Hanover Square Rooms ; the great room is 90 feet by 35 feet, and will hold 800 persons ; the ceiling was painted by Cipriani. No. 11 is the Zoological Society ; No. 12, the Royal Agricultural Society ; and on the west side is the Oriental Club (see p. 196). In Tenterden-street is the Royal Academy of Music, founded in 1823, incorporated 1830. Upon the south side of Hanover-square is a colossal bronze statue of William Pitt, by Chantrey.

” This square, in connexion with George-street, has always struck me as one of the most scenic architectural displays that London presents i the street expanding towards the square, the unique and
elegant style of the surrounding mansions, the judicious mixture of red brick and stone, Chantrey’s statue, and the successful ecclesiastical work of James (St. George’s), altogether produce the most agreeable effect.” — S. Angell.

St. James’s Square, between Pall Mall and Jermyn-street, is built on part of St. James’s Fields. Godfrey’s print, from a drawing by Hollar, has a stone conduit near the centre of the present square. Mr. Cunningham found several of its tenants rated in T the parish-books of St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields in 1676 ; and among them, on the west * side, Madame Churchill, mistress of the Duke of York ; and Madame Davis (Moll Davis), mistress of Charles II. On the north side was Romney House, where, in 1695 and 1697, King William III. visited the Earl of Romney, to witness fireworks in the square; and in the latter year the Dutch Ambassador made before his house a bonfire of 140 pitch-barrels, and wine was ” kept continually running among the common people.” On the north side also was Ormond House, the mansion of the great Duke of Ormond ; the duchess died here in 1684 ; in 1698 the house was let to Count Tallard, the French Ambassador, for 600Z. per annum, then a large rent. In the rear of the present houses is Ormond-yard, now a mews. Appletree-yard, opposite, keeps in memory the apple-orchards of St. James’s Fields. Hatton describes St. James’s-square, in 1708, ” very pleasant, large, and beautiful ; all very fine spacious buildings (except that side towards Pall Mall), mostly inhabited by the prime quality.”

Sutton Nicholls’s print, 1720, shows a fountain in the centre of the square, with a basin, ” filled by contract, in 1727, with water from York-buildings.” (Malcolm.) A pedestal for an equestrian statue of William III. was erected in the centre of the square in 1732 ; but the statue, cast in brass by the younger Bacon, was not set up until 1808, the bequest in 1724 for the cost having been forgotten, until the money was found in the list of unclaimed dividends. The Earl of Radnor had on the north side a mansion, painted by Vanson, over doors and chimney-pieces; the staircase by
Laguerre; and the apartments hung with pictures by Edema, Wyck, Roestraten, Danckers, old Griffier, young Vandervelde, and Sybricht. At No. 7, lived Josiah Wedgwood, and here his stock of classic pottery was dispersed by auction. No. 2 is Lord Falmouth’s : the street-posts are cannon captured by his ancestor, Admiral Boscawen, off Cape Finisterre. No. 4, Earl de Grey (see p. 548) ; the late Earl received here the Royal Institute of British Architects. No. 6, Marquis of Bristol. No. 11, Right Hon. William Windham; Lord Chief Justice Ellenborough in 1814; John Duke of Roxburghe; now the Wyndham Club (see p. 261). No. 12, London Library (see p. 522) ; here lived Lord Amherst when Commander-in-Chief. No. 13, Liclifield House, was built by Athenian Stuart for Lord Anson; from the balcony, on June 20, 1815, the Prince Regent displayed the trophies just received from Waterloo to the delighted populace.

No. 15 (Sir Philip Francis’s) was lent by Lady Francis to Queen Caroline, in 1820, who delighted to show herself at the drawing-room windows, and proceeded from thence

daily, in State, to her trial in the House of Lords ; at this time No. 16 was Lord

Castlereagh’s. No. 17, the Duke of Cleveland’s : here is Lel/s fine whole-length

portrait of the Duchess of Cleveland. No. 19, the Bishop of Winchester. No. 21,

Norfolk House (see p. 554), occupies the site of the mansion of Henry Jermyn, Earl

of St. Albans, who died here in 1683. No. 22 is London House, rebuilt in 1820 for

the Bishops of London. Upon the lower or Pall Mall side lived the father of H. R.

Morland, and grandfather of George Morland, all three painters.

Leicester Square (see pp. 511-515.)

Lincoln’s Inn Fields (see pp. 527-529).

Lowndes Square, Belgravia, was built 1837-1839, and named from the ground-

landlord, W. Selby Lowndes, Esq. The seven houses at the south end, by Lewis

Cubitt, resemble an Italian palace, with embellished chimney -shafts, Tuscan cornice,

and Venetian balconies. The site of the square was once a coppice, which supplied the

Abbot and Convent of Westminster with wood for fuel.

Manchester Square was begun in 1776, by the building of Manchester House

upon the north side (see p. 552). At the north-west corner of the square is Man-

chester-street, where died, in 1814, the impostor, Joanna Southcott, after imposing

upon six medical men with the story of her being enceinte with the young ” Shiloh.”

Myddelton Sqetare, Islington, near the New River Head, is named from its origi-

nator, Sir Hugh Myddelton, the early engineer.

Portman Square, upon the estate of W. H. Portman, Esq., and once the property

of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, was begun about 1764, but not completed until

1784 ; it is 500 feet by 400. The centre is laid out as a shrubbery wilderness ; and

here is a moveable kiosk, constructed for the Turkish Ambassador about 1808, when he

resided at No. 18 ; his Excellency customarily took the air and smoked here, surrounded

by a party of his retinue. At the north-west angle is Montague’ House (see p. 554) :

here were the feather-hangings sung by Cowper ; here Miss Burney was welcomed, and

Dr. Johnson grew tame. No. 15 (Duke of Leeds) : the architectural embellishments

of the staircase and principal rooms of this noble mansion, the rich mahogany doors,

sculptured marble chimney-pieces, and the cornices and ceilings, are all in the fine taste

of Robert Adam, who built the Adelphi-terrace.

Prince’s Square. — ” As St. Giles’s parish contains the largest square (Lincoln’s

Inn Fields), so it also may boast of the smallest, which is situated near it— namely,

Prince’s Square, containing only one house ” (Dobie), between Little Queen-street and

Gate-street ; a stone tablet is inscribed, ” Prince’s-square, 1736.”

Prince’s Square, Ratcliffe Highway. — Here is the Swedish Church, in which is

interred Emanuel Swedenborg; in the vestry-room are a few portraits, including

that of Dr. Serenius, Bishop of Stregnas. About the year 1816 the cranium of

Swedenborg was taken from the coffin by a Swedish captain, but was replaced after

his death.

Queen Square, Bloomsbury, built in the reign of Queen Anne, has a railed garden

for the north side. Jonathan Richardson, the painter, died here in 1745. At the

north-west corner Dr. John Campbell, editor of the Biographia Britannica, gave his

Sunday-evening conversation-parties, at which Dr. Johnson used to meet ” shoals of

Scotchmen.” On the south-west side is the church of St. George-the-Martyr, of which

Dr. Stukeley was rector (see p. 163) ; he lived in the square.

Queen Square, Westminster, contains a statue of Queen Anne, mentioned in

1708. Here was born in 1684, Admiral Vernon, the hero of Portobello ; here lived the

Rev. C. M. Cracherode, who bequeathed his books, medals, and drawings to the British

Museum. In this square died, in 1784, Dr. Thomas Francklin, the erudite Greek

scholar. (Queen Square Chapel, see p. 214). In 1832 died, aged 85, Jeremy

Bentham, in Queen-square-place, where he had resided for nearly half a century.

Red Lion Square, ” a pleasant square of good buildings, between High Holborn

south, and the fields north” (Hatton, 1708), was named from the Red Lion Inn. In 1733,

Lord Chief Justice Raymond lived here j Sharon Turner, the historian, lived many years

at No. 13 ; the benevolent Jonas Hanway, the traveller, lived and died (1786) here, in a

house, the principal rooms of which he had decorated with paintings and emblematical

devices, ” in a style peculiar to himself :” Hanway was honoured with a public funeral.

Sir John Prestwick, in his Bepublica, tells us ” Cromwell’s remains were privately

interred in a small paddock near Holborn, on the spot where the obelisk in Red Lion-

square lately stood.” Prestwick does not give his authority for this statement ; it

may be a blunder, caused by the bodies of Cromwell, Ireton, and Bradshaw being

carried from Westminster Abbey to the Bed Lion Inn, Holborn, and the next day

dragged on sledges to Tyburn. (Wood’s Athen. Oxon. art. ” Ireton.”) No. 13 is the

Mendicity Society. The author of A Tour through Great Britain notes : ” This

present year, 1737, an Act was passed for beautifying Red Lyon-square, which had

run much to decay, and no doubt but Leicester-fields and Golden-square will soon follow

these good examples.”

Russell Square, north of Bedford-square, occupies part of Southampton Fields (1720), subsequently Long Fields. Its dimensions are 665 feet 6 inches north side,

665 feet 3 inches south ; 672 feet 7 inches west ; and 667 feet 1 inch east — 2665-1

feet square, or about 140 feet less than Lincoln’s Inn Fields. In 1800 Long Fields

lay waste and useless, with nursery grounds northward ; the Toxopholite Society’s

ground north-west; and Bedford House, with its lawn and magnificent lime-trees,

south. At the north-east end of Upper Montague-street was ” the Field of Forty

Footsteps ” (see p. 337). The east side of the square was the house and gardens of

the dissolute Lord Baltimore ; the mansion is now divided.

Bedford House stood across the present Woburn-place. At that time Bolton House, which occupied

the north extremity of the single line of houses forming Southampton-row, was the extreme of London

in that direction, for there was no building in the then clear open ” Long-fields” between Bolton House

and the Southampton Arms Tea-garden at Camden-town, to which there was a footpath crossing the

New-road, leaving the Soot, immortalized by Dickens in Barnaby Budge at some distance on the

right. The view northward from Queen-square was then quite uninterrupted. — Builder.

Here, in No. 21, Sir Samuel Romilly died by his own hand. Lord Chief Justice Tenter-

den died in No. 28. Baltimore House, at the corner of Guilford-street, was long the

residence of Wedderburn, Lord Chancellor Loughborough. Mr. Justice Talfourd was

resident at No. 67. Sir Thomas Lawrence lived for a quarter of a century in No. 65.

In the Gentleman’s Magazine, the Rev. John Mitford notes : “We shall never forget

the Cossacks, mounted on their small white horses, with their long spears grounded,

standing sentinels at the door of this great painter, whilst he was taking the portrait of

their general, Platoff ” (1818). On the north side is the picturesque bronze sitting

statue of Francis, Duke of Bedford, by Westmacott.

Salisbury Square (see Fleet-street, p. 349) ; at the north-west corner was the

printing-office of Richardson, the novelist.

Soho Square, originally King’s-square, was begun in the reign of Charles II. ; the

south side consisting of Monmouth House, built by Wren for the Duke of Monmouth,

and after his death purchased by Lord Bateman ; in 1717 it was an auction room ; part

of the site is now occupied by Bateman’s-buildings.

J. T. Smith, in Nollelcens and Ms Times, describes the pulling down of Monmouth Souse, which he

witnessed : the gate entrance was of massive ironwork, supported by stone piers, surmounted by the

crest of the Duke of Monmouth ; and within the gates was a courtyard for carriages. The hall was

ascended by steps. There were eight rooms on the ground-floor : the principal one was a dining-room

towards the south, the carved and gilt panels of which had contained whole-length pictures. At corners

of the ornamented ceiling, which was of plaster, and over the chimney-piece, the Duke of Monmouth’s

arms were displayed. The staircase was of oak, the steps very low, and the landing-places were tessel-

lated with woods of light and dark colours. Upon ornamented brackets were busts of Seneca, Cara-

calla, Trajan, Adrian, &c. The principal room on the first-floor was lined with blue satin, superbly

decorated with pheasants and other birds in gold. The chimney-piece was richly ornamented with

fruit and foliage : in the centre, within a wreath of oak-leaves, was a circular recess for a bust. The

beads of the panels of the brown window-shutters, which were very lofty, were gilt ; and the piers

between the windows had been filled with looking-glasses. The paved yard was surrounded by a red

brick wall, with heavy stone copings, 25 feet in height.

Shadwell, in his plays (1661), mentions ” Soho-square ;” Maitland, 1739, ” King’s-

square,” then a sort of Court quarter : Evelyn wintered ” at Soho, in the great square,”

in 1690. Bishop Burnet, the historian, lived here before he removed to Clerkenwell; his

Curiosities included the supposed ” original Magna Charta,” with part of the Great Seal

remaining. The shipwrecked remains of Sir Cloudesly Shovel lay in state in 1707. At the

corner of Greek-street, No. 1, was the mansion of Alderman Beckford, now the House of

Charity (see p. 211) ; and thither came the partisan City procession, who prevailed

upon Beckford to serve his second mayoralty, in commemoration of which he feasted the

poor of St. Anne’s, Soho. At the corner of Sutton-street was Carlisle House, where

Mrs. Cornelys gave her concerts, balls, and masquerades ; the present Roman Catholic

chapel in Sutton-street having been Mrs. Cornelys’s banquetting-room (connected with

the house by ” the Chinese bridge “), and the gateway was the entrance for sedan-

chairs. In 1772 the ” furniture, decorations, china, &c,” of Carlisle House were sold

by auction ; but it was re-opened in 1774 ; Mrs. Cornelys returned here in 1776 ; and

it was next an exhibition-place of ” monstrosities,” a ” School of Eloquence,” and an

” Infant School of Genius;” it was closed in 1797, and taken down in 1803 or 1804;

some of its curious paintings were preserved ; and an account of Mrs. Cornelys’s enter-

tainments has been privately printed by Mr. T. Mackinlay. (Dr. Rimbault; Notes and

Queries, No. 28.) No. 20, ” D’Almaine’s,” with a banqueting-room ceiling, said to have

SQUARES. 753

been painted by Angelica Kauflinann, was built for Earl Tilney by Colin Campbell,

architect of Wanstead House. No. 32 was Sir Joseph Banks’s, P.R.S., next the house

of the Liunean Society (see p. 598), exempted from the poor-rate in 1854 on account

of its being used for the purposes of science. {Court of Queen’s Bench Rep. May 30.)

At a house in Soho-square, Richard Payne Knight, the classic antiquary (died 1824),

assembled his collection of ancient bronzes, and Greek coins, value 50,000/., which he

bequeathed to the British Museum. At the corner of Bateinan’s-buildings, left, lived

George Colman the elder ; and right, Samuel Beazley, the dramatist, and architect of

the Lyceum and St. James’s theatres. The Soho Bazaar (north-west corner) is

described at p. 35. In the centre of the square is a pedestrian statue of Charles II.

(See Fountains, p. 356.) In Frith-street, on the south side of the square, died of

cholera, in 1830, William Hazlitt, the eloquent essayist : he was buried in St. Anne’s

churchyard, where is ” a stone raised by one whose heart is with him in his grave.”

Frith-street is named ” from Mr. Fryth, a great (and once rich) builder” (Ratton) ;

Maitland calls it ” Thrift-street.”

Tavistock Square, Euston-road, is named from the ground-landlord, the Duke of

Bedford, and Marquis of Tavistock.

Southward is Tavistock-place. At Xo. 31 lived Mary Ann Clarke, mistress of the Duke of York ; at

No. 32, Francis Douce, the illustrator of Shakspeare, and subsequently, in the same house John Gait

when editor of the Courier; at No. 19, Sir Harris Nicolas, K.C.M.G., the peerage antiquary; and at

No. 10, John Britton, before he removed to No. 17, Burton-street. In Tavistock-place, at No. 37,

Francis Baily, F.R.S., President of the Boyal Astronomical Society, lived from 1825 to 1840. The

house stands isolated in a garden, so as to be free from any material tremor from passing carriages. A

small observatory was constructed in the upper part ; and herein Mr. Baily contrived a pair of scales

that enabled him approximately to vreigh the earth. The house and room are engraved and described

in Things not generally Known, 1856. ” The building in which the earth was weighed, and its bulk

and figure calculated, the standard measure of the British nation perpetuated, and the Pendulum ex-

periments rescued from their chief source of inaccuracy, can never cease to be an object of interest to

astronomers of future generations.” — Sir John Herschel, Bart.

Trafalgar Square, Charing Cross, formed by the removal of the lower end of St. Martin’s-lane, a knot of courts and alleys, the Golden Cross inn,* and low buildings adjoining, was planned by Barry, and is named from the last victory of Nelson, to whom a column is erected on the south side (see p. 283) : the four colossal bronze lions at the base of the pedestal, modelled by Sir E. Landseer, R.A., were added in 1867. The whole square is paved with granite, has two large tanks with fountains (see p. 357), and has on the north side a terrace, which imparts elevation to the National Gallery facade.

At the north-east and north-west angles are granite pedestals ; the former occupied by Chantrey’s bronze equestrian statue of George IV., intended for the top of the marble arch at Buckingham Palace. The granite capstan posts in the area are characteristic ; but the square has been condemned as ” an artificial stone-quarry.” The massive lanterns at the angles were originally designed by Barry for Bude-lights.

In 1831, upon the ground cleared for Trafalgar-square, was exhibited in a pavilion the entire skeleton of a Greenland Whale, taken off the coast of Belgium in 1827 ; total length, 95 feet; breadth, 18 feet; width of tail, 22£ feet; length of head, 22 feet ; height of cranium, 4^ feet ; length of fins, 12 J feet ; weight of animal, 249 tons, or 480,0001b. ; weight of skeleton, 35 tons, or 70,0001b. ; oil extracted, 4000 gallons.

The skeleton was raised upon iron supports, and visitors ascended within the ribs by a flight of steps. It had been previously exhibited at Paris, where Cuvier and others estimated the age of this whale at from 900 to 1000 years. (See Mirror, August 13, 1831.)

Vincent Square, Westminster, a portion of Tothill Fields, is named after Dr. Vincent, then Dean of Westminster. Here is the church of St. Mary the Virgin, consecrated 1837 : style, Early Pointed, with lancet windows ; architect, E. Blore.

Wellclose Square was originally called Marine-square, from its being a favourite residence of naval officers. ” It is very near a geometrical square, whose area is about 2f acres; it is situated between Knockfergus north and Katcliff Highway south.” (Hatton, 1708.) Here is the Danish (now Sailors’) Church. In Well-street, adjoining, was the Royalty Theatre, burnt down April 11, 1826 ; upon the site was built the Brunswick Theatre ; it was performed in only three nights, and fell to the ground Feb. 28, 1828 ; within six months of which was built upon the same site the Sailors’ Home.

Woburn Squaree, St. Pancras, named from a seat of the Duke of Bedford, has in the centre a Pointed church, by L. Vulliamy, built in 1834: the spire is 150 feet high.

STATE COACHES.

THE ” glistering coach” (Shakspeare) dates from the reign of Queen Elizabeth, who, April 2, 1571, at the meeting of Parliament, rode for the first time in a coach, drawn by two palfreys, covered with crimson velvet housings, richly embroidered : but this was the only carriage in the procession ; the Lord Keeper, and the Lords spiritual and temporal, all attending on horseback. In 1588 the Queen went from Somerset Place to St. Paul’s Cross, to return thanks after the destruction of the Spanish Armada, in a coach presented to her by Henry Earl of Arundel, and called by Stow ” a chariot-throne.” In a print in the Crowle Pennant, in the British Museum, representing Queen Henrietta-Maria doing penance beneath the gallows at Tyburn, Charles I. is seated in a large and ornamented coach ; but this print is apocryphal.

The Coach of Queen Anne had its panels painted by Sir James Thornhill ; and a friend of J. T. Smith possessed a portion of a panel. This coach was used by George I. and II., and by George III. when he first opened Parliament, and also at his marriage; after which it was broken up, and the State Carriage now used by the sovereign was built.

The Queen’s State Coach, sometimes called the ” Coronation Coach,” was designed by Sir William Chambers, R.A., who recommended Joseph Wilton, R.A., and the sculptor Pigalle, to conduct the building of the carriage. The model was executed from Chambers’s design by Laurence Anderson Holme, a Dane.

Wilton was appointed state-coach carver to the King:, and erected workshops opposite Marylebone-fields, on the south side of what was afterwards named Queen Anne-street East, now called Foley-place,
and occupying the large house now remaining at the south-east corner of Portland-street, adjoining.

Here Geo. III.’s state-coach was built ; the small model of which Garrick of a carver.” The panels were painted by Cipriani, who received for the same 800?. The chasing was executed by Coit, the coachwork by Butler, the embroidery by Barrett, the gilding (triple throughout) by Rujolas, the varnishing by Ansel, and the harness by Ringstead. The whole cost was as follows :

Coachmaker (including Wheelwright and Smith) . . £1637 15
Carver 2500
Gilder 935 14
Painter 315
Laceman 737 10 7
Chaser 665 4 6
Harnessmaker 385 15
Mercer 202 5 10J
Beltmaker 99 6 6
Milliner 31 3 4
Saddler 10 16 6
Woollendraper 436
Covermaker 396 £7523 4 3

The bill was 8000?. ; but being taxed, was reduced as above, the odd pence arising from the ribbon-weaver’s bill. The superb hammercloth, of scarlet silk Genoa velvet, with gold badges, fringes, ropes, and tassels, was renewed in 1838. The Royal State Coach was first used Nov. 16, 1762. Walpole writes to Sir Horace Mann : “There is come forth a new state-coach, which has cost 8000Z. It is a beautiful object, though crowded with improprieties. Its supports are Tritons, not very well adapted to land carriage ; and formed of palm-trees, which are as little aquatic as Tritons are terrestrial. The crowd to see it, on the opening of the Parliament, was greater than at the coronation, and much more mischief done.”

The Coach was kept in a shed at the King’s Mews, Charing Cross ; upon the taking down of which, it was removed to the Royal Mews, Pimlico, where also is kept the State Harness for the eight horses by which the carriage is drawn when used by the sovereign. The Coach and Harness may be inspected upon application. The new hammercloth in the reign of William IV. cost 500?. (See Mews, Royal, p. 565.)

The Lord Mayor’s State Coach is kept at the City Green-yard, Whitecross-street, Cripplegate, opposite the Debtors’ Door : the coach may be here inspected. It was built in 1757, by a subscription of 60?. from each of the junior aldermen, or such as had not passed the civic chair. Subsequently, each alderman, when sworn into office, contributed 60?. towards keeping the coach in repair ; for which purpose also each Lord Mayor gave 1001. In a few years, the whole expense fell upon the Lord Mayor, and in one year it exceeded 300?. The coach was then transferred to the Corporation, and it has since been kept in repair by the Committee of General Purposes. Twenty years after its construction, the repairs in one year cost 335?. ; and the average of seven years’ repairs in the present century was 115?. The design of the coach is more magnificent than graceful : the carriage consists of a pair of grotesque marine figures, who support the seat of the driver, with a large scallop-shell as a foot-board ; at the hind-standard are two children bearing the City arms, beneath which is a large pelican ; the perch is double, and terminates in dolphins’ heads; and the four wheels are richly carved and gilt, and resemble those of ancient triumphal chariots. The body is not hung upon springs, but upon four thick red leather straps, fastened with large gilt-brass buckles of spirited design, each bearing the City arms. The roof was ori*ginally ornamented with eight gilt vases ; in the centre is a leafy crown, bearing the City arms, and from which small gilt flowers trail over the remainder of the roof, painted red : originally, a group of four boys supporting baskets of fruits and flowers occupied the centre. The upper intervals of the body, save at the back, are filled with plate-glass ; and the several lower panels are painted as follow :

Front Panel.— Faith supporting a decrepit figure beside a flaming altar ; Hope pointing to St. Paul’s Cathedral.

Back.— Charity ; a wrecked sailor, with a ship in the offing, and two females casting money and fruits into his lap.

Upper Back. — The City, attended by Neptune ; Commerce introducing the Arab with his horse, and other traders with the camel, elephant, &c.

Might Boor. — Fame, with her wreath, presenting a Lord Mayor to the City, who bears the sword and sceptre, the mace, &c., at her feet. In the very small panel beneath are fruit and flowers. Side Panel*. — Beauty with her mirror ; female with bridled horse, &c.

Left Door. — The City seated, and Britannia pointing with her spear to a shield inscribed with ” Henri Fitz-Alwin, 1189″ (the first Mayor). In the very small panels beneath are the scales of justice and sword of mercy, grouped. Side Panels, — Justice with her scales and sword; Prudence, &c.

The original heraldic paintings were executed by Catton. one of the foundation members of the Royal Academy. In shields at the lower angles of each door, and of the back and front panels, are emblazoned the arms of the Lord Mayor for the time being.

The framework is richly carved and gilt : over each door is a scallop-shell ,- and at the lower angles of the body are dwarf figures emblematic of the four quarters of the globe.

The smaller enrichments about the panels, as shells, fruits, and flowers, are admirably carved and grouped : over the upper back panel is an exquisite bit — a serpent and dove.

The perch and wheels are painted red, picked out with gold ; and massive gilt bosses cover the wheel-boxes : the wheels were renewed in 1828. The coach is lined with crimson corded silk and lace; and in the centre is a seat for the mace and sword bearers. The hammercloth is crimson cloth, but the original one was of gold lace.

This coach was repaired, new-lined, and regilt in 1812, at an expense of 600?., when also a new seat-cloth was furnished for 90?. ; and in 1821 the re-lining cost 206?. In 812, Messrs. Houlditch agreed to keep the coach in fair wear-and-tear for ten years, at 48?. per annum. The total weight of the coach is 3 tons 16 cwt. : it is drawn by six horses, for whom a superb state harness was made in 1833, that for each horse weighing 1061b.

It is not positively known by whom this coach was carved, nor by whom the panels were painted. Cipriani is stated by some to be the painter ; but others assert that after the present Royal State Coach was built in 1762, the old Royal State Coach was purchased by the City of London, and the panels re-painted by Dance : such is the statement of Smith, in Nollekens and his Times ; but in the Report of the Municipal Corporation Commissioners, the City Coach is stated to have been built in 1757. The Lord Mayor rode in state upon horseback until 1712, when a state carriage, drawn by four horses, was first used. In 1741 the horses were increased to six. This State Coach is represented in Hogarth’s print of the Industrious Apprentice, date 1747 ; it is somewhat plain, but has ornamental vases upon the roof. In 1762, Lord Mayor Beckford purchased the very fine set of Flanders mares of M. Boreel, Ambassador of the States General to the Court of St. James’s ; and they were used in Beckford’s Mayoralties. Every time the City State Coach is used, it costs the Lord Mayor 20?. : Alderman Samuel Wilson used the coach twelve times in his Mayoralty, 1839-40. (See Lord Mayor’s State, pp. 536-^538.)

“Our Lord Mayor and his golden coach, and his gold-covered footmen and coachman, and his golden chain, and his chaplain, and his great sword of state, please the people, and particularly the women and girls, and when they are pleased the men and boys are pleased ; and many a young fellow has been more industrious and attentive from his hope of one day riding in that golden coach.” — Cobbett.

The Speaker’s State Coach is traditionally said to have been Oliver Cromwell’s ; but it is more probably of the time of William III. It is elaborately carved and heavily gilt. Figures of naval and military prowess, Plenty, &c., support the body ; the box is held by two larger figures of Plenty ; the hammercloth is of crimson velvet, trimmed with silver fringe ; and the footboard is borne by two lions, and surmounted with a large grotesque mask. The hind-standard is richly carved with figures and devices of antique and modern design. The framework of the panels is finely carved ; and the roof has a pierced parapet or gallery. The upper, side, and front panels are filled with splendid Vauxhall plates of glass. The lower panels are painted with emblematic subjects : the door-panel has a seated figure of Britannia, to whom female figures are bringing fruits, the horn of plenty, &c. The opposite door has also a seated figure, and another presenting the Bill of Rights, with Liberty, Fame, and Justice.

Beneath each door and panel are sculptured maces, surmounted with a cap, emblematic of the Speaker’s authority. In the four side panels are emblematic figures of Literature, Architecture, Science, and Plenty. The back panel has a better composition of Britannia, wearing a mural crown ; St. Paul’s Cathedral, shipping, &c, in the distance. The front panel also hears several allegorical figures. In the lower part of the pictures in the principal panels are emblazoned the Speaker’s arms, and in the side-panel pictures his crest. The coach is lined and trimmed with dark crimson velvet – it has two seats, and a centre one : on the latter sit the Speaker’s Mace-hearer and Sword-bearer j and his Chaplain and Train-bearer sit facing the Speaker. This coach is used by the Speaker on opening Parliament, presenting addresses to the sovereign, attending levees, &c, when it is drawn by a pair of horses in state harness. The coach is kept at the Speaker’s stables, Millbank.

STATUES.

The following are the principal out-door Statues in the Metropolis:

(List removed)

STOCK EXCHANGE, fully described at pp. 331-333.

STRAND (THE)

EXTENDS from Charing Cross to Temple Bar (1369 yards, or £ of a mile 49 yards), now built on was gained by raising the ground” (Hatton), which is in some places 20 feet deep. In early ages this was the great thoroughfare between the Court and City, and the Inns of Court and Westminster. The site of St. Clement’s Danes is recognised in tradition as “the Danes’ churchyard,” the burial-place of the son of Canute the Great, Harold Harefoot. Here, close by the Thames, and outside the City walls, dwelt together as fellow-countrymen the Danish merchants and mariners ; and
their church, like that at Aarhuus in Jutland, and Trondjeun in Norway, was dedicated to St. Clement, the seaman’s patron-saint. (J. J. A. Worsaae, For. F.S.A.) Another early building was the Hermitage of St. Catherine at Charing, and adjoining or opposite, the Hospital of St. Mary Rounceval (temp. Henry III.) ; also, the palace of the Savoy, and the first church of St. Mary, were built before the 14th century. A petition to Edward II. (1315) describes the footway interrupted by thickets and bushes; and in 1383 tolls were granted for paving the Strand from the Savoy to Temple Bar.

The south side was occupied by the mansions of the nobility and prelates, with gardens, terraces, and water-stairs down to the Thames ; but the spaces between the mansions showed the river : whilst on the north side were the gardens of the Convent of Westminster, bounded by lanes and open ground ; the village of St. Giles, and the church of St. Martin in the fields; and Charing Cross, without a house near it. One of Canaletto’s pictures shows Charing Cross, Northumberland House, and the Strand, with the signs in front of the houses. Van der Wyngrerde’s View, 1543, shows
straggling lines of houses from the bar (now Temple Bar) to the Savoy, and beyond it on the south side ; but the north is open to Convent Garden ; and in the roadway are St. Clement’s and St. Mary’s churches, and the Maypole, near upon the site of the Strand Cross, where “the justices itinerants sate without London” (Stow). Of the Thames-bank palaces are shown Somerset-place, the Savoy, and Durham House. At this time the Strand was crossed by three water-courses running from the north to the Thames, over which were bridges ; the sites of two are denoted by Ivy-bridge-lane
and Strand-bridge-lane ; and the remains of a third bridge were unearthed in 1802, a

The Ivy-bridge stream formed the boundary

er, and the City of Westminster.

<—• “”” (By a Correspondent.) ’ tend Mouse is described at page 554. Next Mien, some twenty years ago, the . London 1 ” * he ° fficial residence of the Secretary of iinty Council effected their great demolition^’ “I* VT ^iat fi^” oiy ,„ t ,, ,,. “”enants’ Lodgings:” here Nelson lodged. for the Kingsway and Aldwych rnc ., aw .. he ^ with his mother and step- ?rovements they left a few buildings stand-.hen he went to “a private school in St. the loosestrife and coltsfoot, in a semi-nster School, under Camden, then junior nous condition. There was Matcham’s Hotel,r. Benjamin Franklin, in 1771. At No. 27 proscenium of a theatre (the Olympic, I authors of the Rejected Addresses. At e) a section of New Inn, and so on. All Mathews, the comedian : his father was a dually disappeared, with a solitary excep- Dr. Adam Clarke, Rowland Hill, and other l. Ihis was the stark, untidy-looking struc- L’I h f C, f0r ?’ earS haS S £° T 0n ^Strand Soteh described at pp. 442-3 ement almost opposite St. Mary’s Church. upper floors have been hidden behind adver”- ment hoardings. The ground-floor shop has n used as a fountain-pen depot. It stands lbout 100 yards cast of the site of Charing-cross, the lay on land which is to be used in the set- ’ d uction .* ^ y S. dw ^- 1 i , ^ arry ’ AlE – A -’ “”R 8canty • nr> n t tv.„ -R.^i r> -ii- ^ u ” l “’« »«k . Pennant, in the British Museum ; a second drawing tne tfusli Building western exten- of the Society of Antiquaries. The height to the top I his week it is coming down, and with it surmounted is about 70 feet; the materials Portland vanish the very last of a ” auarter ” which sculptor, Thomas Earp. In the upper story are eight A nn a *t *>4o «* T~ j u n- “, u >g her as queen, with royal insignia, and the other n a great aiea of .London, breathing the the feet of the statues are eight figures of kneeling ory of the seventeenth and earlv eighteenth B axe copied from those existing on the crosses of consist of three varieties. The first displays three ms of England by King Henry II. in 1154, and which, n Victoria. The second is that of Ponthieu, which oly consists of three bendlets within a bordure. The , arranged quarterly ; and the representation of the stile are a castle, triple towered; and those of Leons accords with the arrangement at Northampton, tracery in the lowest stage of the monument is comjnting alternately the castle of Castile and the lion r have a similar design. The carving generally of the asrees with the best remains of English thirteenth-effectively engraved in the Illustrated London Newt,

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, HE most exc< opportunities e^ is provided by during the lasl policy of this Houe all Summer merchandise ra to the Autumn. In many down to figures which an REMARKABLE AVAILABLE DICKINS & JONES Sale las which time greater bargains t ber that even at Sale time it JONES in absolute comfort j always delightfully cool. T ground floor, and D1CK1JNS* knowledged to be one of the J COME EARL1 Early buying is essential to obta personal inspection and comparison only in this way can the excef. WHY NOT PAY AN E IARGAINSin EXTENDS from Charing Cross to Tempi and was ” probably so called as being i now built on was gained by raising the g 20 feet deep. In early ages this was the £ City, and the Inns of Court and Westmins recognised in tradition as “the Danes’ ch Canute the Great, Harold Harefoot. Here, walls, dwelt together as fellow-countrymen their church, like that at Aarhuus in Jutland to St. Clement, the seaman’s patron-saint early building was the Hermitage of St. Cat site, the Hospital of St. Mary Rounceval (t Savoy, and the first church of St. Mary, we tion to Edward II. (1315) describes the foe and in 1383 tolls were granted for paving thl The south side was occupied by the mansions of the nobility and prelates, with garder terraces, and water-stairs down to the Thames ; but the spaces between the mansions showed the river : whilst on the north side were the gardens of the Convent of West- minster, bounded by lanes and open ground ; the village of St. Giles, and the church of St. Martin in the fields; and Charing Cross, without a house near it. One of Canaletto’s pictures shows Charing Cross, Northumberland House, and the Strand, with the signs in front of the houses. Van der Wyngrerde’s View, 1543, shows straggling lines of houses from the bar (now Temple Bar) to the Savoy, and beyond it on the south side ; but the north is open to Convent Garden ; and in the roadway are St. Clement’s and St. Mary’s churches, and the Maypole, near upon the site of the Strand Cross, where ” the justices itinerants sate without London ” (Stow). Of the Thames-bank palaces are shown Somerset-place, the Savoy, and Durham House. At this time the Strand was crossed by three water-courses running from the north to the Thames, over which were bridges ; the sites of two are denoted by Ivy-bridge-lane and Strand-bridge-lane ; and the remains of a third bridge were unearthed in 1802, a ILLUSTRATED BELOW 103 K. An Inexpensive and practical WOOL CARDIGAN in Lace stitch anJ with a broa 1 rib Colours: White, Klack. Saxe, Grey, Tabac, Natural, ill STRAND. 761 little eastward of St. Clement’s church. The Ivy-bridge stream formed the boundary between the Liberty and Duchy of Lancaster, and the City of Westminster. Steand : South Side. — Northumberland House is described at page 554. Next door, upon the site of No. 1, Strand, was the official residence of the Secretary of State, where Sir Harry Vane the elder lived, in the reign of Charles I. Northumber- land-court was once known as ” Lieutenants’ Lodgings :” here Nelson lodged. Northumberland-street, formerly Hartshorne-lane : here, with his mother and step- father, a bricklayer, lived Ben Jonson when he went to ” a private school in St. Martin’s Church ;” and next to Westminster School, under Camden, then junior master. Craven-street : at No. 7 lived Dr. Benjamin Franklin, in 1771. At No. 27 died, in 1839, James Smith, one of the authors of the Rejected Addresses. At No. 18, Strand, was born, 1776, Charles Mathews, the comedian : his father was a bookseller ; and his shop was the resort of Dr. Adam Clarke, Rowland Hill, and other Dissenting ministers. Charing Cross Railway Terminus and Hotel, described at pp. 442-3. The early history of this spot is glanced at in pp. 559-560 : it was part of the Hungerford estate : it was long a site of sorry speculations and costly failure. The beautiful Gothic cross in the court-yard is about 100 yards east of the site of Charing-cross, the Eleanor memorial, of which the Dew cross is a reproduction, by Edward M. Barry, A.B.A., from scanty authorities, namely, a rough drawing in the Crowle Pennant, in the British Museum ; a second drawing in the Bodleian Library ; and a third in the library of the Society of Antiquaries. The height to the top of the gilt copper cross by which the memorial is surmounted is about 70 feet; the materials Portland stone, red Mansfield stone, and Aberdeen granite; sculptor, Thomas Earp. In the upper story are eight crowned statues of Queen Eleanor, four representing her as queen, with royal insignia, and the other four with the attributes of a Christian woman. At the feet of the statues are eight figures of kneeling angels in prayer. The shields in the lower stage are copied from those existing on the crosses of Waltham and Northampton, and on the tomb, and consist of three varieties. The first displays three lions passant gardant, first assumed as the Boyal arms of England by King Henry II. in 1154, and which still forms part of the Boyal arms as borne by Queen Victoria. The second is that of Ponthieu, which Queen Eleanor bore in right of her mother, and simply consists of three bendlets within a bordure. The third shield represents the arms of Castile and Leon, arranged quarterly; and the representation of the earliest known quartering of arms. The arms of Castile are a castle, triple towered ; and those of Leon represents a lion rampant. The order of the shields accords with the arrangement at Northampton, Waltham, and Westminster. The diaper above the tracery in the lowest stage of the monument is com- posed of octagonal panels, richly undercut, representing alternately the castle of Castile and the lion rampant of Leon: the pillow and couch of the effigy have a similar design. The carving generally of the crockets, capitals, canopies, diapers, gargoyles, &c., agrees with the best remains of English thirteenth- century art. The cost has not exceeded 1800J. It is effectively engraved in the Illustrated London News, Dec. 9, 1865. No. 31, Strand, occupies part of the site of York House, originally the inn of the Bishop of Norwich ; and being obtained in exchange for Suffolk House, Southwark, by Heath, Archbishop of York, temp. Queen Mary, the name was changed to York House. It was let to the Lord Keepers of the Great Seal : here lived Sir Nicholas Bacon ; and here was born his son, Lord Chancellor Bacon, 22nd January, 1560-1. At York House he kept his 60th birthday. Here the Great Seal was taken from him : when importuned by the Duke of Lennox to part with the mansion. Bacon replied, ” For this you will pardon me : York House is the House where my father died, and where I first breathed ; and there will I yield my last breath, if so please God and the king.” He did not, however, return to York House after his release from the Tower, being forbidden to come within the verge of the court. The house was next lent to Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, who, in 1624, obtained the estate by grant from James I. The mansion was then taken down, and a temporary house built for State receptions, and sumptuously fitted with ” huge panes of glass ” (mirrors), of the manufacture of which in England Buckingham was an early patron. Near the middle of a long embattled wall, fronting the Thames, he caused to be erected, in 1626, a rustic Water-gate. After the Duke’s death, in 1628, York House was leased to the Earl of Northumberland. Here was a fine collection of pictures, among which is supposed to have been the lost portrait of Prince Charles, by Velasquez. Here also was the collection of sculptures which belonged to Rubens ; and in the garden was John de Bologna’s Cain and Abel. The ” superstitious pictures ” were sold by order of Parliament in 1645 ; and the house was given by Cromwell to General Fairfax, by the marriage of whose daughter and heiress with George, second Duke of Buckingham, it was reconveyed to the Villiers family. /The Duke resided here subsequent to the Restoration : but in 1672 762 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON. sold the estate for 30,000?., when the mansion was pulled down, and upon the grounds and gardens were erected houses named from the last possessor of the mansion : George-street (now York-buildings), Villiers-street, Duke-street, Of-aMey, Bucking- ham-street. The whole estate was also called York-buildings. The York Buildings Waterworks Company, for supplying the West-end of London with water, was one of the bubbles of 1720. For this purpose, however, a veritable steam-engine was constructed, which is thus described in the Foreigner’s Guide to London, 1720 : ” Here you see a high wooden tower and a water-engine of a new invention, that draws out of the Thames above three tons of water in one minute, by means of the steam arising from water boiling In a great copper, a continual fire being kept to that purpose ; the steam being compressed and condensed, moves, by its evaporation, and strikes a counterpoise, which counterpoise striking another, at last moves a great beam, which, by its motion of going up and down, draws the water from the river, which mounts “through great iron pipes to the height of the tower, discharging itself there into a deep leaden cistern ; and thence falling through other large iron pipes, fills them that are laid along the streets, and so con- tinuing to run through wooden pipes as far as Mar-bone fields, falls there into a large pond or reservoir, from whence the new buildings near Hanover-square and many thousand houses, are supplied with water. This machine is certainly a great curiosity ; and though it be not so large as that of Marly in France, yet, considering its smallness in comparison with that, and the little charge it was built and is kept with, and the quantity of water it draws, its use and benefit is much beyond that.” The Company ceased to work this “fire-engine” in 1731; but it was shown for several years as a curiosity. In All Alive and Merry, or the London Daily Post, April 18, 1741, it is stated that the charge of working the machine, ” and some other reasons concurring, made its proprietors, the York Buildings Company, lay aside the design ; and no doubt but the inhabitants in this neighbourhood are very glad of it ; for its working, which was by sea-coal, was attended with so much smoke, that it not only must pollute the air thereabouts, but spoil the furniture.” The failure is the subject of an amusing jeu d’esprit, entitled ” The York Buildings Dragons,” reprinted in Wright’s England under the Souse of Hanover, vol. i. Appendix. Many of the wooden water-pipes have been taken up in excavations in Brook-street, Grosvenor- square, and in other places along the line. In Buckingham-street, in 1818, were “the Sea-water Baths,” which were supplied by a vessel with water from below Southend. See James’s View on the Thames, in the Hampton Court Picture Gallery. Evelyn notes : ” 17th Nov. 16S3. — I tooke a house in Villiers-streete, York-buildings, for the winter, having many important concerns to dispatch, and for the education of my daughters.” — Diary. Buckingham-street : at the last house on the west side (since rebuilt) lived Samuel Pepys from 1684 to 1700 ; and No. 15, on the east side opposite, was hired for Peter the Great in 1698 : the house has some noble rooms facing the river : here the Institution of Civil Engineers once met. At No. 14, in the top chambers, lived William Etty, B.A., the painter, from 1826 to 1849. At the south end of Buckingham-street remains the Water-gate built for York House, which stood a short distance westward. The Gate is of Portland-stone : on the northern or street side are three arches, flanked with pilasters, supporting an entablature and four balls; above the keystones of the arches are shields, those at the sides sculptured with anchors, and that in the centre with the arms of Villiers impaling those of the family of Manners. Upon the frieze is the Villiers motto : pidei coticdxa crux (the Cross is the Touchstone of Faith). The southern or river front has a large archway, opening upon steps to the water; on each side is an aperture, divided by a small column, and partly closed by balustrades. Four rusticated columns support an entablature, ornamented with scallops, and crowned with an arched pediment, and two couchant lions holding shields, on which are sculptured anchors. In the pediment, within a scroll, are the arms of Villiers, viz, on a cross, five escallops, encircled by a garter, and sur- mounted by a ducal coronet; at the sides are pendent festoons. This Gate has been ascribed to Inigo Jones ; but in the library of the Soane Museum, in an ” Account Book of Workes done by Nicholas Stone, sen. Master-mason to King James I. and King Charles,” the ninth article in the list is, ” The Water-gate at Yorke House hee deesined and built, and ye right hand Lion hee did fronting ye Thames. Mr. Kearne, a Jarman, his brother by marrying bis sister, did ye Shce Lion.” The Gate is approached by an inclosed terrace-walk, planted with lime-trees. The Adelphi, east of York-buildings, is described at page 1. John-street occupies the site of Durham House, which extended from the river to the Strand. It was built by Thomas Hatfield, Bishop of Durham, 1345-1381, and continued to be inhabited by the see until Bishop Tunstall exchanged the house for Coldharborough, in Thames-street. Durham Place was used as a mint by the Seymours. Edward VI. granted the place to his sister Elizabeth. It next became the residence of Dudley, Earl of Northumber- land; and here was celebrated his son’s marriage with Lady Jane Grey, who, on assuming the crown, was lodged in Durham Place, and thence escorted to the Tower. The estate was restored by Queen Mary to Bishop Tunstall ; but Elizabeth, on her STRAND. 763 accession, claimed Durham Place as one of the royal palaces, and granted it to Sir Walter Raleigh, who possessed it for twenty years, but surrendered it in 1603 to the then Bishop of Durham. Aubrey well remembered Raleigh’s ” study, which was on a little turret that looked into and over the Thames, and had the prospect, which is as pleasant, perhaps, as any in the world.” The stables fronting the Strand were next taken down, and upon the ground was built the New Exchange (see pp. 330-331), demolished in 1737 : the site is now occupied by the houses Nos. 54 to 64 inclusive, the banking-house of Coutts and Co. being the centre : the name survives in Durham- street. At Coutts’s (No. 59), formerly in St. Martin’s-lane, the sovereign and the royal family have banked (kept cash), commencing with Queen Anne : the series of accounts is preserved entire. Beaufort-buildings occupy the site of a mansion named from its successive owners, Carlisle House (Bishops of Carlisle) ; Bedford and Russell House (Earls of Bedford) ; Worcester House, from its next occupant, the Marquis of Worcester, who wrote the Century of Inventions ; and from the Marquis’s eldest son, created Duke of Beaufort, Beaufort House. Lord Clarendon lived here while his house was building at the top of St. James’s-street ; and here, in 1660, was married Anne Hyde, the Chancellor’s daughter, to the Duke of York, according to the Protestant rites. The mansion was taken down, and a smaller house built ; which being burnt down, with some others, in 1695, upon the ground were erected the present Beaufort-buildings. In a house on the site was born Aaron Hill, the dramatist, 1685. At the east corner, upon the site of No. 96, Strand, lived Charles Lillie, who sold snuffs, perfumes, &c. ; and took in letters for the Tatler, Spectator, &c, directed to him at the desire of Steele. Mr.Rimmel has published a clever book on Perfumery, in which he mentions, besides Lillie, “one Perry, residing also in the Strand, at the corner of Burleigh-street. He was, however, reduced to ’ blow his own trumpet ;’ and in a paper called the Weekly Packet, bearing the date of 28th December, 1718, he vaunts, besides his perfumes, an oil drawn from mustard-seed, which, at the moderate price of 6d. per ounce, is warranted to cure all diseases under the sun.” Nos. 101 and 102, Strand, Bies’s Divan, a large decorated room for cigars, chess, and coffee, occupies the site of the Fountain Tavern, noted for its political club, and described by Strype ; of a drawing academy, at which Conway and Wheatley were pupils; and of the lecture-room of John Thelwall, the political elocutionist. At No. 101, lived Rudolph Ackermann, the printseller, who introduced lithography and ” the Annuals ” from Germany : here he illuminated his gallery with Cannel coal, when gas-lighting was a novelty. Adam-street presents a handsome specimen of the embellished street-architecture introduced by the Brothers Adam. Salisbury-street and Cecil-street are built upon the site of Salisbury House, erected in 1602 by Sir Robert Cecil, Lord High Treasurer to James L, and created Earl of Salis- bury in 1605. His successor divided the mansion into Great Salisbury House and Little Salisbury House : part of the latter was taken down, and upon the site was erected Salisbury-street, rebuilt as we now see it by Paine the architect ; another portion was converted into the Middle Exchange, with shops and stalls, and a flight of steps to the river ; the latter was taken down in 1696, with Great Salisbury House, and upon their site was erected Cecil-street. In Little Salisbury House lived the third Earl of Devonshire, the pupil and patron of Hobbes, who, when standing at the gate a few days after Restoration-day, was kindly recognised by Charles II. as he was passing in his coach through the Strand. In Cecil-street, and at the Globe in Salis- bury-street, lived Partridge, cobbler, astrologer, and almanack-maker, whom Swift humorously killed in 1708, though he actually lived till 1715 ; but Partridge’s Alma- nack (Merlinus Liberatus) continued to be published ; and in 1723 advertised ” Dr. Partridge’s night-drops, night-pills, &c., sold as before, by his widow, at the Blue Ball in Salisbury-street.” Opposite Southampton-street lived the Vaillants, foreign book- sellers, from 1686 until late in the last century. Fountain-court is named from the above tavern ; at No. 3 in this court died, August 27, 1827, Blake, the epic painter, whose love of religion supported him through a life of uniform poverty, and cheered his death-bed. Savoy-steps and Savoy-street, see Savoy, pp. 142-144, 722. 764 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON. At No. 132, Strand (site of Wellington-street) was established in 1740 the first circulating library in London, by Wright, who had for his rivals Samuel Batlioe and John Bell. Upon the site of No. 141 lived Jacob Tonson, the bookseller, ” at Shak- speare’s head, over against Catherine-street, in the Strand.” The house was successively occupied by the publishers, Andrew Millar, Alderman Thomas Cadell, and Cadell and Davies : Millar, being a Scotchman, adopted the sign of Buchanan’s Head, a painting of which continued in one of the window-panes to our day. No. 142 occupies the site of the Turk’s Head Coffee-house, which Dr. Johnson encouraged ; “for the mistress of it is a good civil woman, and has not much business.” No. 143 (now Southgate’s Fine Arts Auction gallery), site of the first office of the Morning Chronicle (see Newspapers, p. 616). At No. 147 was published the Sphinx; and Jan. 2, 1828, No. 1 of the Athentzum, edited by James Silk Buckingham, the traveller in the East. At No. 149, long known to the collectors of shells, minerals and fossils, John Mawe kept shop : here have been sold shells at 51., 101., and 201. each, now to be bought for a few shillings. Mr. Mawe published his Travels in the Diamond District of Brazil, 1812; A Treatise on Diamonds; and several elementary works on Mineralogy, Conchology, &c. His widow was succeeded by James Tennant, F.G.S., Professor of Mineralogy and Geology in King’s College, London. Somerset Hottse (see pp. 735, 6). King’s College Gateway (see p. 276). No. 162, Strand, Somerset Hotel : at the bar letters were left for the author of Junius. No. 165, Inglis’s Warehouse for Scots Pills until 1865 : ” Dr. Anderson’s pills, sold by J. Inglis, now living at the Golden Unicorn, over against the Maypole in the Strand.” — Advertisement 1699. Strand-lane, leading to the Roman Bath (see pp. 37 and 716), is the site of Strand Bridge, ” and under is a lane or way down to the landing-place on the bank of the Thames ” (Stow). Eastward were Chester’s Inn, Strand Inn, and the Inn of the Bishop of Llandaff. No. 169, Strand Theatre, previously Barker’s Panorama (see Theatres). Arundel Souse, eastward, originally the town-house of the Bishops of Bath, was wrested from them in the reign of Edward VI. by Lord Thomas Seymour, High Admiral. After his execution, the house, with messuages, tenements, and lands adjoin- ing, was purchased by Henry Fitz-Alan, Earl of Arundel, according to Strype, for 411. 6s. 8d.; t -hence it was called Arundel Palace. Here died, 25 Feb., 1603, the Countess of Nottingham, after her interview with Queen Elizabeth to implore forgive- ness for having withheld from her Essex’s ring. Here Thomas Earl of Arundel began to assemble the celebrated Arundelian Marbles : the statues and busts in the gallery of the mansion ; the inscribed marbles inserted in the garden-walls ; and the statues placed in the garden : altogether, 37 statues, 128 busts, and 250 inscribed marbles ; besides sarcophagi, altars, and fragments, and the inestimable gems. The sculpture and picture galleries are seen in the backgrounds of Van Somer’s portraits of the Earl and his Countess. To the Earl’s ” liberal charges and magnificence this angle of the world oweth the first sight of Greek and Roman statues, with whose admired presence he began to honour the gardens and galleries of Arundel House, and hath ever since continued to transplant old Greece into England.” — Compleat Gentleman. ” March 1, 1664. — I went to Arundel House, where I saw a great number of old Roman and Grecian statues, many as big again as the life, and divers Greek inscriptions upon stones in the gardens March 2. — I went to Mr. Foxe’s chamber in Arundel House, where I saw a great many pretty pictures and things cast in brasse, some limnings, divers pretious stones, and one diamond valued at eleven hundred pound.”— Journal of Mr. E. Browne: MS. Sloan. 1906. To Arundel House the Earl brought Hollar, who here engraved some of his finest plates. Thomas Parr (” Old Parr “) was conveyed here from Shropshire by the Earl, to be shown to Charles I. : becoming domesticated in the family of the Earl of Arundel, his mode of living was changed ; he fed high, drank wine, and died Nov. 14, 1635, after he had outlived nine sovereigns, and during the reign of the tenth, at the age of 152 years and nine months : his body, by the king’s command, was dissected by Harvey, who attributed Parr’s death to peripneumony, brought on by the impurity of a London atmosphere and sudden change in diet. — Philosophical Transactions, 1669. The evidence of Parr’s extreme age is not, however, documentary ; and the birth dates back to a period before Parish Registers were instituted by Cromwell. — Census Report, 1851. Arundel House and Marbles were given back at the Restoration, in 1660, to the STRAND. 765 grandson of the earl, Mr. Henry Howard, who, at the recommendation of Selden and Evelyn, gave the inscribed marbles to the University of Oxford ; and the library to the Royal Society, who met at Arundel House 9 Jan., 1666-7. Evelyn records ” how exceedingly the corrosive air of London impaired” the marbles. The mansion was taken down, 1678 ; and upon its site were erected Arundel, Surrey, Howard, and Norfolk streets. Hollar’s print* shows the courtyard of Arundel House, with the great hall, and gabled buildings with dormer windows, but mostly low and mean. Sully was lodged here at the accession of James I. Surrey-street : here, on the east side, in a large garden-house fronting the Thames, lived the Hon. Charles Howard, the eminent chemist, who discovered the sugar-refining process in vacuo. In Surrey-street died William Congreve, the dramatist, Jan. 19, l728-9. Norfolk-street : here, in a house near the water-side, lodged Peter the Great in 1698, and was visited by King William ; and thence he went in a hackney-coach to dine with his majesty at Kensington Palace. At the south-west corner lived William Penn, the quaker; and subsequently, in the same house, Dr. Birch, the historian of the Royal Society. At No. 8, Samuel Ireland, originally a Spitalfields silk-merchant, whose son, William Henry Ireland, then eighteen, forged the Shakspeare Papers in 1795 : here Dr. Parr and Dr. Warton fell upon their knees and kissed the Mss.,— ” great and impudent forgery,” as Parr subsequently called it. In Norfolk-street also lived Mountfort, the player ; and in Howard-street lodged Mrs. Bracegirdle, the fasci- nating actress, out of an attempt to carry oif whom arose a bloody duel between Mountfort and Lord Mohun, when the former was killed. Between Arundel and Norfolk streets, in 1698, lived Sir Thomas Lyttleton, Speaker of the House of Commons ; and next door, the father of Bishop Burnet j and the house within memory was Burnet’s, the bookseller, a collateral descendant of the bishop. Arundel-street, ” a pleasant and considerable street ” (Jlatton, 1708) : ” Behold that narrow street which steep descends, Wjiose building to the shining shore extends ; Here Arundel’s fara’d structure rear’d its frame, — The street alone retains an empty name : Where Titian’s glowing paint the canvas warm’d, And Raphael’s fair design thejudgmentcharm’d, Now hangs the bellman’s song, and pasted here, The coloured prints of Overton appear ; Where statues breath’ d, the work of Phidias’ hands, A wooden pump or lonely watch-house stands.” — Gay’s Trivia. On the east side was the Crown and Anchor Tavern, now the Whittington Clttb (see p. 260) ; the sign was, probably, in part taken from the anchor of St. Clement’s, opposite. Strypc mentions it as ” a large and curious house.” Here was instituted the Academy of Ancient Music, in 1710. The great room was 84 ft. by 35 ft. 6 in. : here, on Fox’s* birthday, in 1798, took place a banquet to 2000 guests. Dr. Johnson and Boswell occasionally supped hore ; and the Royal Society dinners were held here. The very handsome Italian-fronted houses at the east and west corners of Arundel- street were designed by H. R. Abraham. No. 191 , Strand, was the shop of William Godwin, bookseller, and author of Caleb Williams, the Life of Chaucer, &c. : he removed here from Snow-hill. Milford-lane is named from -a ford over the Thames at the extremity, and a wind- mill in the Strand, near the site of St. Mary’s Church, and shown in a print temp. James I. (See Chron. London Bridge, p. 395) : there is also a token of ” the Wind- mill, withovt Temple Bar.” Sir Richard Baker, the chronicler, lived in Milford-lane, 1632-9. (Cunningham’s Handbook, p. 337.) The picturesque tenements on the east side, Strand end of the lane, principally of wood, with bay-windows, are described in a deed, date 1694 : they were taken down in 1852, and the site is now occupied by ” Milford House,” the office of The Illustrated London News. The site of the Infants’ Schools lower down in the lane was that of the old Rectory -house. * Hollar’s View of London from the roof of Arundel House is very rare : an impression at Sir Mark Masterman Sykes’s sale, in 1824, sold for 111. In a Household Hook of Lord William Howard (Belted Will) are ” his expenses whilst living at Arundel House; and amongst them a payment to Mr. ’ Shak- speare,’ the parish scavenger.” — Athenaeum, No. 1403. 766 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON. In Milford-lanc is the Printing-office of H. D. Woodfall, whose grandfather, in Paternoster-row, first printed Junius’* Letters. The business was first established about the year 1720, in Grocers’ Hall-court and in Angel-court, Skinner-street, George Woodfall printed his edition of Junius’ ’s Letters, 3 vols. 8vo., the first book printed there. The latter office was taken down in 1866. Essex-street and Devereux-court, formerly the Outer Temple, are named from Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex, Queen Elizabeth’s last favourite. The ground was leased by the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem to the Bishops of Exeter, who built here a town- house, in which they lived till the Reformation, when it passed to William Lord Paget ; next to Thomas Howard, Duke of Norfolk, son of the poetic Earl of Surrey; to Dudley, Earl of Leicester ; and then to his step-son, the Earl of Essex : hence it was successively called Exeter House, Paget House, Norfolk House, Leicester House, and Essex House. But the chief memory of the place is associated with Essex and his abortive project for the overthrow of Elizabeth’s government : he fortified the house, but was hemmed in on all sides, artillery being planted against the mansion, and a gun mounted upon the tower of St. Clement’s, when Essex and his followers surrendered. Here was born and married his luckless son, whose infamous countess was implicated in the poisoning of Sir Thomas Overbury. Pepys describes Essex House as ” large but ugly :” it was tenanted by persons of rank till after the Restoration, when it was subdivided and let. The Cottonian Library was kept here from 1712 to 1730, in the portion of the house upon the site of the present Essex-street Chapel (see p. 220). At the Essex Head Tavern, now No. 40, Dr. Johnson established, the year before he died, a club called ” Sam’s,” from the landlord, Samuel Greaves, who had been servant to Mr. Thrale. In this street also was held the Robin Hood Society, a debating club, the scene of Burke’s earnest eloquence ; Goldsmith was also a member. At the bottom of the street is the archway of the water-gate of Essex House. In a view of the Thames, showing the Frost Fair, in the reign of Charles II., the King, Queen, and others of the court, are seen coming down the Temple Garden stairs, to witness the sports on the ice ; and in part of the background is the archway, and beyond the archway are the gables and other parts of Essex House. A garden, with terraces, is between the arch and the river. No. 213, Strand, was George’s Coffee-house (see p. 264). Devereux-court : here was the Grecian Coffee-house (see p. 264). No. 217, Strand, was the house of Snow, the wealthy goldsmith : “Disdain not, Snow, my humble verse to hear; Stick thy black pen awhile behind thy ear. ****** thou, whose penetrative wisdom found The South-sea rocks and shelves, where thousands drown’d ! When credit sunk, and commerce gasping lay, Thou stood’st, nor sent one bill unpaid away. When not a guinea chink’d on Martin’s boards, And Atwell’s self was drain’d of all his hoards, Thou stood’st (an Indian king in size and hue) : Thy unexhausted shop was our Peru.” — Gay. The firm, originally Snow and Walton, was one of the oldest banking-houses in London, second only to Child and Co., who date from 1640. At the period of the Commonwealth, Snow and Co. carried on the business of pawnbrokers, under the sign of the ” Golden Anchor.” The firm possessed a book, dated 1672, showing that the mode of keeping accounts was then in decimals. The banking-firm, subsequently Strahan (Sir John Dean), Paul, and Bates suspended payment in 1855. Palsgrave-place was the site of Palsgrave Head Tavern, set up in compliment to the Palsgrave Frederic, afterwards King of Bohemia, affianced to the Princess Elizabeth in the old banqueting-house at Whitehall, Dec. 27, 1612. Hard by was Heycock’s Or- dinary, much frequented by ParUament-men and gallants. Temple Bar will be described hereafter. The west side, until numbered witb the Strand, was called on tokens, ” Without Temple Barr.” Strand : Noeth Side. — No. 238 was the last of the ” Bulk shops,” and was kept by Crockford, the fishmonger ; removed in 1846 (see a sketch of him, at p. 247). Ship-yard was the site of the Ship Inn, mentioned in a grant to Sir Christopher Hatton in 1551. There is a token of the tavern, date 1649 ; and it was standing in 1756. John Reynolds, a cook, issued a token (a fox stealing a goose) in Ship-yard in 1666. An old house, engraved in Wilkinson’s Londina Illustrata, is stated to have STRAND. 767 been the residence of Elias Ashmole, the antiquary. Faithorne published his Art of Graving and Etching ” at his shop next to y e signe of the Drake, without Temple barr, 1662.” In the Strand, besides the Ship, were the Swan, the Crown, the Robin Hood, the White Hart, the Hear and Harrow, the Holy Lamb, and the Angel. Sir John Denham, the poet, when a student at Lincoln’s Inn, in 1635, in a drunken frolic, with a pot of ink and a plasterer’s brush, blotted out all the signs between Temple Bar and Charing Cross, which cost Denham and his comrades ” some monies.” — J. H. Burn. From opposite Ship-yard extended an obtuse-angled triangle of buildings, the eastern line formed by the vestry-room and almshouses of St. Clement’s, and the sides by shops; the whole called Butcher-row, from a flesh market granted here 21 Edward I., at first shambles, but subsequently houses of wood and plaster; one of these, a five-storied house, temp. James L, was inhabited by Count Beaumont, the French court ambassador: bere the Duke de Sully was lodged for one night in 1603, until ” the palace of Arundel” could be prepared for him. Beaumont’s house-front bore roses and crowns and fleurs-de- lis, and the date 1581. From a Bear and Harrow orgy, Nat Lee, the dramatic poet, was returning to Duke-street, when he fell, ” overtaken with wine,” in Clare-market, and died. Here also was Clifton’s eatinghouse, a dining-place of Dr. Johnson. But- cher-row was removed in 1802, when were built the opposite crescent-like houses, named Picket-street from the projector of the improvement, Alderman Picket. During the sewers’ works, eastward of the church, at several feet depth, was discovered an ancient stone bridge of one arch. The almshouses were removed in 1790 ; here is a well 190 feet deep. In a house in Butcher-row, east of Clement’s Inn, by the confession of Winter, he, with Catesby, Wright, and Guy Fawkes, met, and there administered the oath of secresy to the conspirators, and after- wards received the sacrament in the next room. — The Gunpowder Treason, reprinted 1679. The Foregate led to Clement’s Inn and Clemenfs-lane, where lived Sir John Trevor, cousin to Lord Chancellor Jeffreys, and twice Speaker of the House of Commons. Bos- well-court occupied the site of a mansion of a Mr. Boswell ; here lived Lady Raleigh, the widow of Sir Walter ; Lord Chief Justice Ly ttleton, and Sir Richard and Lady Fanshawe. In New-court was the Independents’ chapel of Burgess, Bradbury, and Winter. The houses from Temple Bar to beyond Clement’s Inn were taken down in 1867 for the site of the New Law Courts (see p. 510). St. Clemenfs Vestry-hall, Picket-street, contains the altar-piece (St. Cecilia) painted by Kent for St. Clement’s Church, whence it was removed, in 1725, by order of Bishop Gibson, on the supposition that the picture contained portraits of the Pretender’s wife and children : it was first removed to the Crown and Anchor tavern, and next to the old vestry room (see St. Clement’s Danes, p. 158.) Wych-street, leading to Drury-lane (see p. 315) : the south side retains some pic- turesque house-fronts. Opposite is New Inn (p. 473). Holywell-street is named from one of the holy springs which Fitzstephen described as ” sweete, wholesome, and cleere ; and much frequented by schollars and youth of the citie in summer evenings, when they walk forth to take the aire.” The ” holy well” is stated to be that under the Old Dog tavern, No. 24. Here was the old entrance to Lyon’s Inn. Holywell-street was, in Strype’s time, inhabited by ” divers salesmen and piece-brokers,” who have nearly deserted it : two of their signs long remained ; the Indian queen, said to have been painted by Catton, R.A. ; and a boldly-carved and gilt crescent moon. The street is now tenanted by dealers in old clothes, keepers of book-stalls, and publishers and vendors of cheap and low books : a few lofty gabled and bayed house- fronts remain. Newcastle-street (formerly Magpye-alley) was named from the ground- landlord, John Holies, Duke of Newcastle. No. 313 Strand, was formerly the One Bell livery-stables. The Tatler, March 9, 1710, announced a stage-coach ” twice a week from the One Bell in the Strand to Dorchester, the proper time for writing pas- torals now drawing near.” No. 317, corner of«Drury-court, is thought to be the locality of ” the Forge in St. Clement’s Danes,” referred to in the account of the Shrievalty Tenure custom, at pp. 508-509 ; namely, the site of the forge of a farrier, the father of Nan Clarges, afterwards Duchess of Albemarle. Aubrey (Life of Monk, 1680), says : ” The shop is still of that trade ; the corner-shop, the first turning on ye right hand as you come out 768 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON. of the Strand into Drury-lsme : the house is now built of brick.” To this Mr. Bray- ley, in his Londiniana, 1829, adds a conjectural MS. note : ” the house alluded to is, probably, that at the right hand corner of Little Drury-lane, now a butcher’s, and whitened over.” Curiously enough, the house in the court, next the corner house, No. 317, has been for very many years that of a whitesmith, with its forge. “Where Drury-lane descends into the Strand” “the Maypole in the Strand,” was raised by the farrier to commemorate his daughter’s good fortune. The Maypole set up at the Restoration was conveyed to this spot, April 14, 1661, with great ceremony, a streamer flourishing before it, and drums and trumpets, and the acclamations of the people. This Maypole, 134 feet high, was in two pieces, which being joined together and hooped with iron, the crown and vane, and the king’s arms, richly gilded, were placed on the head of it; and a large top, like a balcony, about the middle of it. It was raised by twelve seamen, ” by cables, pullies, and other tacklins, with six great anchors ;” and ” in four hours’ space it was advanced upright, as near hand as they could guess where the former one stood ; but far more glorious, bigger, and higher than ever any one that stood before it.” It was, however, broken by a high wind about 1672; and the remaining portion, being grown old and decayed, was taken down in 1713. Several traders’ and tavern tokens bear on the reverse this Maypole, with a small building at the foot. Where St. Mary’s Church now is, was the first stand for hackney- coaches, erected in 1634 ; after the church was built, the stand was removed a short distance westward, and lasted until March, 1853. No. 332, Morning Chronicle Office, was formerly the White Swan tavern. Here, in a lodging, to be near his patron, the Earl of Clarendon, in Somerset House, lived Dr. William King, who wrote the Art of Cookery, a poem, &c. He was the friend of Swift. King was luxurious and improvident, and died in poverty in 1712, in the above house. There is a token of the White Swan in the Beaufoy collection, and the sign post, with its swinging sign-board, with a decorated iron frame, is shown in June’s ludicrous, but scarce, print of the Lady’s Disaster, 1746. At No. 340, Strand, July 15, 1845, died John Augustine Wade, the popular lyric poet and musical composer. Catherine-street: on the west was New Exeter ’Change, designed by Sydney Smirke, with house-fronts temp. James I. {see p. 20) ; now the site of the Strand Mtrsic Hail (see p. 608). Brydges-street, Drury-lane Theatre. No. 346 Strand, Doily’s Warehouse, rebuilt in fanciful Italian style, by Beazley, in 1838, occupies the site of Wimbledon House, built by Sir Edward Cecil, and burnt down in 1628. Dry- den names ” Doily petticoats;” Steele had “a Doily suit” (Guardian, No. 102); and Gay a ” Doily habit” (Trivia, book i.) ; and Doily introduced the small wine-glass napkin which still bears his name. Wellington-street North: on the west side is the Lyceum Theatre, rebuilt by Beazley.

In Exeter-street, at a staymaker’s, was the first London lodging of Dr. Johnson (1737), where he lived upon 4″ target=”_top”>d. per day. When Dr. Johnson first came to London with his pupil Garrick, they borrowed five pounds, on their joint note, of Mr. Wilcocks, the bookseller, Strand* ” Near the Savoy in the Strand,” east of Exeter ’Change, was the Canary House, probably also Cary House, noted for its sack ” with abricot flavour” (Dryden’s Wild Gallant, 1669); and Pepys mentions “Cary House, a house of entertainment.” At No. 352 Strand was born, Jan. 29, 1798, Henry Neele, the poet, the son of the able map and heraldic engraver. At No. 355, John Liinbird commenced publishing the Mirror, No. 1, Nov. 2, 1822. Westward was Exeter ’Change, described at p. 335.

” On the demolition of the building in 1830, the writer saw, cut in the stone architrave above the window at the east end, ’ Exkteb Change. 1670,’ a date much earlier in its adaptation than is generally supposed.” — J. 3. Burn.

In one of the offices abutting on the ’Change was published the Literary Gazette, No. 1, Jan. 25, 1817. Exeter-street and Burleigh-street are named from their being * The following were Dr. Johnson’s places of residence in and near London : 1. Exeter-street, off Catherine-street, Strand (1737). 2. Greenwich (1737). 3. Woodstock-street, near Hanover-square (1737). 4. Castle-street, Cavendish-square, No. 6 (1738). 5. Strand. 6. Boswell-court. 7. Strand again. 8. Bow-street. 9. Holborn. 10. Fetter- lane. 11. Holborn a^ain (at the Golden Anchor, Holbora liars, 1748). 12. Gouerh-square, No. I7’(1748). 13. Staple Inn (1758). 14. Gray’s Inn. 15. Inner-Temple-lane, No. 1 (1760). 16. Johnson’s-court, Fleet-street, No. 7 (1765). 17. Bolt-court, Fleet-street, No. 8

(1776).— See Boswell’s Life.

parts of the site of Burleigh and Exeter House. No. 372, Strand, Exeter Hail, is described at p. 334.

Southampton-street was named in compliment to Lady Rachel, daughter of Thomas Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton, and wife of William Lord Russell. Near the foot of the street stood Bedford House, the town mansion of the Earl of Bedford : it was principally built of wood, and remained till 1704 ; the garden extended northward, its wall bounding Covent Garden Market. In Southampton-street is a bar-gate ; the Duke of Bedford having power to erect walls and gates at the end of every thoroughfare on his estate. Bedford-street occupies part of the site. Between these streets, east and west, is Maiden-lane, where, in a second floor, lodged Andrew Marvell, M.P. for Hull, when he refused a treasury-order for 1000Z. brought to him by Lord Danby from the King. At a perruquier’s, with the sign of the White Peruke, lodged Voltaire during part of his three years’ residence in England. Some of his correspondence with Swift is dated from this house.

At No. 26, Maiden-lane, corner of Hand-court, was born, in 1773, J. M. W. Turner, B.A., the landscape-painter. His lather was a hair-dresser ; and the painter, when a boy, coloured prints lor John K. Smith, of Maiden-lane, a mezzotinto engraver. Turner removed to apartments in Hand-court, in the Lune, and during his residence here he exhibited at the Royal Academy fifty-nine pictures.

Opposite was the Cyder Cellar, opened about 1730 : a curious tract, Adventures Underground, 1750, contains strange notices of this ” midnight concert-room” (Notes and Queries, No. 28) : it was a haunt of Professor Porson’s. At No. 367, Strand, lived Deville, the lamp-manufacturer, and student of phrenology : when young he was employed by Nollekens, the sculptor, to make for him casts from moulds ; which shows the phrenologist to have early developed his abilities in this direction. At No. 485, the Queen’s Head public-house, lodged Thomas Parr, when he was brought to London to be shown to Charles I. ; as stated to J. T. Smith, in 1814, by a person then aged 90, to whom the house was pointed out by his grandfather, then 88.

No. 411, Strand, the Adelphi Theatre, Beazley architect (see Theatres). No. 429, built for the Westminster Fire and Life Insurance Office, by Cockerell, R.A., had a facade of great originality : the figures (aquarii) over the principal windows beautifully characteristic. No. 430, West Strand commences : King~ William-street denotes the reign in which the improvements were made (see Chabing Cboss Hospital, p. 436). No. 437, Lowther Abcade (see p. 20).

No. 448, Electric Telegraph Office. Upon the roof is the Electric Time Signal Ball, completed in June, 1S52, when the following were its details : —

The signal consists of a zinc ball, 6 feet in diameter, supported by a rod, which passes down the centre of the column, and carries at its base a piston, which, in its descent, plunges into a cast-iron air-cylinder; the escape of the air being regulated so as at pleasure to check the momentum of the ball, and prevent concussion. The raising of the ball half-mast high takes place daily at 10 minutes to 1 ; at 6 minutes to 1 it is raised to its full height ; and at 1 precisely, and simultaneously with the fall of the ball at Greenwich, it is liberated by the galvanic current sent from the Observatory through a wire laid for that purpose. The same galvanic current which liberates the ball in the Strand, moves a needle upon the transit-clock at the Observatory : the time occupied by the transmission being about l-3000th part of a second ; and by the unloosing of the machinery which supports the ball, less than one-fifth part of a second. The true moment of 1 o’clock is, therefore, indicated by the first appearance of the line of light between the dark cross over the ball and the body of the ball itself. In the event of accidental failure at 1 o’clock, the ball is raised half-mast high, and dropped at 2 o’clock. When fully raised the ball is 129 feet above the level of the Thames, and falls 10 feet.

No. 452, the Golden Cross Hotel : the old coaching inn stood further west. ” I often,” says Lamb, “shed tears in the motley Strand, for fulness of joy at so much life.” (Letters, vol. i.)

Curiosities of London: P-R

This was scanned in from an old document which has caused numerous misreadings of words. As time moves on, this will be improved.


PADDINGTON

NAMED from the Saxon Fcedingas and tun, the town of the Psedings (Kemble’s Saxons in England), was, in the last century, a pleasant little rural village, scarcely a mile north of Tyburn turnpike, upon the Harrow-road. Paddington is not mentioned in Domesday Book ; and the charters professedly granting lands here by Edgar to the monks of Westminster are discredited as forgeries. The district would rather appear to have been cleared, soon after the Norman Conquest, from the vast forest of Middlesex (with pasture for the cattle of the villagers, and the fruits of the wood for their hogs), and to have lain between the two Roman roads (now the Edgware and Uxbridge roads) and the West bourn, or brook, the ancient Tybourn. In the first authentic document (31 Hen. II.), Richard and William of Paddington transfer their ” tenement ” to the Abbot and Convent of Westminster ; and from the close of the thirteenth century, the whole of the temporalities of Paddington (rent of land, and young of animals, valued at 81. 16s. Ad.), were devoted to charity. Tanner speaks of Paddington as a parish, temp. Richard II. ; and by the Valor Ecclesiasticus of Henry VIII., the rectory yielded, like the manor, a separate revenue to the Abbey. Upon the dissolution of the Bishopric of Westminster, the manor and rectory were given by Edward VI. to Ridley, Bishop of London, and his successors for ever ; they were then let at All. 6s. 8d., besides 20s. for the farm of ” Paddington Wood,” 30 acres.

The population of Paddington, by the Subsidy Roll of Henry VIII. scarcely exceeded 100; in Charles II.’s reign it was about 300; in 1811, the population was 4609; from 1831 to 1841, it increased 1000 per annum ; from 1841 to 1851, above 2000 annually ; and in 1861, it had 75,807. Thus, from the forest village has risen a large town, and one of the three parishes forming the Parliamentary borough of Marylebone.

“A city of palaces has sprung up within twenty years. A road of iron, with steeds of steam, brings into the centre of this city, and takes from it in one year, a greater number of living beings than could be found in all England a” few years ago ; while the whole of London can be traversed in half the time it took to reach Holborn Bars at the beginning of this century, when the road was in the hands of Mr. Miles, his pair-horse coach, and his redoubtable Boy,”* long the only appointed agents of communication between Paddington and the City. The fares were 2s. and 3s. ; the journey took more than three hours; and to beguile the time at resting places, ” Miles’s Boy” told tales and played upon the fiddle.

A portion of Paddington is called Tyburnia; but the distinction has not been so readily adopted as in the case of Belgravia.

In the middle of the last century, nearly the whole of Paddington had become grazing-land, upwards of 1100 acres ; and the occupiers of the Bishop’s Estate kept here hundreds of cows. At the beginning of the last century, next to the rurality of Paddington, the gallows and the gibbet were its principal attractions. About 1790 were built nearly 100 small wooden cottages, tenanted by a colony of 600 journeyman artificers; but these dwellings have given way to Connaught-terrace.

* Paddington, Past and Tresent, by ’William Bobins, 1853 ; an able contribution to our local histories.

Paddington consists chiefly of two hills, Maida-hill and Craven-hill ; the north-eastern slope of Notting-hill ; and a valley through which runs the Tybourn, a favourite resort of anglers early in the present century, but now a covered sewer. From this brook, the newly-built district, mostly of palatial mansions, is named Tyburnia.

Paddington Green, now inclosed and iron-bound, was the green of the villagers, shown in all its rural beauty in prints of 1750 and 1783. Upon a portion of it were built the Almshouses, in 1714; their neat little flower-gardens have disappeared. South of the green is the new Vestry -hall. At Dudley Grove was modelled and cast, by Matthew Cotes Wyatt, the colossal bronze statue of the Duke of Wellington, now upon the Green Park Arch : it is thirty feet high, and was conveyed from the foundry, upon a car, drawn by 29 horses, Sept. 29, 1846, to Hyde Park Corner.

Westbourne Green has been cut up by the Great Western Railway; and Westbourne-place, built by Ware, with the materials of old Chesterfield House, May Fair, has disappeared. Close by is the terminus of the Great Western Railway, with a magnificent Hotel, designed in the Louis Quatorze taste, by P. Hardwick, R.A. : the allegorical sculpture of the pediment is by Thomas : the rooms exceed 130.

At Craven Hill was the Pest-house Field, exchanged for the ground in Carnaby-street, given by Lord Craven as a burial-place, if London should ever be again visited by the Plague : but the field is now the site of a handsome square of houses named Craven Gardens. Bayswater is a hamlet of Paddington. Knotting, or Notting Hill seems but to have been a corruption of Nutting ; the wood on and around the hill of that name having for centuries been appropriately so named. Kensell, or Kensale, is “the Green-lane” and Kingsfelde Green in a Harleian MS. of Mary’s reign. (See p. 81 .) Maida Sill and Maida Vale were named from the famous battle of Maida, in Calabria, fought between the French and British, in 1806.

The Grand Junction Waterworks were established in 1812; and on Camden-hill is a storing reservoir containing 6,000,000 gallons. At Paddington the basin of the Grand Junction Canal joins the Regent’s Canal, which passes under Maida-hill by a tunnel 370 yards long. On the banks of the canal, the immense heaps of dust and ashes, once towering above the house-tops, are said to have been worth fabulous thousands.

” The Bishop’s Estate” (Bishop’s- road, Blomfield-terrace, &c.) produces 30.000Z. a year to the Bishop of London and the lay lessees. Among the parochial Charities, the anniversary festival of an Abbot of Westminster is thought to explain ” the Bread and Cheese Lands;” and until 1838, in accordance with a bequest, bread and cheese were thrown from the steeple of St. Mary’s Church, to be scrambled for in the church-yard. (See Lock Hospital, p. 438; St. Mahy’s, p. 439.)

Oxford and Cambridge Squares and Terraces will long keep in grateful memory the munificence of the Lady Margaret, Countess of Richmond, to the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge.

Paddington possessed a church before the district was assigned to the monks of Westminster, in 1222. An “old and ruinous church” was taken down about 1678, and was thought, from its painted window, to have been dedicated to St. Katharine. Next, St. James’s Church was built by the Sheldons, temp. Charles I. : here Hogarth was married to Sir James Thornhill’s daughter, in 1729. This church was taken down, and St. Mary’s built upon the Green, 1788-91, ” finely embosomed in venerable elms :” near it were the village stocks, and in the churchyard were an ancient yew-tree and a
double-leaved elder. Here is the tombstone of John Hubbard, who died in 1665, ” aged 111 years.” Near the grave of Mrs. Siddons lies Haydon, the ill-fated painter, who devoted ” forty-two years to the improvement of the taste of the English people in high art:” he lived many years at 1, Burwood-place, Edgware-road ; and here, June 22, 1846, with his own hand, he terminated the fitful fever of his existence. St. Mary’s Church is described at p. 187. Next was built Bayswater Chapel, by Mr. Orme, the printseller, in 1818; Connaught Chapel, in 1826, now St. John’s; and at the western extremity of the Grand Junction-road, St. James’s, which in 1845 became the parish church. In 1844-6 was built Soly Trinity Church, Bishop’s-road (see p. 208) : cost 18.458Z., towards which the Rev. Mr. Miles gave 4000Z. In 1847 was erected, in Cambridge-place, All Saints Church, upon a portion of the site of the old Grand Junction Waterworks’ reservoir, at the end of Star-street. St. John’s, in Southwick-crescent, has a fine stained window. The erection of Dissenters’ places of worship was long restricted in Paddington by the Bishops of London ; hut there are several chapels, including one for the Canal hoatmen, constructed out of a stable and coach-house. At the western extremity of the parish is a large Roman Catholic church.

Paddington has long been noted for its old public-houses. The White Lion, Edgware-road, dates 1521, the year when hops were first imported. At the Red Lion, near the Harrow-road, tradition says,
Shakspeare acted ; and another Bed Lion, formerly near the Harrow-road bridge over the bourn, is described in an inquisition of Edward VI. In this road is also an ancient Pack-horse ; and the Wheats
aheaf, Edgware-road, was a favourite resort of Ben Jonson. (See Robins’s Paddington.)

Paddington and Marylebone appear to have been favoured by religious enthusiasts.

At No. 26, Manchester-street, died, in 1814, the notorious Joanna Southcott, after having imposed upon six medical men with the absurd story of her being about to give birth to the young ” Shiloh.” Richard Brothers, the self-styled ” Nephew of God,” lodged at No. 58, Paddington-street, and died in Upper Baker-street, in 1824. Spence, the disciple of Emanuel Swedenborg, lived in Great Marylebone-street : he was known as ” Dr. Spence,” when he was the only surgeon in the village of Marylebone. Paddington, with all its antique fame, does not make us forget two odd things that have been said of the district : —

” Pitt is to Addington,
As London is to Paddington.” — Canning.

— next section garbled—-

And Lord Byron remarks : ” Here would be nothing to make the Canal of Venice more poetical than that of Paddington, were it not for its artificial adjuncts.” the east side of Soho-street, abutting upon Kemp’ s-fielQ.:oniC in aim SWCU isign of the Red Cote, being the corner house at the nor .-, „+¦ llio pnd of til© pihighway, or Great-road (that is, what is now called b OV tlierC «« w«= „ • abutting on and upon the said road leading from the si, Vl n Vinff at the busy street 01 Dol^all the houses, &c, included in these boundaries were ert0 lllui – lll fc> ’ , VTmi°P the Lond°”Cumberland-place, begun about 1774, was hunters, U> J ^.^ Minister whom there is a portrait-sign at a public-honseie-udence ^ . .

Cumberland-street hns an elegant portico of land a lot of general for Lord Strangford. At the western extremit -transacted there.

Edgware-road, immediately opposite to Tybur TWhv’s hciJfiC was, until Corsican General Paoli, who was godfather tc LfOrii xJ^ii->y , Slrai Queries.)

Stratford-place was built 1787-9C when be acquired the north end is Aldboroug h House (erected for f or< J House, for it was built with a handsome Ionic stone front and a Dori a J on w -with Stratford-place, by naval trophied Corinthian column with a staj „, , e . i ^e geCOlld Earl Of Alt Lieut.-Gen. Strode. No. 315, Oxford-street \ Dwauoi , ^ dpsisna by Robe: College of Chemistey (see p. 273). The) borougn, J”^* ¦ ” v B £ g^ Alball square, the massive church and the loftv and l! Adam. J-” 6 ¦’-’ ll -architectural coup-d’ceil. ! prince Esterha-zy, and mar Portland-place was built by the architects I (ingllisbed persons have and in 1817 was terminated at the north encj J’ , TJp to 1010 it was OOCUpie fields towards the New-road ; when ” the am phi I “”’ p l P ooke Lord Derby 1 ofthe air, and the prospect ofthe rich and elev! ¦•> 1* (A . , ira ui v ^.Jq- g it W

gate, rendered Portland-place a most agreea’. enlarged it consul London.) At No. 43, lived Sir Felix Booth, B —and spoiled to son Boothia Felix ; Lord Chief-Justice Denman at Adamic character. ^
the Count de Survilliers (Joseph Bonaparte);! place, is a well-modelled bronze statue (height 7 lecTTSTrnches), by Gahagan, of the Duke of Kent, father of Queen Victoria.

The Crystal Palace in Hyde Park was nearly the length of Portland-place. “I walked out one evening,” says Sir Charles Fox, “and there setting out the 1848 feet upon the pavement, found it the same length within a few yards ; and then considered that the Great Exhibition Building would be three times the width of that fine street, and the nave as high as the houses on either side.”

Newman-street and Berners-street, built between 1750 and 1770, were from the first inhabited by artists of celebrity. In the former lived Banks and Bacon, the sculptors ; and West and Stothard, the painters : in the latter, Sir William Chambers, the architect ; and Fuseli and Opie, the painters. Facing is the Middlesex Hospital, described at p. 439. The Pantheon, on the south side of Oxford-street, was originally built by James Wyatt, in 1768-71 ; was burnt down in 1792, but was rebuilt ; taken down in 1812, and again reconstructed. (See Pantheon.) Nearly opposite is the Princess’s Theatre, No. 73, formerly the Queen’s Bazaar, opened in 1840. (See Theatres.) Wardour- street, built 1686, and named from Lord Arundel of Wardour, is noted for its curiosity-shops. (See Cabving, pp. 78-81.) Hamray -street bears a stone dated 1721, and was originally a zigzag lane to Tottenham- court-road : it was called Hanway-yard to our time, and is noted for its china-dealers and curiosity-shops, as it was in the reign of hoops, high-heeled shoes, and stiff brocade. No. 54, corner of Berners-street, has a Renaissance or Elizabethan shop-front and mezzanine floor ; a picturesque composition of pedestals, consoles, and semi-caryatid figures. No. 76 has a Byzantine facade. No. 86 has a front of studied design. At No. 15 was exhibited, in 1830-32, a large painted window of the Tournament of the Field of Cloth-of-Gold, by Wilmshurst ; destroyed by fire in 1832. At the east end of Oxford-street, in 1838, were laid experimental specimens of the various roadway Wood Pavements.

Nollckens, the sculptor, one day, in a walk with J. T. Smith, stopped at the corner of Rathbone-place, and observed that when he was a little boy, his mother often took him to the top of that street to walk by the side of a long pond, near a windmill, which then stood on the site of the chapel in Charlotte-street ; and that a halfpenny was paid by every person at a hatch belonging to the miller, for the privilege of walking in his grounds. He also told me (continues Smith), that his mother took him through another halfpenny hatch in the fields, between Oxford-road and Grosvenor-square, the north side of which was then building. When we got to the brewhouse between Eathbone-place and the end of Tottenham-court-road, he said he recollected thirteen large and fine walnut-trees standing on the north side of the highway, between what was then vulgarly called Hanover-yard, afterwards Hanway-yard, and now Hanway-street, and the Cattle inn, beyond the Star Brewery. — Nollekens and hit Times, i. 37.

Towards the west end of Oxford-street several houses of lofty and ornamental design have replaced the incongruous dwellings which reminded one of Oxford-road. Here was Cavnelford House, sometime inhabited by the Princess Charlotte and her husband, Prince Leopold.

New Oxford-steeet, extending the houses from 441 to 552, and occupying part of the site of St. Giles’s ” Rookery,” was opened in 1847 : the house-fronts are of Ionic, Corinthian, domestic Tudor, and Louis XIV. character, including a glass-roofed Arcade of shops.

PAINTED CHAMBER, THE,

REPRESENTED to have been the bed-chamber and death-place of Edward the Confessor, in the old Palace at Westminster, existed in its foundation-walls until the Great Fire in 1834. It was also called St. Edward’s Chamber; and assumed its second name after it had been painted by order of Henry III. In the ceremonial of the marriage of Richard Duke of York, in 1477, the Painted Chamber is called St. Edward’s Chamber; and Sir Edward Coke, in his Fourth Institute, states that the causes of Parliament were in ancient time shown in La Chambre Depeint, or St. Edward’s Chamber. This interesting historical apartment had two floors, one tessellated, and the other boarded : it was 80 feet 6 in. in length, 26 feet wide, and its height from the upper floor was 31 feet. The ceiling, temp. Henry III., was dight with gilded and painted tracery, including small wainscot paterae, variously ornamented. It was hung with tapestries, chiefly representing the Siege of Troy, probably put up temp. Charles II. Sandford, in his Coronation of James II, mentions these tapestries as ” Five pieces of the Siege of Troy, and one piece of Gardens and Fountains.” In 1800, these hangings and the wainscoting were removed,* when the walls and window-jambs were found covered with paintings of the battles of Maccabees ; the Seven Brethren ; St. John, habited as a pilgrim, presenting a ring to King Edward the Confessor ; the canonization of King Edward, with seraphim, &c. ; and black-letter Scripture texts.

The paintings are noticed in the MS. Itinerary of Simon Simeon and Hugo the Illuminator (Franciscan friars), in 1322 ; who name ” that well-known chamber, on whose walls all the histories of the wars of the whole Bible are painted beyond description :” and an Exchequer Roll, 20 Edw. I. anno 1292, headed, “p’ma op’ac’o picture,” or first work of Painting, contains an account of the disbursements of Master Walter, the painter, for the emendation of the pictures in the King’s G-reat Chamber, as the Painted Chamber was then called.^ Specimens of these paintings are given by J. T.
Smith in his Antiquities of Westminster ; and in the Vetusta Monumenta, vol. vi. ; and in 1835, drawings of the pictures were exhibited to the Society of Antiquaries.

In the Painted Chamber, Parliaments were opened, before the Lords sat in the Court of Requests. Here Conferences of both Houses were held ; here sat in private * About the year 1820, the tapestry was sold to Mr. Charles Yamold, of Great St. Helen’s, for l. t There are also entries in the Close Rolls, 12 Hen. III. (1228), for painting the Great Exchequer Chamber ; and 1236, for the King’s Great Chamber ; proving that oil-painting was practised in England nearly two centuries before its presumed discovery by John van Eyck, in 1410. the High Court of Justice for bringing Charles I. to trial ; and here the death-warrant of the unhappy King was signed by the Ilegicides. The body of Lord Chatham lay in State here. After the Fire of 1834, the walls of the Chamber were roofed, and the interior was fitted up as a temporary House of Lords. Tlie building was taken down in 1852, when the brick and stone work of the north side, and the ends of the Chamber, including several Gothic stone window-cases, were sold for 501.

PALACES, ROYAL.

THE three royal metropolitan palaces are, Buckingham Palace, the residence of the Sovereign and the Court ; St. James’s Palace, used exclusively for State purposes ; and Kensington Palace, the birthplace of Her Majesty, 1819 ; and where she held her First Council, 1837.

Hatton (in 1708) says : ” Of Courts of our Kings and Queens there were heretofore many in London and Westminster : as the Tower of London, where some believe Julius Ca?sar lodged, and William the Conqueror; in the Old Jewry, where Henry VI. ; Baynard’s Castle, where Henry VII.; Bridewell, where King John and Henry VIII. ; Tower Moyal, where Richard II. and King Stephen ; Wardrobe, in Great Carter-lane, where Richard III. ; also at Somerset House, kept by Queen Elizabeth ; and at Westminster, near the Hall, where Edward the Confessor and several other kings kept their Courts.

But of later times, the place for the Court, when in town, was mostly Whitehall; a very pleasant and commodious situation, looking into St. James’s Park, the canal, &c. west, and the noble river of Thames east : Privy Gardens, with fountains, statues, &c, and an open prospect to the statue at Charing Cross, north. This palace being, in January, 1697, demolished by fire, except the Banqueting House (built by Inigo Jones, temp. James I.), there has since been no reception for the Court in town but St. James’s Palace, which is pleasantly situated by the Park ; and Whitehall will doubtless be rebuilt in a short time, being designed one of the most famous palaces in Christendom.

” Her Majesty has also these noble palaces for the Court to reside in at pleasure : Kensington House (so near, that it may be said to be in town), Campden House, Windsor Castle, Hampton Court, Winchester House ; all which palaces, for pleasant situation, nobleness of building, delightful gardens and walks, externally ; and for commodious, magnificent rooms, rich furniture, and curious painting, internally, — cannot be matched in number and quality by any one prince on earth.”

Buckingham Palace, the town residence of the Sovereign, on the west side of St. James’s Park, was built by Nash and Blore, between 1825 and 1837, upon the site of Buckingham House, of which the ground-floor alone remains. The northern side of the site was a portion of the Mulberry-garden, planted by James I. in 1609, which in the next two reigns became a public garden. Evelyn describes it in 1654 as “ye only place of refreshment about ye towne for persons of ye best quality to be exceedingly cheated at ;” and Pepys refers to it as ” a silly place,” but with ” a wilderness somewhat pretty.” It is a favourite locality in the gay comedies of Charles II.’s reign.

Dryden frequented the Mulberry Gardens ; and according to a contemporary, the poet ate tarts there with Mrs. Anift Reeve, hit mistress. The company sat in arbours, and were regaled with cheesecakes, syllabubs, and sweetened wine, wine-and-water at dinner, and a dish of tea afterwards. Sometimes the ladies wore masks. ” The country ladys, for the first month, take up their places in the Mulberry Gardens as early as a citizen’s wife at anew.play.” — Sir C. Sedley’s Mulberry Garden, 1668.

” A princely palace on that space does rise

Where Sedley’s noble muse found mulberries.” — Br. King.

Upon the above part of the garden site was built Goring House, let to the Earl of Arlington in 1666, and thence named Arlington Souse : in this year the Earl brought from Holland, for 60*., the first pound of tea received in England ; so that, in all probability, the first cup of tea made in England was drunk upon the site of Buckingham Palace. There is a rare print of Arlington House, by Sutton Nichols, and a copy by John Seago. In 1698 the property was sold to Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, for whom the house was rebuilt in 1703, in the heavy Dutch style, of red brick, with
stone finishings. Some vignettes of the mansion, then Buckingham Souse, are engraved at the heads of chapters, and in illuminated capitals, of the second volume of the collected poems of Buckingham, ” the Muses’ friend, himself a Muse.” On the four sides he inscribed, in gold, four pedantic mottoes : ” Sic siti laetantur Lares ;” ” Rus in urbe ;” ” Spectator fastidiosus sibi molestus ;” and ” Lente inccepit, cito perfecit.” The house was surmounted with lead figures of Mercury, Secrecy, Equity, Liberty, Truth, and Apollo ; and the Four Seasons. Defoe describes it as ” one of the great beauties of London, both by reason of its situation and its building :” its fine garden, noble terrace (with prospect of open country), a little park with a pretty canal ; and the basin of water, and Neptune and Tritons’ fountain in the front court. The Duke of Buckingham, in a letter to the Duke of Shrewsbury, minutely describes the mansion : its hall painted in the school of Raphael ; its parlour by Rieci ; its staircase with the story of Dido ; its ceiling with gods and goddesses ; and its grand saloon by Gentileschi.

The flat leaded roof was balustraded for a promenade ,• and here was a cistern holding 50 tons of water, driven up by an engine from the Thames.

To his third wife, a natural daughter of James II. by Catherine Sedley, the Duke was tenderly attached, and studied her convenience in planning Buckingham House: “the highest story of the private apartments,” he tells us, ” is fitted for the women and children, with the floors so contrived as to prevent all noise over my wife’s head during the mysteries of Lucina.”

Buckingham House was purchased by George III. for 21,000£. in 1762, shortly after the birth of the Prince of Wales at St. James’s Palace : their Majesties soon removed here, and all their succeeding children were born here. In 1775 the property was settled on Queen Charlotte (in exchange for Somerset House), and thenceforth Buckingham House was called ” the Queen’s House.” Here the King collected his magnificent library, now in the British Museum (see p. 584). Dr. Johnson, by permission of the librarian, frequently consulted books ; and here he held his memorable conversation with George III.

” It is curious that the royal collector (George III.) and his venerable librarian (Mr. Barnard) should have survived almost sixty years after commencing the formation of this, the most complete private library in Europe, steadily appropriating 2000Z. per annum to this object, and adhering with scrupulous attention to the instructions of Dr. Johnson, contained in the admirable letter printed by order of the House of Commons.” — Quarterly Review, June, 1826.

In 1766 the Cartoons of Raphael were removed here, to an octagonal apartment at the south-east angle : thence they were transferred to Windsor Castle in 1788. The Saloon was superbly fitted as the Throne-room, and here Queen Charlotte held her public drawing-rooms; in the Crimson, Blue Velvet, and other rooms, was a fine collection of pictures. Thus the mansion remained until 1825, externally •* dull, dowdy, and decent ; nothing more than a large, substantial, and respectable-looking red brick house.”

The Palace, as reconstructed by Nash, consisted of three sides of a square, Roman-Corinthian, raised upon a Doric basement, with pediments at the ends ; the fourth side, enclosed by iron palisades, with a central entrance arch of white marble, adapted from that of Constantine at Rome. Mr. Nash was succeeded by Mr. Blore, who raised the building a story ; and the palace was opened for public inspection in 1831; when appeared, in Fraser’s Magazine, an architectural description of the Palace, written by Allan Cunningham. William IV. and Queen Adelaide did not remove here ; but on July 13, 1837, Queen Victoria took up her residence here. In 1846-the erection of the east side was commenced ; and in 1851 the Marble Arch was removed to the north-east corner of Hyde Park. There have since been added a spacious Ball-room, &c, on the south side of the Palace.

The East Front of Buckingham Palace is German, of the last century : its extent is 360 feet, height 77 feet ; extreme height of centre 90 feet ; frontage 70 feet in advance of the former wings.

The four central gate-piers are capped by an heraldic lion and unicorn, and dolphins ; and the state entrances have golden grilles of rich design. The wings are surmounted by statues of Morning, Noon (Apollo), and Night ; the Hours, and the Seasons ; and upon turrets flanking the central shield (bearing “V. R. 1847″) are colossal figures of Britannia and St. George; besides groups of trophies, festoons of flowers, &c. The Royal Standard is hoisted on the west front when her Majesty is resident at the Palace. The inner front has a central double portico; the tympanum is filled with sculpture, and the pediment crowned with statues of Neptune, Commerce, and Navigation in the centre. Around the entire building is a scroll frieze of the rose, shamrock, and thistle. The Garden or Western Front, architecturally the principal one, has five Corinthian towers, and a balustraded terrace; the upper portion having statues, trophies, and bas-reliefs, by Flaxman and other sculptors. The materials are Portland-stone and cement.

The Marble Sail and Sculpture Gallery have mosaic bordered floors, and ranges of Carrara columns with mosaic gold bases and capitals. The sculptures consist chiefly of busts of the Royal Family and eminent statesmen. Beyond the Sculpture Gallery is the Library. The Grand Staircase is marble, with ormolu acanthus balustrades : the ceiling has frescoes by Townsend, of Morning, Evening, Noon, and Night, on a gold ground ; besides wreaths of flowers, imitative marbles, &c, in the Italian manner. The brief pageant of the Queen leaving the Palace to proceed in state to open Parliament may be witnessed by Tickets of admission to the Hall, issued by the Lord Great Chamberlain. Upon such occasions, the Yeomen of the Guard, Yeomen Porters, and other official persons, in their rich costumes, while the Sovereign proceeds to the State-carriage, present a magnificent scene. The Vestibule is richly decorated with vermilion and gold : here are a marble statue of the
Queen, by Gibson, R.A. ; and of Prince Albert, by Wyatt ; also bas-reliefs of Peace and War, by John Thomas. The looking-glass and ormolu doors cost 300 guineas a-pair, and each mosaic gold capital and base 30 guineas.

The principal State Apartments are : the Green Drawing-room, in the centre of the east front, and opening upon the upper portico : for state balls, Tippoo Sahib’s Tent is added to this room, upon the portico, and is lighted by a gorgeous ’* Indian sun,” 8 feet in diameter. Next is the Throne Boom, which is 64 feet in length : the walls are hung with crimson satin ; and the coved ceiling is emblazoned with arms, and gilded in the boldest Italian style of the fifteenth century. Beneath is a white marble frieze, sculptured by Baily, with the Wars of the Roses, Stothard’s last great design.* On the north side of the apartment is an alcove, with crimson velvet hangings, gilding, and emblazonry, and a fascia of massive gilt wreaths and figures. In this recess is placed the Royal throne, or chair of state ; seated in which, surrounded by her Ministers, great officers of State, and the Court, her Majesty receives addresses. In this room also are held Privy Councils.

The Picture Gallery, in the centre of the palace, is about 180 feet in length by 26 feet in breadth, and has a semi-Gothic roof, with a triple row of ground-glass lights, hearing the stars of all the orders of knighthood in Europe; but Von Raumer considers the light false and insufficient, and broken by the architectural decorations.

Occasionally, this gallery has been used as a ball-room, and for state banquets.

The door-cases have colossal caryatidal figures, and are gorgeously gilt ; and the marble chimney-pieces are sculptured with medallion portraits of great painters.

The collection of pictures formed by George IV. is preeminently rich in Dutch and Flemish art.

The chief exceptions are Reynolds’s Death of Dido, his Cymon and Iphigenia, and Sir Joshua’s portrait in spectacles ; the Penny Wedding, and Blind Man’s Buff, by Wilkie ; a Landscape by Gainsborough, and a few recent English works ; and 4 pictures by Watteau. In the collection are an Altar-piece by Albert Durcr; 7 pictures by Rembrandt, including the Shipbuilder and his Wife, for which George IV., when Prince of Wales, gave 6000 guineas ; Rubens, 7 ; Marriage of St. Catherine, and 4 others, by Van-dyke; Vandervelde, 7; younger Vandervelde, 4; G. Dow, 8; Paul Potter, 4; A. Ostade, 9; younger Teniers, 14 ; Vandermeulen, 13 ; Wouvermans, 9 ; Cuyp, 9.

In the State Rooms are royal portraits, by Kneller, Lely, A. Ramsay, N. Dance, Copley, Gainsborough, Wright, Lawrence, Wilkie, Winterhalter, &c.

In the Western Front is the Grand (central) Saloon, north of which is the Yellow Drawing-room, communicating with the Private Apartments of her Majesty, which extend along the north front of the palace. The Grand Saloon has a semicircular bay, and scagliola lapis-lazuli columns with mosaic gold capitals, supporting a rich architrave, and bas-relief of children with emblems of music ; the domed ceilings are richly gilt with roses, shamrocks, and thistles, acanthus-leaves, and the royal arms in the spandrels. The large apartment, formerly the State Ball-room, north of the Grand Saloon, has scagliola porphyry Corinthian columns, with gilded capitals, carrying an entablature and coved ceiling, elaborately gilt : here are Winterhalter’s portraits of the Queen and Prince Albert ; and Vandyke’s Charles I. and Henrietta- Maria. South of the Ball-room is the State Dining-room, which has an elegantly wrought ceiling, and circular panels bearing the regal crown and the monogram V. R. ; the whole in stone tint : here are Lawrence’s whole length of George IV. in his coronation robes, and other royal portraits.

The South Wing, added since 1850, contains the kitchen and other domestic offices, on the two lower stories; and above them, a Ball-room, 139 feet long; Supper-room, 76 feet ; and Promenade-gallery, 109 feet ; the wing harmonizing with the Palace, as built for George IV. The Ball-room was designed to be used for State-balls, State concerts, and, on special occasions, as a State reception-room and banqueting room.

The ceiling is divided by broad and deep bands into twenty-one square compartments, resting on a bold and highly-enriched cove, which runs round the whole room. The enrichments are all executed in plaster, carefully modelled and highly finished. The walls on each side of the room are divided into thirteen compartments. Fourteen of the twenty-six are windows, the others being filled in with paintings, representing the twelve hours, copied from the small originals by Raphael, existing in Rome. The silk hangings of the walls were woven in Lyons, from a design made to suit the room.

The lighting of the room is peculiar, and very effective. In each compartment of the ceiling there is a large sunlight gas-burner (21 in all), each enclosed in a chandelier or lustre of richly-cut glass, executed by Osier, and forming a brilliant pendant in the centre of each compartment. A great portion of the light is, however, obtained, and a most brilliant effect is produced, by the novel method of illuminating the fourteen windows, which in most rooms are left either as dark blots, or are concealed by draperies. Next the room these windows are glazed with deeply-cut glass stars of large size, surrounded by borders similarly cut, and lighted by gas-burners, arranged between the outer and inner sashes in such manner as to bring out the full brilliancy of the cut-glass in all its detail. Great attention has been paid to the ventilation of the room. There are also ten magnificent candelabra of gilt bronze, each holding 43 wax candles, and standing upon the raised platform.

At the west end a kind of throne or recess has been formed for the Queen, with Corinthian columns carrying an entablature and a bold detached archivolt, on which rests a medallion, containing the profiles of her Majesty and the Prince Consort, supported by emblematic figures of History and Fame; these, and all other sculptures, around the doors, above the large mirrors placed opposite the doors, and throughout the whole suite of apartments, were executed by Mr. Theed. The recess formed at the east end, above the attendants’ rooms, is appropriated to the organ and the orchestra; the latter, for 70 performers, can be enlarged for 120.

The merit of the architectural sculptures is their nationality. The friezes and reliefs of scenes in British history are mostly by Baily, R.A. : those of Alfred expelling the Danes, and delivering the Laws, on the garden-front, and the Progress of Navigation, on the main front, are fine compositions ; as are also Stothard’s Wars of the Roses, in the Throne-room ; and the eastern frieze of the rose, shamrock, and thistle.

But the marble chimney-pieces and door-cases, sculptured with caryatides, fruit and flowers, and architectural ornament, often present a strange mixture of fragments of Egypt, Greece, Etruria, Rome, and the Middle Ages, in the same apartment.

In the garden were formerly two Ionic Conservatories ; the southernmost of which is now the Palace Chapel, consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury, March 25, 1813. The aisles are formed by rows of Composite cast-iron columns ; and at the west end, facing the altar, is the Queen’s closet, supported upon Ionic columns from the screen of Carlton House. In the garden is the western boundary-stone of the parish of St. Martin’s-in-the- Fields, where, on Holy Thursday is performed the ceremony of ” striking the stone.”

The Pleasure-grounds comprise about 40 acres, including the lake of 5 acres ; at the verge of which, upon a lofty artificial mound, is a picturesque pavilion, or garden-house, with a minaret roof. In the centre is an octagonal room, with figures of Midnight and Dawn ; and 8 lunettes, painted in fresco, from Milton’s Comus, by Eastlake, Maclise, Landseer, Dyce, Stanfield, Uwins, Leslie, and Ross; besides relief arabesques, medallions, figures and groups, from Milton’s poems. On the right is a room decorated in the Pompeian style, copied from existing remains. The apartment on the left is embellished in the romantic style, from the novels and poems of Sir Walter Scott. (See Gruner’s Illustrations, described by Mrs. Jameson.)

Buckingham Palace has been the scene of two superb Costume Balls — in 1842 and 1845 : the first in the style of the reign of Edward III. ; and the fete in 1845 in the taste of George II.’s reign.

The Royal Mews is described at p. 565. The Riding-house has been covered with cement ornamentation ; in the pediment is a large equestrian group, sculptured by Theed, and upon the walls have been placed several large circular vases; the bank has here been raised and planted with trees, to screen the palace-garden.

Immediately under the Palace passes ” The King’s Scholars’ Pond Sewer,” the main drain of one of the principal divisions of the Westminster connexion of sewers, occupying the whole channel of a rivulet formerly known as Tye Brook, having its source at Hampstead, and draining an area of 2000 acres, 1500 of which are covered with houses. A large portion of the sewer arches was reconstructed, under densely-populated neighbourhoods, without any suspicion on the part of the inhabitants of what was going on a few feet below the foundations of their houses. In its present complete state, this is, perhaps, one of the most remarkable and extensive pieces of sewerage ever executed in this or any other country.

St. James’s Palace, Westminster, on the north side of St. James’s Park, and at the western end of Pall Mall, occupies the site of a hospital, founded by some pious citizens prior to the Norman Conquest, for fourteen leprous females, to whom eight brethren were added to perform divine service. The good work was dedicated to St. James, and was endowed hy the citizens with lands ; and in 1290, Edward I. granted to the foundation the privilege of an annual Fair, to he held on the eve of St. James and six following days. The house was rebuilt by Berkynge, abbot of Westminster, in Henry III.’s reign; and in 1450 its perpetual custody was granted by Henry VI. to Eton College. In 1532, Henry VIII. obtained the hospital in exchange for Chattisham and other lands in Suffolk : he then dismissed the inmates, pensioned the sisterhood ; and having pulled down the ancient structure, he ” purchased all the meadows about St. James’s, and there made a faire mansion and a parke for his greater commoditie and pleasure” (Solinshed) : the Sutherland View of 1543 shows the palace far away in the fields. ” The Manor House,” as it was then called, is believed to have been planned by Holbein, and built under the direction of Cromwell, Earl of Essex.

Henry’s gatehouse and turrets face St. James’s-street : the original hospital, to judge from certain remains of stone mullions, labels, and other masonry, found in 1838, on taking down some parts of the Chapel Royal, was of the Norman period. It was occasionally occupied by Henry as a semi-rural residence, down to the period when Wolsey surrendered Whitehall to the Crown. Edward and Elizabeth rarely resided at St. James’s : but Mary made it the place of her gloomy retirement during the absence of her husband, Philip of Spain : here she expired. The Manor House, with all its appurtenances, except the park and the stables or the mews, were granted by James I. to his son Henry in 1610; at whose death, in 1612, they reverted to the Crown.

Charles I. enlarged the palace, and most of his children (including Charles II.) were born in it : here he deposited the gallery of antique statues principally collected for him by Sir Kenelm Digby. In this reign was fitted up the chapel of the hospital, on the west side, as the Chapel Royal, described at pp. 140-1. Here Charles I. attended divine service on the morning of his execution ; ” from hence the king walked through the Park, guarded with a regiment of foot and partisans, to Whitehall.” (Whitelock’s Memorials, p. 374.) The Queen’s Chapel, now the German Chapel, was built for Catherine of Braganza, in the friary of the conventual establishment founded here by her Majesty, under the direction of Cardinal Howard.

The Queen first heard mass there on Sunday, September 21, 1662, when Lady Castlemaine, though a Protestant, and the King’s avowed mistress, attended her as one of her maids of honour. Pepys
describes ” the fine altar ornaments, the fryers in their habits, and the priests with their fine crosses, and many other fine things.” — Diary, vol. i. p. 312.

At ” St. James’s House” Monk resided while planning the Restoration. In the old bed-chamber, now the ante-chamber to the levee-room, was born James (the old Pretender), the son of James II. by Mary of Modena : the bed stood close to the back stairs, and favoured the scandal of the child being conveyed in a warming-pan to the Queen’s bed. In this reign Verrio, the painter, was keeper of the palace-gardens.

During the Civil Wars, St. James’s became the prison-house, for nearly three years, of the Duke of York and Duke of Gloucester, and the Princess Elizabeth : on April 20, 1648, the Duke of York escaped from the palace-garden into the Park, through the Spring Garden, to a hackney-coach in waiting for him ; and, in female disguise, he reached a Dutch vessel below Gravesend. After the Restoration, the Duke occupied St. James’s ; and one of its rooms was hung with portraits of the Court Beauties, by Sir Peter Lely. Here the Duke slept the night before his coronation as James II., and next morning proceeded to Whitehall.

On December 18, 1688, William Prince of Orange came to St. James’s, where, three days afterwards, the peers assembled, and the household and other officers of the abdicated sovereign laid down their badges. Evelyn says : ” All the world goes to see the Prince at St. James’s, where there is a greate court. There I saw him : he is very stately, serious, and reserved.” {Diary, vol. i. p. 680.) King William occasionally held councils here : but it was not until alter the burning of Whitehall, in 1697, that this Palace became used for state ceremonies, whence dates the Court of St. James’s.

William and Mary, however, resided chiefly at Kensington ; and St. James’s was next fitted up for George Prince of Denmark, and the Princess Anne, who, on her accession to the throne, considerably enlarged the edifice. George I. lived here like a private gentleman ; in 1727 he gave a banquet here to the entire Court of Common Council.

The fourth plate of Hogarth’s ” Rake’s Progress” shows St. James’s Palace gateway in 1735, with the quaint carriages and chairs arriving on the birthday of Caroline, George II.’s consort : her Majesty died at St. James’s in 1737. The wing facing Cleveland-row was built for Frederick Prince of Wales, on his marriage in 1736.

The State Rooms were enlarged on the accession Of George III., whose marriage was celebrated here September 6, 1761. George IV. was born here August 12, 1762 ; and shortly afterwards the Queen’s bed was removed to the Great Drawing-room, and company were admitted to see the infant prince on drawing-room days. The court was held here during the reign of George III., though his domestic residence was at Buckingham House. St. James’s was refitted on the marriage of the Prince of Wales, April 8, 1795, in the Chapel Royal. On January 21, 1809, the east wing of the palace, including their majesties’ private apartments and those of the Duke of Cambridge, was destroyed by fire, and has not been rebuilt. In 1814 the State Apartments were fitted up for the Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia, when also Marshal Blucher was an inmate of the palace. In 1822 a magnificent banqueting-hall was added to the state-rooms. In January, 1827, the remains of the Duke of York lay in state in the palace. William IV. and Queen Adelaide resided here ; but since the accession of her present Majesty, St. James’s has only been used for courts, levees and drawing-rooms, and occasionally for State-balls.

The lofty brick gatehouse bears upon its roof the bell of the Great Clock, dated A.D. 1731, and inscribed with the name of Clay, clockmaker to George II. It strikes the hours and quarters upon three bells, requires to be wound every day, and originally had only one hand. A print of the court-yard, with the meeting of Mary de Medicis and her daughter Henrietta-Maria, in 1638, shows a dial which must have belonged to a previous clock. The present clock was under the care of the Vulliamys, the Royal clockmakers, from 1743, until the death of B. L. Vulliamy.

When the gatehouse was repaired in 1831, the clock was removed, and not put up again, on account of the roof being reported unsafe to carry the weight. The inhabitants of the neighbourhood then memorialized William IV. for the replacement of the timekeeper: the King, having ascertained its weight, shrewdly inquired how, if the palace roof was not strong enough to carry the clock, it was safe for the number of persons occasionally seen upon it to witness processions, &c. The clock was forthwith replaced, and a minute-hand was added, with new dials : the original dials were of wainscot, in a great number of very small pieces, curiously dovetailed together.

The gatehouse enters the quadrangle, named the Colour Court, from the colours of the military guard of honour being placed here : in this court one of the three regiments of Foot Guards is relieved alternately every morning at eleven o’clock, when the keys of the garrison are delivered and the regimental standard exchanged, during the performance of the bands of music. Westward is the Ambassadors’ Court, where are the apartments of certain branches of the Royal Family ; and beyond it the Stable- Yard, anciently the stable-yard of the palace, and where was the Queen’s Library, upon the site of Stafford House. Here is Clarence House, described at p. 547. On the east side is the Lord Chamberlain’s office, where permission may be obtained to view the palace.

Eastward of the gatehouse is the Office of the Board of Green Cloth, and still further, the office of the Lord Steward of Her Majesty’s Household. Beyond are the gates leading to the quadrangle, known of old as ” the Chair Court.” The State Apartments, in the south front of the palace, front the garden and St. James’s Park.

The Sovereign enters by the garden gate ; and it was here, on the 2nd of August, 1796, that Margaret Nicholson attempted to assassinate George III. as he was alighting from his carriage. The State Apartments are reached by the Great Staircase, the Entree Gallery, the Guard Chamber (its walls covered with weapons in fanciful devices), and a similar apartment. Here are stationed the Yeomen of the Queen’s Guard; and tbe honours of the Guard-Chamber are paid to distinguished personages on levee and drawing-room days. George III. held Drawing-rooms much more frequently than they are held at present. To quote the Court Guide of 1792, ” the King’s Levee days are Wednesday and Friday, and likewise Monday during the sitting of Parliament ; his Drawing-room days every Sunday and Thursday.”

Yeomen of the Guard were first instituted in 1485, by Henry VII., upon the model of a somewhat similar band retained by Louis XI. of France. They were at first archers; but on the death of
William III. all took the partisan, as now carried. The dress has continued almost unaltered since the reign of Charles II.

The Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms (changed from Pensioners by William IV.) was instituted by Henry VIII., disbanded during the Civil Wars, but reconstructed at the Restoration, and at the Revolution of 1688. In 1745, when George II. raised his standard on Finchley Common, these ” Gentlemen” were ordered to provide themselves with horses and equipment to attend his Majesty to the field.

Their present uniform is scarlet and gold : and the corps carry on parade small battle-axes covered with crimson velvet. On April 10, 1848, on the apprehension of a Chartist outbreak, St. James’s Palace was garrisoned and guarded by these ancient bodies.

Beyond the Guard-Chamber is the Tapestry Room, hung with gorgeous tapestry made for Charles II., and representing the amours of Venus and Mars. The stone Tudor arch of the fireplace is sculptured with the letters H. A. (Henry and Anne Boleyn), united by a true-lover’s knot, surmounted by a regal crown ; also the lily of France, the portcullis of Westminster, and the rose of Lancaster. Here the sovereigns of the House of Brunswick, on the death of their predecessors, are received by the Privy Council, and from the capacious bay window proclaimed and presented to the people assembled in the outer court, where are the sergeants-at-arms and band of household trumpeters. The proclamation of her present Majesty, on June 21, 1837, was a touching spectacle. Next the Tapestry-Room is Queen Anne’s Room, the first of the four great state apartments. In this room the remains of Frederick Duke of York lay in State in January 1827. This apartment opens to the Ante-Drawing-Room, leading by three doors into the Presence Chamber or Throne Room, beyond which is the Queen’s Closet. The throne, at the upper end of the Presence Chamber, is large and stately, and emblazoned with arms : the window-draperies here and in the Queen’s Closet are of splendid tissu-de-verre. The entire suite is gorgeously gilt, hung with crimson Spitalfields damasks, brocades, and velvets, embroidered with gold ; and the Wilton carpets bear the royal arms.

The public are admitted to the corridor by tickets to see the company upon Drawing-room days ; and upon certain occasions, when bulletins of the health of the sovereign are issued, they are shown to the public as they pass through the state-rooms.

Pictures in the State Apartments. — Large paintings of the Siege of Tournay, and the Siege of Lisle by the Duke of Marlborough. Portraits of Charles II., George I., George II., and Queen Anne;
George III., the Prince of Wales, and the Duke of York, by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; George IV. and the Duke of York, by Sir Thomas Lawrence. Count La Lippe, and the Marquis of Granby, by Sir Joshua
Reynolds. Beauties of the Court of Charles II., copied from Hampton Court. Lord Nelson, Earl St. Vincent, and Lord Rodney, by Hoppner. The Battles of Vittoria and Waterloo, by G. Jones, R.A. In the Entree Gallery are whole-length portraits of Henry VIII., reputed by Holbein; Queen Mary; Queen Elizabeth, by Zucchero ; James I., Charles I., after Vandyke ; Charles II., James II., and William and Mary.

The curious pictures which were here in Pennant’s time have been removed : including a Child, three years six months old, in the robes of a Knight of the Garter, the second son of James I. ; also
Geoffrey Hudson, the Dwarf; and Mabuse’s Adam and Eve, painted with navels.

Here George IV. formed a fine collection of pictures, to which was added, in 1828, Haydon’s “Mock Election,” which the King purchased of the painter for 500 guineas.

Kensington Palace, about two miles west of the metropolis, is named from the adjoining town, although it is situated in the parish of St. Margaret, Westminster :

” High o’er the neighbouring lands,
’Midst greens and sweets, a regal fabric stands.” — Ticlcell.

The original mansion was purchased (with the grounds, six acres) by King William III., in 1691, of Daniel Finch, second Earl of Nottingham. Evelyn notes : “Feb. 25, 1690-1. — I went to Kensington, which King William had bought of Lord Nottingham and altered, but was yet a patched-up building ; but with the gardens, however, it is a very neat villa.”

— Memoirs, vol. ii.

In the following November the house was nearly destroyed by fire, and the king narrowly escaped being burned in his bed. The premises had been possessed by the Finch family about half a century ; and after Sir Heneage Finch’s advancement to the peerage, the mansion was called ” Nottingham House.” William III. employed Wren and Hawksmoor, who built the King’s Gallery and the south front ; the eastern front was added by George I., from the designs of Kent ; the north wing is part of old Nottingham House. The entire palace is of crimson brick, with stone finishings; and consists of the Clock Court, Prince’s Court, and Princess’ Court. King William held councils in this palace ; its decoration was the favourite amusement of Queen Mary ; and it was next fitted up as the residence of Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark : for her luxurious Majesty was built the Banqueting-House, described at page 493. The principal additions made by Kent, for George I., were the Cupola Room and the Great Staircase ; the latter painted with groups of portraits from the Court, Yeomen of the Guard, pages, a Quaker, two Turks in the suite of George I., and Peter the Wild Boy. George II. and Queen Caroline passed most of their time here; and during the King’s absence on the Continent, the Queen held at Kensington a court every Sunday. In this palace died Queen Mary and King William ; Queen Anne and the Prince Consort ; and George II.

The Great Staircase, of black and white marble, and graceful ironwork (the walls painted by Kent with mythological subjects in chiaroscuro, and architectural and sculptural decoration), leads to the suite of twelve State Apartments, some of which are hung with tapestry and have painted ceilings. The Presence Chamber has a chimney-piece richly sculptured by Gibbons with flowers, fruits, and heads ; the ceiling is diapered red, blue, and gold upon a white field, copied by Kent from Herculaneum ; the pier-glass is wreathed with flowers by Jean Baptiste Monnoyer. The King’s Gallery, in the south front, has an elaborately painted allegorical ceiling; and a circular fresco of a Madonna, after Raphael. The Cube Room is forty feet in height, and contains gilded statues and busts ; and a marble bas-relief of a Roman marriage, by Rysbraeck. The King’s Great Drawing-room was hung with the then new paper, in imitation of the old velvet flock. The Queen’s Gallery in the rear of the eastern front, continued northwards, has above the doorway the monogram of William and Mary • and the pediment is enriched with fruits and flowers in high relief and wholly detached, probably carved by Gibbons. The Green Closet was the private closet of William III., and contained his writing-table and escritoire ; and the Patchwork Closet had its walls and chairs covered with tapestry worked by Queen Mary.

During the reign of George III. the palace was forsaken by the sovereign ; towards its close, a suite of rooms was fitted up for the Princess of Wales, and her aged mother the Duchess of Brunswick. The lower south-eastern apartments beneath the King’s Gallery were occupied by the late Duke of Kent : here, May 24, 1819, was born Queen Victoria ; christened here on June 24th following ; and on June 20, 1837, her Majesty held here her first Council, which has been admirably painted by Wilkie.

At Kensington Palace the Princess Victoria received the intelligence of the death of William IV., as described in the Diaries of a Lady qf Quality : ” June, 1837. On the 20th, at 2 a.m., the scene closed, and in a very short time, the Archbishop of Canterbury and Lord Conyngham, the Chamberlain, set out to announce the event to their young Sovereign. They reached Kensington Palace at about five; they knocked, they rang, they thumped lor a considerable time before they could rouse the porter at the gates ; they were again kept waiting in the courtyard, then turned into one of the lower rooms, where they seemed forgotten by everybody. They rang the bell, desired that the attendant of the Princess Victoria might be sent to inform H.R.H. that they requested an audience on business of importance.

After another delay, and another ringing to inquire the cause, the attendant was summoned, who stated that the Princess was in such a sweet sleep she could not venture to disturb her. Then they said, ’ We are come to the Queen on business of State, and even her sleep must give way to that.’ It did : and to prove that she did not keep them waiting, in a few minutes she came into the room in a loose white nightgown and shawl, her nightcap thrown off, and her hair falling upon her shoulders — her feet in slippers, tears in her eyes, but perfectly collected and dignified.

” The first act of the reign was of course the summoning of the Council, and most of the summonses were not received till after the early hour fixed for its meeting. The Queen was, upon the opening of the doors, found sitting at the head of the table. She received first the homage of the Duke of Cumberland, who, I suppose, was not King of Hanover when he knelt to her; the Duke of Sussex rose to perform the same ceremony, but the Queen, with admirable grace, stood up, and, preventing him from kneeling, kissed him on the forehead. The crowd was so great, the arrangements were so ill-made, that my brothers told me the scene of swearing allegiance to their young Sovereign was more like that of the bidding at an auction than anything else.”

ivc David Wilkie has painted the scene — but with a difference.

The south wing of the older part of the palace was occupied by the late Duke of Sussex, who died here April 21, 1843.

Here the Duke of Sussex, during 25 years, collected the celebrated Mbliotheca Sussexiana, numbering nearly 50,000 printed books and MSS., purchased volume by volume, at the sacrifice of many an object of princely luxury and indulgence. The collection included nearly 300 Theological MSS. of the tenth, twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries ; besides about 500 early printed books relating to the Holy Scriptures. Among the rarities were 48 Hebrew MSS., some rolled ; a richly illuminated Hebrew and Chaldaic Pentateuch, thirteenth century ; a Greek New Testament, thirteenth, century, illuminated ; 16 copies of the Vulgate, on vellum, two with 100 miniatures in gold and colours ; a splendidly illuminated Psalter, tenth century ; missals, breviaries, hours, offices, See. ; La Bible Moralisee (fifteenth century) ; Historia del Vecchio Testamento, with 519 miniatures of the school of Giotto ; several copies of the Koran, including that found by the conquerors of Seringapatam in the library of Tippoo Sultan, with his spectacles between the leaves, as if the perusal of it had been one of the latest acts of Tippoo’s life; Armenian copy of the Gospels, thirteenth century ; MSS. in the Pali, Burman, Cingalese, &e. In the printed books were all the celebrated Polyglots, in fine condition ; 74 editions of the Hebrew Bible ; 17 Hebrew-Samaritan and Hebrew Pentateuchs (Bomberg editions), and the Great Rabbinical Bible, magnificent specimens of Hebrew printing ; Greek Bibles, of precious value; Latin Bibles, 200 editions; Bibles in other languages, 1200 editions. In the Divinity classes were, the first Armenian, the first Irish, the first Sclavonic, the first German, and the first Reformed editions of Luther; the first English Bible, by Coverdale; the first Greek Bible^ or Cranmer’s, &c. ; besides Classics, Lexicography, Chronicles, Law, and Parliamentary Histories, of immense extent. The theological collection filled an apartment 100 feet in length; and here, seated in a curtained chair, the Duke passed the life of a toil-worn student. In these rooms His Royal Highness gave his conversasioni as President of the Royal Society.

In Kensington Palace was formerly deposited the greater part of the royal collection of paintings, commenced by Henry VIII. ; and removed here by William III., as appears from a catalogue flaken in 1700, and now in the British Museum. The collection was much augmented by Queen Caroline, but after the death of George II., several of the finest pictures were removed to Windsor and elsewhere. In 1818, however, here were more than 600 pictures, which were catalogued by B. West, P.R.A. Few now remain : but in the southern apartments is a collection of Byzantine, early Italian,
German, and Flemish paintings, formerly the property of Prince Louis D’Ottingen Wallerstein, and purchased by the late Prince Consort. The majority of these 102 pictures are curious specimens of sacred art, — triptychs, altar-pieces, and other works of primitive design and elaborate antiquity.

The Green, westward of the Palace, and called in ancient records ” the Moor,” was the military parade when the Court resided here, and the royal standard was hoisted daily. Here are barracks for foot-soldiers, who mount guard at the Palace. Northward of the Palace were the kitchen-gardens, about 20 acres, now Queen’s-road, with two lines of elegant villas. (See Kensington Gardens,* pp. 493, 494).

Carlton House occupied that portion of Waterloo-place which is south of Pall Mall. It was originally built for Lord Carlton, in 1709 : bequeathed by him to his nephew, Lord Burl igton, the architect, and purchased, in 1732, by Frederick Prince of Wales, father of G«x>rge III. : here the Princess of Wales died in 1772. The house was of red brick. The name of the original architect, in the time of Queen Anne, is not known, but the celebrated landscape gardener-architect Kent laid out the grounds when the property was in Lord Burlington’s hands, between 1725 and 1732. These
gardens extended along the south side of Pall-mall, and are said to have been in imitation of Pope’s garden at Twickenham, with numerous bowers, grottoes, and terminal busts. Mr. Cunningham speaks of an engraving of them by Woollett. When the property was assigned in 1783 as the residence of the Prince of Wales — afterwards George IV. — great alterations were made in Carlton House, under Holland, the Prince’s architect.

Horace Walpole writes, Sept. 17, 1785 : “We went to see the Prince’s new palace in Pall Mall, and were charmed. It will be the most perfect in Europe. There is an august simplicity that astonished me. You cannot call it magnificent ; it is the taste and propriety that strike. Every ornament is at a proper distance, and not one too large, but all delicate and new, with more freedom and variety than Greek ornaments carving, stucco, and ornaments, are executed ; but whence the money is to come, I conceive not ; all the tin mines in Cornwall could not pay a quarter. How sick one shall be after this chaste palace of Mr. Adam’s gingerbread and sippets of embroidery !” — Letters; Cunningham’s edit. vol. ix. p. 13.

The main front of the house had a central portico, was hexastyle, and of the Corinthian order. The hall was square on the plan, and on each side was an opening, or a recess, with a segmental coffered arch, enclosing two Ionic columns and entablature, the last supporting vases and chimeras. A landing of the staircase was octagonal in plan, with well-hole and lantern-light ; and the angles of the ceiling there, were formed by fan-shaped springers. One of the dining-rooms was circular, with columns and recesses, somewhat after the arrangement of those features in the Pantheon at Rome.

At the opposite sides of this room were large mirrors. The general decoration of the house was of pseudo-classical character. Trophies were freely introduced ; and panels, even those of doors, were enriched with lyres, wreaths, and festoons. One common introduction was that of terminal figures. Generally, the ceilings were painted to represent the sky and clouds. In the furniture gilding was used to a great extent. In many of the rooms, the furniture was entirely gilt, with crimson or crimson and black cushions. The most important point for notice as to the interior of Carlton House, is the absence of the Louis Quinze style. The Carlton House chair and table are remembered. Among the rooms were the Crimson Drawing-room ; the Blue Velvet-room ; the Golden Drawing-room, or Corinthian-room : the Gothic Dining-room. The conservatory, said to be in ” imitation of a cathedral, or Henry VII.’s chapel,” but equally suggestive of Eoslyn Chapel : the ribs of the fan-tracery were filled in with stained glass.

Here was a remarkably fine collection of arms and costumes, including two swords of Charles I. ; swords of Columbus and Marlborough, and a couteau-de-ehasse used by Charles XII. of Sweden, which relics are now in the North Corridor at Windsor Castle. Carlton House was sumptuously furnished for the Prince’s ill-starred marriage in 1795 : here, Jan. 7, 1796, was born the Princess, baptized Feb. 11, Charlotte-Augusta ; and on May 2, 1816, married here to Leopold, subsequently King of the Belgians.

The ceremonial of conferring the Kegency was enacted at Carlton House with great

pomp, Feb. 5, 1811, and on June 19 following, the Prince Regent gave here a superb

supper to 2000 guests ; a stream with gold and silver fish flowing through a marble

canal down the centre table.

Upon the screen of Ionic columns fronting Pall Mall, Bonomi wrote the following epigram :

” Care colonne, che fatti qua ?

Non sapiamo, in verita : ”

Thus anglicized by Prince Hoare:

” Dear little columns, all in a row,

What do you do there?

Indeed we don’t know.”

Sheridan’s allusion to these columns was not much more complimentary. About the time that the

Duke of York took possession of Melbourne House, now Dover House, near the Horse-Guards, of which

the most remarkable feature is the cupola in front, some discussions were raised in Parliament about

the debts of the Duke and his royal brother at Carlton House. The virtuous indignation of the Oppo-

sition was tremendous : and some of their remarks having been reported to Sheridan when he entered

the House of Commons, ” I wonder,” said he, ” what amount of punishment would satisfy some people !

Has not the one got into the Eoundhouse, and the other into the Pillory ?” This is another version

of the anecdote related at page 549.

In 1827, Carlton House was removed : the columns of the portico (adapted from the

Temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome) being subsequently used in the portico of the

National Gallery, and the ornamental interior details (as marble mantel-pieces, friezes,

columns, &c.) transferred to Buckingham Palace. The colonnade pillars are employed in

one of the orangeries in Kew Gardens. Thus disappeared Carlton House. Upon the site of

the gardens have been built the York Column and Carlton House-terrace: the balustrades

of the latter originally extended between the two ranges of houses ; but were removed

to form the present entrance into St. James’s Park, by command of William IV., very

soon after his accession. Upon the site of the courtyard and part of Carlton House

are the United Service and Athenaeum Clubhouses, and the intervening area facing

Waterloo-place. The Riding-house and Stables had a semicircular conch-headed recess,

intersected by an entablature ; the Doric columns supporting the latter, being without

bases, and fluted, but Roman in character.

PALL MALL.

* A FINE spacious street between the Haymarket N.E., and St. James’s-street S.W.”

-L- (Hatton, 1708), and one-third of a mile in length, is named from the French

game of paille-rnaille having been played there. The space between St. James’s

House and Charing Cross, about 1560, appears to have been fields, with three or four

houses at the east end of the present Pall Mall, and opposite a small church, the name /

/y

636 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

of which Pennant could not discover. Down this road came Sir Thomas Wyat, ” on

foot, hard by the Court-gate of St. James’s, with four or five auncients, his men

inarching in good way,” and thus proceeded to Charing Cross and Whitehall.

At the east end of Pall Mall, in the reign of Henry VI., stood a group of monastic buildings called

“the Rookery,” belonging to the monks of Westminster : here resided Erasmus, by favour of Henry VIII.

and the interest of Anne Boleyn. When these buildings were demolished at the Reformation, tradition

relates there was found a secret smithy, which had been erected by order of Henry VI. for the practice

of alchemy. The premises were subsequently used as an inn, and upon the site was built the first

Carlton House.

” The Mall,” in St. James’s-park, not many years since, was commonly regarded as

the place where the game of ” Paille-maille ” was first played in England, and whence

the Park-avenue was said to have taken its name. Strutt calls it ” the game of Mall,”

and thus favours the above notion j but, in Hatton’s ” spacious street” we have preserved

the entire name of the game. Charles II. caused the Mall in the Park to be made for

playing the game, which was a fashionable amusement in his reign ; but it Was intro-

duced into England much earlier, and was not played in the Park until the original alley

had grown into a street, and taken the name of the game itself. Blount, in his Glosso-

graphy, edit. 1670, says, ” this game was heretofore used in the long alley near St. James’s,

and vulgarly called Pall Mall.” The name, however, occurs much earlier ; for King

James I., in his JBasilicon Doron, recommends “Palle Malle” as a field-game for the

use of his eldest son, Prince Henry j proving the Mall in the present street to have

existed as early as the reign of the above King. In a crown survey, referred to by

Mr. Cunningham, we find “Pell Mell Close,” partly planted with apple-trees (Appletree-

yard, St. James’s-square, still exists) : and in the above document are also named 140

elm-trees, standing on both sides of Pall Mall walk ; Faithorne’s plan, 1658, shows

a row of trees on the north side ; and the name of Pall Mall, as a street, occurs in the

rate-books of St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields under the year 1656. The name is derived

from Pallet, a ball ; and Maglia, a mallet ; the implements with which the game was

played. In 1854 were found in the roof of the house of Mr. B. L. Vulliamy, No. 68,

Pall Mall, a box containing four pairs of the mailes, or mallets, and one ball, such as

were formerly used for playing the game upon the site of the above house. Each

maile is 4 feet in length, and is made of lance-wood ; the head is slightly curved, and

measures outwardly 5^ inches, the inner curve being 4^ inches, the diameter of the

maile-ends is 2 inches, each shod with a thin iron hoop : the handle, which is very

elastic, is bound with white leather to the breadth of two hands, and terminated with

a collar of jagged leather. The ball, is of box wood, 2 inches in diameter. A pair

of mailes and a ball are now in the British Museum. Mr. Vulliamy was born in the

above house, and died here in January, 1854, aged 74 years ; and here his family lived

before him for 130 years, thus carrying us beyond the date of Pepys seeing Paille

Maille first played. The Vulliamys were clockmakers to the Sovereign in five reigns.

B. L. Vulliamy, the scientific horologist, who died as above, bequeathed his large and

very valuable collection of works on Horology to the Institution of Civil Engineers.

At the house of his very old friend, Mr. Vulliamy, died Professor Bigaud, the astro-

nomer, March 16, 1839.

In the reign of Charles II. Pall Mall was occasionally called Catharine-street.

Faithorne’s Plan, 1658, shows a row of trees on the north side. Pepys mentions, in

1660, an old tavern, ” Wood’s at the Pell Mell.” In 1662 was fought here the duel

between Mr. Jermyn and Capt. Thomas Howard, the latter wearing mail under his

dress. The London Gazette of 1685 has an advertisement address, ” the Sugar-loaf in

the Pall Mall.” Dr. Sydenham died here, in 1689, at his house next The Golden

Pestle and Mortar ; which sign remained to our day, on the north side of the street.

Another olden sign, The Golden Ball, lasted to our time; but The Golden Door and

The Barber’s Pole disappeared. Of Sydenham’s residence here, Cunningham relates

an anecdote told by Mr. Fox to Mr. Bogers — that Sydenham was sitting at his window,

looking on the Mall, with his pipe in his mouth, and a silver tankard before him, when

a fellow made a snatch at the tankard and ran off with it. Nor was he overtaken

(said Fox) before he got among the bushes in Bond-street, where they lost him.

At the corner of St. Alban’s-street bved Gilray, the caricaturist, when assistant to

PALL MALL. 637

Holland, the printseller. In a house opposite Market-lane, the ” Royal Academy of

Art” met, from the time of their obtaining the patronage of George III. until their

removal to Somerset House, in 1771.

Among the coffee-houses of Pall Mall was the Smyrna, of the days of the Tatler and

Spectator ; where subscriptions were taken in by Thomson for publishing his Seasons,

&c. At the Star and Garter Tavern, at a meeting of the Nottinghamshire Club,

Jan. 26, 1765, arose the dispute between Lord Byron and his relation and neighbour

Mr. Chaworth, as to which had the most game on his estates : they fought with swords

across the dining-table, by the light of one tallow candle, when Mr. Chaworth was run

through the body, anddied next day. Lord Byron was tried before his peers in Westminster

Hall, and found guilty of manslaughter; but claiming the benefit of the statute of

Edward VI., he was discharged on payment of his fees. In the same house (the Star

and Garter), Winsor made his gas-lighting experiments ; he lighted the street wall in

1807. (See Gas-iighting, p. 371.) In the old Star and Garter house was exhibited,

in 1815, the Waterloo Museum of portraits, battle-scenes, and arms. At the Queen’s

Arms Tavern, Lord Mohun supped with his second on the two nights preceding his fatal

duel with the Duke of Hamilton, in Hyde Park. At the King’s Arms met the Liberty

or Rump-steak Club of Peers, in opposition to Sir Robert Walpole. Almack’s

Gaming Club was on the site of No. 50, and is described at page 240.

Nearly opposite the south-west corner of the Opera-house, ” Thomas Thynne, Esq.,

on Sunday (Feb. 12, 1681), was barbarously shot with a muskatoon in his coach, and

died next day.” The instigator was Count Konigsmarck, in hopes of gaining Lady

Elizabeth Ogle, the rich heiress, to whom Thynne was either married or contracted.

Three of Thynne’s ruffians were tried at the Old Bailey, found guilty, and hanged at

the spot whereon the murder was committed. Borosky, ” who did the murther,” was

hung in chains beyond Mile End Town : the Count was tried as an accessory, but was

acquitted. The assassination is sculptured upon Thynne’s monument in Westminster

Abbey. Pall Mall had early its notable sights and amusements. In 1701 were shown

here models of William the Third’s Palaces at Loo and Hundstaerdike, ” brought over

by outlandish men,” with Curiosities disposed of ” on public raffling-days.” In 1733,

” a holland smock, a cap, checked stockings, and laced shoes,” were run for by four

women in the afternoon, in Pall Mall ; and one of its residents, the High Constable of

Westminster, gave a prize laced hat to be run for by five men, which created so much

riot and mischief that the magistrates ” issued precepts to prevent future runs to the

very man most active in promoting them.” Here lodged George Psalmanazer, when

he passed for an islander of Formosa, and invented a language which baffled the

philologists of Europe. Here lived Joseph Clark, the posture-master, celebrated for per-

sonating deformities : now deceiving, by feigned dislocated vertebrae, the great surgeon,

Moulins ; then perplexing a tailor’s measure with counterfeit humps and high shoulders.

At the Chinese Gallery was exhibited, in 1825, “the Living Skeleton” (Anatomie

Vivante), Claude Ambroise Seurat, a native of Troyes, in Champagne, 28 years old.

His health was good, but his skin resembled parchment, and his ribs could be counted,

and handled like pieces of cane : he was shown nude, except about the loins ; the arm,

from the shoulder to the elbow, was like an ivory German flute ; the legs were straight,

and the feet well formed. (See Hone’s Every-day Boole.) At No. 59, Salter spent

five years in painting his great picture of the Waterloo Banquet at Apsley House,

engraved for Alderman Moon. At No. 121, Campanari exhibited his Etruscan and

Greek Antiquities, in rooms fitted up as the Chambers of Tombs. In apartments at

No. 120, Captain Marryat wrote his Poor Jack.

Nell Gwyn lived in 1670, “on the east end, north side;” and from 1671 to her

death, in 1687, in a house on the south side, with a garden towards the Park; and

it was upon a mount in this garden that ” the impudent comedian ” stood, to hold

her familiar discourse with Charles II., who stood ” on y e green walk ” under the

wall. The scene, as described by Evelyn, has been cleverly painted by Mr. E. M.

Ward, R.A. The site of Nell’s house is now occupied by No. 79, Society for the

Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts.

” Nelly at first had only a lease of the house, which as soon as she discovered, she returned the con-

veyance to the King, with a remark characteristic of her wit, and of the monarch to whom it was addressed. The King enjoyed the joke, and perhaps admitted its truth ; so the house in Pall Mall was

conveyed free to Nell and her representatives for ever. The truth of the story is confirmed by the

fact, that the house which occupies the site of the one in which she lived, now No. 79, is the only free-

hold on the south or Park side of Pall Mall.” (Cunning-ham’s Nell Gtcyn, p. 115.) Mr. Cunningham

adds : ” No entry of the grant is to be found in the Land Revenue Record Office.”

A relic of Nell Gwyn, her looking-glass, is preserved in the Visitors’ Dining-room of the Army and

Navy Club-house, in” Pall Mall. The glass was bought with Lord De Mauley’s house, which was

taken down for the Club-house site.

Eastward of Nell Gwyn’s lived Sir William Temple, and the Hon. Robert Boyle, and

Bubb Dodington; and on the south side, Doctor Barrow, and Lady Southesk, the

celebrated Countess of De Grammont’s Memoirs. In Marlborough House lived the

great Duke of Marborough (see p. 552) ; and in a house in front of the mansion

Sir Robert Walpole. Of Schomberg House, Nos. 81 and 82, built for the great Duke

of Schomberg, the centre and the west wing remain. (See p. 449.)

Dr. Graham’s ” Goddess of Health,” who figured here, was a lady named Prescott.

Mr. Cosway, R.A., the next tenant of Schomberg House, was the fashionable miniature-

painter of his day ; and here his accomplished wife, Maria Cosway (also a painter), gave

her musical parties, the Prince of Wales being a frequent visitor. Mrs. Cosway made

a pilgrimage to Loretto, which she had vowed to do if blessed with a living child.

(Notes and Queries, No. 147.) At Schomberg House was first concocted the dramatic

scheme of ” The Beggars’ Opera.”

In the Mall, in 1689, resided ” the Lady Griffin, who was seized for having treason-

able letters put into false bottoms of two large brandy-bottles, in the first year of his

majesty’s reign.” De Foe characterizes Pall Mall, in 1703, as ” the ordinary residence

of all strangers, because of its vicinity to the Queen’s palace, the Park, the Parliament-

house, the theatres, and the chocolate and coffee bouses, where the best company fre-

quent.” Gay thus celebrates the modish street in his time :

” bear me to the paths of fair Pall Mall !

Safe are thy pavements, grateful is thy smell !

At distance rolls the gilded coach,

Nor sturdy carmen on thy walks encroach ;

No lets would bar thy ways were chairs deny’d,

The soft supports of laziness and pride ;

Shops breathe perfumes, through sashes ribbons glow,

The mutual arms of ladies and the beau.” — Trieia, book ii.

Strype describes Pall Mall as ” a fine long street,” with garden-houses on the

south side, many with raised mounts, and prospects of the King’s garden and St.

James’s Park. In gay bachelor’s chambers in Pall Mall lived Beau Fielding, Steele’s

” Orlando the Fair ;” here he was married to a supposed lady of fortune, brought to

him in a mourning-coach and widow’s weeds, which led to his trial for bigamy. Field-

ing’s namesake places Nightingale and Tom Jones in Pall Mall, when they leave the

lodgings of Mrs. Miller in Bond-street. Laetitia Pilkington, for a short time, kept

here a pamphlet and print shop. At the sign of ” Tulip’s Head,” Robert Dodsley,

formerly a footman, with the profits of a volume of his poems and a comedy (published

through the kindness of Pope), opened a shop in 1735 ; and here he published his

Annual Register, Economy of Human Life, and Sterne’s Tristram Shandy. Dodsley

retired in 1759 ; but his brother James, his partner, continued the business until his

death in 1797; he is buried in St. James’s Church, Piccadilly. ” Tully’s Head ” was

the resort of Pope, Chesterfield, Lyttleton, Shenstone, Johnson, and Glover ; Horace

Walpole, the Wartons, and Edmund Burke. Walpole writes of 1786, a period when

robberies in capitals appear to have been a sort of fashion — ” on Jan. 7, half an hour

after eight, the mail from France was robbed in Pall Mall — yes, in the great thorough-

fare of London, and within call of the guard at the palace. The chaise had stopped,

the harness was cut, and the portmanteau was taken out of the chaise itself. What

think you of banditti in the heart of such a capital ?”

At No. 90 died, in 1849, Mr. W. J. Denison, in his 80th year, bequeathing 2″ target=”_top”> mil-

lions sterling : he sat in Parliament 31 years for Surrey. No. 91, Buckingham House,

was built by Soane for the Marquis of Buckingham, 1790-4. At No. 100 lived Mr.

Angerstein, whose pictures were bought for the nation, and were shown here before

their removal to the National Gallery ; and at No. 50 died Mr. Robert Vernon, who

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WHOLE SECTION GARBLED HERE
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PANTHEON, OXFORD- STREET. 639 . bequeathed to the country his pictures of the English School, which were for a short time exhibited here. No. 50 was built by Alderman Boydell as the Shakspeare Gallery, for his pictures illustrative of Shakspeare, painted by West, Reynolds, Northcote, and others, and which were dispersed by lottery after being engraved. In 1806 the gallery was pur- chased by a committee of noblemen and gentlemen, by whom was established here the British Institution, for the exhibition of the works of Living Artists in the spring, and Old Masters in the autumn. Here was exhibited West’s large picture (9 ft. by 14 ft.) of Christ healing the Sick in the Temple ; bought by the British Institution for 300O guineas, and presented to the National Gallery. Upon the house-front is a large bas- relief of Shakspeare attended by Poetry and Painting, for which Alderman Boydell paid Banks, the sculptor, 500 guineas ; and in the hall is Banks’s colossal Mourning Achilles, a noble work of pathos and heroic beauty. No. 53 is the House of the New Society of Painters in Water-colours. No. 86, the War Office, was originally built for Edward Duke of York, brother of George III., and was subsequently a Subscription Club-house, called the Albion Hotel; this being the first modern club-mansion in Pall Mall, which had its “houses for clubbing” in Pepys’s time. In the court-yard of the War Office is the bronze statue of Lord Herbert of Lea, Secretary of State for War : sculptor, Foley, R. A. ; erected by public subscription, June 1, 1867. (See Statues.) After the removal of Carlton House, in 1827, the erection of the present splendid club-houses in Pall Mall was com- menced with the Senior United Service and the Athenaeum. (See Club Houses, pp. 241 and 258.) Near Warwick-street stood Warwick House, whence the Princess Charlotte, in 1814, escaped in a hackney-coach to the house of her mother, as vividly described by Lord Brougham in the Edinburgh Bevieio. In Warwick-street is a public-house with the old sign of The Two Chairmen, recalling the sedans of Pall Mall : ” Who the footman’s arrogance can quell, Whose flambeau gilds the sashes of Pall Mall, When in long rank a train of torches flame, ’ ’ To light the midnight visits of the dame.”— Gay’s Trivia, book iii. Here, in 1731, were found, in digging the great sewer of Pall Mall, the fossil teeth of an elephant, 28 feet underground : they are preserved in the Museum of the Society of Antiquaries, Somerset House. Pali Mall East, on the north side of Cockspur-street, contains the University Club-house, described at p. 259 ; and the College of Physicians, described at p. 277. Here also is M. C. Wyatt’s equestrian statue of George III. (see Statues). At No. 4 (Harding, Lepard, and Co.) were exhibited, in 1831, the exquisite water-colour copies made by Hilton and Derby for Lodge’s Portraits of Illustrious Personages, from pictures by Titian, Holbein, Vandyke, Mark Gerard, Zucchero, Jansen, Retel,. Walker, Van Somer, Honthorst, Lely, Ant. More, Mytens, Kneller, Reynolds, Dahl, Jarvis, R.iley, Rubens, Fleck, Juan de Pantoxa, Mirevelt, and P. Oliver. No. 5 is- the Gallery of the Society of Painters in Water-colours. At No. 1, Dorset-place, lived John Thelwall, the classic elocutionist and dramatic lecturer, who late in life left political agitation for the calm pursuits of literature. He was worthily characterized by Coleridge as ” intrepid, eloquent, and honest ; perhaps the only acting democrat that is honest.” Between Whitcomb-street and Charing Cross was formerly Hedge- lane, 300 yards in length ; in the days of Charles I. a lane through the fields, and bordered with hedges. At a low tavern in Suffolk-street, on January 30, 1735, sprung the drunken frolic, out of which arose ” the Calves’ Head Club” (see p. 573). PANTHEON, OXFORD- STREET, ABOUT one-third of a mile on the left from St. Giles’s, was originally built by James Wyatt for musical promenades, and was opened January 27, 1772, when 2000 persons of rank and fashion were present. It contained fourteen rooms, exclusive of the rotunda : the latter had double colonnades, ornamented with Grecian reliefs ; and in niches at the base of the dome were statues of the heathen deities, Britannia, and George III. and Queen Charlotte. Walpole described it as ” the new winter Ranelagh,” with pillars of artificial giallo antico, and with ceilings and panels painted 640 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON. from Raphael’s loggias in the Vatican. In the first winter here were assemblies with- out music or dancing ; and the building was exhibited at 5*. each person ! In 1783, Delpini, the clown, got up a masquerade here, to celebrate the Prince of Wales’s attain- ing his majority ; tickets three guineas each. Next year Garrick was present at a masquerade here as King of the Gipsies. Gibbon was also a frequenter of its gay bachelors’ masque fetes. In 1784, also, the ” Commemoration of Handel” was per- formed here, when the King, Queen, and Royal Family were present. The Pantheon was next converted into a theatre for the Italian Opera company in 1791, the or- chestra including Giardini, La Motte, Cramer, Fischer, Crosdil, and Cervetto. The Pantheon was burnt down January 14, 1792 : Turner painted the conflagra- tion, which he exhibited at the Royal Academy two years after he became an exhibitor. The loss by the fire was stated at 80,00(M. The Pantheon was rebuilt in 1795, ” target=”_top”> Wyatt’s entrance-front in Oxford-street and in Poland-street being retained. It was then let as a theatre, and for exhibitions, lectures, and music. The theatre was reconstructed in 1812, when Miss Stephens (subsequently Countess of Essex), first appeared in London here as a concert-singer ; and first appeared on the stage, at Covent Garden Theatre, in 1813. In 1814 a patent was sought from Parliament to open the Pantheon with the regular drama ; but the application failed. In 1832 the property was sold for 16,O0(M. : the premises are freehold, except the Oxford-street front, which is leasehold. In 1835 the premises were remodelled by Sydney Smirke, A.R.A., and opened as a Bazaar. (See p. 41.) The building was, in 1867, closed, to be converted into a Wine Dep&t. Spa Fields Chapel, in Clerkenwell, was originally built in imitation of the West-end Pantheon.

PANCRAS, ST.,

ORIGINALLY a solitary village ” in the fields,” north of London, and one mile from Holborn Bars, is the most extensive parish in Middlesex, being 18 miles in circumference. It is a prebendal manor, and was included in the land granted by Ethelbert to St. Paul’s Cathedral about 603 ; it was a parish before the Conquest, and is called St. Pancras in Domesday. The history of its church, which Norden thought * not to yield in antiquitie to Paules in London,” is narrated at pp. 193-4. The prebendary of St. Pancras was anciently confessor to the Bishop of London : in the list are Lancelot Andrewes, Bishop of Winchester; Dr. Sherlock, and Archdeacon Paley. Lysons supposes it to have included the prebendal manor of Kentish Town, or Cantelows,* which now constitutes a stall in St. Paul’s Cathedral. The church has about 70 acres of land attached to it, which were demised in 1641 at 101. reserved rent ; and being subsequently leased to Mr. William Agar, are now the site of Agar Town. In Domesday, Walter, a canon of St. Paul’s, holds one hide at Pancras, which is supposed to form the freehold estate of Lord Sotners, on which Somers Town is built.

St. Pancras’ parish contained, in 1251, only 40 houses; in 1503 the church stood ” all alone,” and in 1745 only 3 houses had been built near it. In 1766 the population was not 600; in 1801, 36,000;

Houses. Inhabitants.

1821 9,405 71,838

1841 15,658 129,969

1851 18,584 166,596

1861 21,928 198,882

A return shows that the single parish of St. Pancras was assessed in 1862, to the property tax under Schedule A, the schedule for the annual value of land (including the houses built upon it, the railways, &c), at 3,798,521£. This is the most populous parish in the metropolis : it includes one-third of the hamlet of Highgate, with the hamlets of Kentish-town, Battle-bridge, Camden Town, Somers Town, to the foot of Gray’s-Inn-lane : also part of a house in Queen-square ” (Lysons), all Tottenham-court-road, and the rtreets west of Cleveland-street and Rathbone-place.

Stukeley affirmed tLe site of the old church to have been occupied by a Roman encampment (Caesar’s), of which he has published a plan (Itinerarium Curiosutn, 1758) ; and the neighbouring Brill of Somers Town Stukeley traces to a contraction of Bury * Anciently Kentcsstoune, where William Bruges, Garter King-at-arms in the reign of Henry V., had a country-house, at which he entertained the Emperor Sigismund.

or Burgh Hill, a Saxon name for a fortified place on an elevated site ; following Camden in his illustration of the village of Brill in Buckinghamshire.

At Battle-bridge, in 1842, was discovered a Roman inscription attesting the great battle between the Britons under Boadicea, and the Romans under Suetonius Paulinus, to have been fought on this spot.

The inscription hears distinctly the letters leg. xx. (the twentieth legion), one of the four which

came into Britain in the reign of Claudius ; and the vexillation of which was in the army of Suetonius

Paulinus, when he made that victorious stand in a fortified pass, with a forest in his rear, against the

insurgent Britons. The position is described by Tacitus. On the high ground above Battle-bridge are

vestiges of Roman works ; and the tract of land to the north was formerly a forest. The veracity of the

following passage of the historian is therefore fully confirmed . — “Deligitque locum artis faucibus, et a

tergo silva clausnm ; satis cognito, nihil hostium nisi in fronte, et apertam planitiem esse sine mctu

insidiarum.” He further tells us, that the force of Suetonius was composed of ” quartadecima legio,

cum VPxillariis vicetimanis, et e proximis auxiliares.” {Tacit. Annal. lib. xiv.) So that, almost to the

letter, the place of this memorable engagement seems, by the discovery of the above inscription to be

ascertained.

In Ben Jonson’s play, the Tale of a Tub, the characters move about in the fields

near Pancridge (St. Pancras) ; Totten-court is a mansion in the fields ; a robbery is pre-

tended to be committed ” in the ways over the country ” between Kentish Town and

Hampstead Heath; and a warrant is granted by a ” Marribone” justice.

St. Pancras had formerly its mineral springs, which were much resorted to.

Near the old churchyard, in the yard of a house, is the once celebrated St. Pancras’

Well, slightly cathartic. St. Chad’s Well, in Gray’s-Inn-road, has a similar property ;

and the Hampstead Wells and Walks were given in 1698 to trustees for the benefit of

the poor. The Hampstead Water was formerly sold in flasks in London.

In St. Pancras are the Termini of the two largest Railways in England : the North-

western, Euston-squarej and the Great Northern at King’s Cross, 45 acres. The name of

King’s Cross dates from the accession of George IV., when the streets were commenced

building on the ground known as Battle-bridge, then in ill repute, and subsequently

changed to the royal designation. In a house in Montgomery’s nursery-gardens, the

site of the north side of Euston-square, lived Dr. Wolcot {Peter Pindar), the satirist.

The vicarage was valued at 28£. in 1650 ; it is rated in the King’s books at 91. ; and

at this time is stated at 1700Z. St. Pancras Churches, Old and New, are described at

pp. 193-194. Under the belfry of the old church was interred privately, in a grave

14 feet deep, the body of Earl Ferrers, executed at Tyburn in 1760.

The Cemetery for St. Pancras, 87 acres (being the first extra-mural burial-ground

for the metropolis, by Act 15 and 16 Victoria, cap. 85), was commenced in 1853, on

” Horse-shoe Farm,” in the Finchley-road, about 4J miles from St. Pancras Work-

house, and 2 miles from the extreme northern boundary of the parish. St. Pancras

Workhouse often contains upwards of 1200 persons, equal to the population of a large

village. The excellent Female Charity School in the Hampstead-road dates from 1776.

In the northern part of the parish, between Kentish Town and Haverstock Hill, is Gospel Oak Field,

traditionally said to be the spot where the Gospel was first preached in this kingdom ; the site is inclosed

by a wooden railing containing the boundary stone of St. Pancras and the adjoining parish of St. John’s,

Hampstead. When Wickliffe attended the citation at St. Paul’s Cathedral, he is said to have frequently

preached under this tree; at the Reformation, from under its branches were promulgated the doc-

trines of Protestantism; and here Whitefield preached nearly three centuries later. Some thirty years

after, the tree died ; and when a young tree was planted in its place, it as often was killed. However,

the site was marked; and within memory, it was the practice, when beating the bounds of the parish, to

regale the children, when the Vicar of the parish attended, and offered up prayer. There are seven

churches of St. Pancras in England, another in France, another in Giessen in Hesse Darmstadt ; another,

indeed many, in Italy, one celebrated church in Rome itself. — See The Life and Times of St. Panerat.

By Edward White. 2nd edit. 1856.

Although the Midland Railway has cut through Gospel Oak Field, here are edifices

in keeping with the ancient religious associations of the place. Here is St. Martin’s,

a carefully finished specimen of the Third Pointed, or Perpendicular style ; St. Andrew’s,

in the First Pointed, and somewhat Byzantine ; a Congregational Chapel, of some archi-

tectural character ; and a large Roman Catholic Convent. Here, too, is the Birkbeck

School, built in place of the School removed for the Railway.

PARIS GARDEN,

A PORTION of the manor of that name on the Bankside, and so called from Robert de

Paris, who had a house and grounds there, in the reign of Richard II., and ” who,

T T

642 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

by proclamation ordained that the butchers of London should buy that garden for re-

ceipt of the garbage and entrails of beasts ; to the end the City might not be annoyed

thereby.” — Blount’s GlossograpMa, edit. 1681.

This manor was given to the monastery of Bermondsey in 1113, and Robert de

Paris must have been a lessee under the Abbot of Bermondsey. In 1537, the manor

was conveyed to Henry VIII. j and Queen Elizabeth, in the twentieth year of her

reign, granted the manor in exchange, to Henry Carey, Lord Hunsdon. It was sub-

sequently held by Thomas Cure, saddler to the Queen, and founder of the Almshouses

in Southwark which bear his name ; and lastly by Richard Taverner and William

Angell, citizens. The moated manor-house was called Holland’s Leaguer, from

Shakerly Marmion’s satirical tract on this house and its inmates, entitled ” Holland’s

Leaguer, or a Discourse on the life and actions of Donna Brittannia Hollandia, the

Arch-mistress of the wicked Women of Utopia ” (4to, 1632). It had succeeded the

stews of Bankside as a public brothel, and in the reigns of James I. and Charles I.

was a fashionable resort. A rude wood-cut of the house, with a draw-bridge crossing

the moat, is prefixed to the tract. The site of the house and garden is partly occupied

by the present Holland street, and Pellatt’s Glass-house occupies part of the site of

the Falcon theatre, and is named therefrom. In 1670, the manor of Paris Garden was

constituted the parish of Christchurch, and a church built thereon, rebuilt 1738. In

1867, the Metropolitan Board of Works took a portion of the manor, for which they

paid 500Z. Paris Garden had its theatre, to be described under Theatres.

” There is, or used to be, a ditch or dyke running across Great Surrey-street, Blackfriars-road, but for

some few years past it has been covered or built upon. All buildings thereon are subject to a ground-

rent, payable to the Steward of the Manor of ’ Old Paris Garden,’ and collected half-yearly.” — Note* and

Queries, No. 265, 1854.

PARKS.

THE Parks have been well denominated by an amiable statesman (Windham), ” the

lungs of London ;” for they are essential to the healthful respiration of its inha-

bitants. There are fourteen Royal Parks and Pleasure-grounds in or about London ; the

parks being those of Battersea, Bushy, Greenwich, Hampton Court, Kennington,

Kensington, Regent’s, Richmond, St. James’s, Green, Hyde, and Victoria; and the

pleasure-grounds of Hampton Court and Kew. The grounds of the Hospital and

Military Asylum at Chelsea, with Holyrood Park and Longford River, are also included

under the above heading, the total estimate of charges connected with which amounts,

for the financial year 1867-8, to 125.326Z. Of this sum, 5095Z. are paid to the

Ranger’s departments of Greenwich, Richmond, St. James’s, Green, and Hyde Parks ;

the grounds of the Hospital and Military Asylum at Chelsea costing 1704J. Tho

income derived from the Royal Parks is about 5000J. per annum, and is paid to the

Consolidated Fund.

Albert, or Finsbury Park, equidistant from Regent and Victoria Parks, is to commence at Highbury Crescent, passing along the right side of Holloway and Hornsey roads to the Seven Sisters’-road, and including all the space of fields to the west of Newington Green ; afterwards inclining towards the New River, which it is proposed to cross north of the Horse-shoe, excluding the Junction Railway, and extending to the bottom of Highbury Grove, completing the enclosure of 300 acres.

Battersea Park consisted, prior to its formation, of small Lammas Lands, in lieu of which a Lammas Hall has been erected in Battersea. In 1846, its conversion into a park was decided by Act of Parliament. Before it was fit even to walk upon it was necessary to raise the entire surface. Fortunately, about this time the London Docks (Victoria) Extension were commenced. It was requisite to excavate and remove thence to a distance immense quantities of earth, which were gladly received at Battersea-fields ; and from this and other sources not less than 1,000,000 cubic yards of earth have been deposited on this site. This occupied several years, and the actual formation of the park could not be commenced till 1856 : the drives, walks, and ornamental lake were then laid out and formed; the planting began in 1857. Large quantities of earth were deposited and formed into undulating mounds and banks, and several acres were thus reclaimed along the banks of the river. These deposits of earth were well adapted to the growth of trees and shrubs, which consist of the choicest kinds of both, and this park contains one of the richest collections in or near London. About 200 acres are here appropriated to ornamental and recreative purposes — viz., grass surface, 100 acres; water, 20; and shrubberies, plantations, drives, and walks, 80.

About 34 acres have been prepared for cricket, in match-grounds and practice-ground for schools, and for organized clubs. Other large open spaces are used for the drill and exercises of the troops stationed at Chelsea New Barracks, as also of various Volunteer corps, and the district Police. Portions are set apart for trap-ball, rounders, and other games; and when the cricket season terminates football is commenced.

The lake is an artificial one, and is fed partly from the river Thames and partly by a

steam-engine, fixed for the purpose of supplying the park with water for the lodges,

drinking fountains, roads, flower-beds, &c. The depth of the water is too shallow for

bathing, being only 2^ feet deep. The lake, however, is extensively used for boating.

The peninsula, comprising an area of 5f acres, is laid out in the English landscape

style, combining a series of mounds with gentle slopes, between which are pic-

turesque vistas. Nearly at its centre there is a reservoir, which is excavated below

the level of the neighbouring springs. The water from this self-supplied source is as

clear as crystal ; it is pumped into an elevated tank which holds 20,000 gallons, from

which arc laid service pipes for the supply of the park. A horse-ride has been formed

about 40ft. wide; and the South-eastern portion of the park is appropriated as a

gymnasium and playground.

Here is the Sub-Tropical Garden, nearly 4 acres In extent. Here is a bed of caladimn esculentum,

from the West Indies, with big leaves not to be matched in England. Australian tree ferns throw out

their graceful leaves as luxuriantly as though they were still under glass. The India-rubber plant is

growing in great profusion. So is the Banana and the curious Indian shot plant. Further on we come

to the variegated Croton, and the beautiful scarlet foliage of the Dragon’s-blood tree from South America.

Here is a tropical plant, the Canna limbata, which bravely contends with the rigours of an English winter.

Among many others are — the large-leaved tobacco plant; a new variety of the sugar-cane from Japan;

the coral tree, with its beautiful and suggestive flower; the Dracaena nutans, drooping, combined with

upright leaves; a Southern emblem, the Palmetto palm ; the Date palm; the Rice-paper plant of China;

the Papyrus plant of Egypt, and the veritable Bulrush of the Nile. In another part of the park is a

rosary, the soil of which is well suited to the production of the queen of the English garden.

Chelsea Hospital Grounds, on the northern bank of the Thames, have been relaid

out : the surface has been raised on the south 4£ feet, and elsewhere from 10 to 24 feet,

in which work, some 100,000 cubic yards of stuff have been deposited; an avenue of old

pollard lime-trees, planted some 150 years ago in the centre of the grounds, has been

removed by powerful machines, four or five tons of earth being taken with each tree ; and

the whole of the trees have been formed into two avenues, and the grounds planted with

flowering shrubs. A portion of the grounds occupying the site on which Ranelagh House

formerly stood is devoted to the private use of the inmates of the Hospital, and has been

re-formed and laid out. Here allotments are set apart for the pensioners, consisting of a

square rod each ; and they are so successfully cultivated by some of these men, that as

much as 101. or 111. has been realized on one allotment. This is done chiefly by the

cultivation of the musk plant, of which two and three crops are obtained in a season,

and for which there is an easy sale to hawkers.

Green Park, The, 60 acres in extent, adjoins St. James’s Park on the north, and

extends westward to Hyde Park Corner, the line of communication being by the fine

road Constitution Sill. It was formerly called Little St. James’s Park, and was reduced

in 1767, by George III., to add to the gardens of Buckingham House. At the Peace

Commemoration, in 1814, here was erected a vast Temple of Concord, with allegorical

paintings and illuminations and fireworks. In 1840-41 the entire Park was drained,

and the surface relaid and planted; and the Deputy-Ranger’s Lodge, towards the

north-west corner, was then taken down. At the north-east corner was formerly the

Chelsea Waterworks Reservoir, reconstructed in 1829, 44 feet above Trinity high-

water mark of the Thames, and containing 1,500,000 gallons. The Reservoir has

been filled up. This high ground commands fine views of the Norwood and Wimbledon

hills, and of the roof of the Crystal Palace at Sydenham.

On the cast side of the Park is a line of noble mansions, including Stafford House, Bridgewater House; and Spencer House, with its finial statues, commended by Sir

William Chambers. The gardens of the several houses are leased of the Crown.

Br. King relates, that Charles II. having taken two or three turns one morning in St. James’s Park,

attended only by the Duke of Leeds and Lord Cromarty, walked up Constitution Hill ; and as the king

was crossing the road into Hyde Park, met the Duke of York in his coach, returning from hunting. The

duke alighted to pay his respects to the king, and expressed his surprise to meet his majesty with such

a small attendance, adding that he thought the king exposed himself to some danger. ” No kind of

danger, James; for I am sure no man in England will take away my life to make you king,” was

Charles’s reply.

In Constitution-hill-road, near the Palace, three diabolical attempts have been made

to shoot Queen Victoria : by a lunatic, named Oxford, June 10, 1840 ; by Francis,

another lunatic, May 30, 1842; and by an idiot, named Hamilton, May 19, 1849. On

June 29, 1850, at the upper end of the road, Sir Robert Peel was thrown from his

horse ; he died at his house in Whitehall Gardens, on July 2.

The Arch at the entrance of the road from Hyde Park Corner is a poor adaptation

from the Arch of Titus at Rome, and was originally designed as an entrance to Buckingham

Palace Gardens. It bears the colossal equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington.

The Green Park has been greatly improved, from almost a bare field to a resort of

some picturesqueness and variety. A new horse-ride has been made, from Buckingham

Palace to Stable-yard Gate, St. James’s.

Hyde Park extends from Piccadilly westward to Kensington Gardens, and lies

between the great western and Bayswater roads. It is the site of the ancient manor

of Hyde, which belonged to the monastery of St. Peter, Westminster, until it was con-

veyed to Henry VIII. in 1536, soon after which a keeper of the park is mentioned.

In 1550 the French Ambassador hunted here; and in 1578 the Duke Casimir shot a

doe from amongst 300 other deer in Hyde Park. In 1652 the Park was sold by order

of Parliament, for 17,000Z.; the deer being valued, in addition, at 1651. 6s. 2d.

The park then contained 620 acres, and extended eastward to Park-lane, and on the

west almost to the front of Kensington Palace : it is described in the indenture of sale

as “that impaled ground called Hyde Park;” but, with the exception of Tyburn

meadow, the enclosure for the deer, the old lodge at Hyde Park Corner, and the

Banqueting House, the park was left in a state of nature ; and De Grammont describes it

as a barn-field in the time of Charles II. Ben Jonson mentions its great spring show

of coaches; Brome names its races, horse and foot; and in Shirley’s play of Hyde

Park, 1637, is the scene of a race in the park between an Irish and English footman.

After the sale by Parliament, tolls were levied.

” llth April, 1653. — I went to take the aire in Hide Park, when every coach was made to pay a

shilling, and every horse sixpence, by the sordid fellow (Anthony Deane, of St. Martin’s-in-the-Fields,

Esq.) who had purchas’d it of the State, as they were call’d.” — Evelyn.

The park does not appear to have been thrown open to the public until the time of

Charles I., and then not indiscriminately.

In the Character of England, 1659, it is described as ” a field near the town, which they call Hyde

Park ; the place not unpleasant, and which they use as our course ; but with nothing of that order,

equipage, and splendour; being such an assembly of wretched jades and hackney-coaches, as, next a

regiment of carrmen, there is nothing approaches the resemblance. This parke was, it seems, used by

the late king and nobility for the freshness of the air and the goodly prospect; but it is that which now

(besides all other exercises) they pay for here in England, though to be free in all the world besides;

every coach and horse which enters buying his mouthful and permission of the publicane who has pur-

chased it, for which the entrance is guarded with porters and long staves.”

At the Restoration, Mr. Hamilton was appoined Ranger of the park, which he let

in farms until 1670, when it was enclosed with a wall, and re-stocked with deer.

Refreshments were thus early sold; for 25th April, 1669, Pepys carried his pretty

wife to the lodge, and there in their coach ate a cheesecake, and drank a tankard of

milk. De Grammont describes the promenade as ” the rendezvous of fashion and

beauty. Every one, therefore, who bad either sparkling eyes or a splendid equipage,

constantly repaired thither; and the king (Charles II.) seemed pleased with the place.”

Maying was a favourite custom here : May 1, 1661, Evelyn ” went to Hyde Park to

take the air ; where was his Majesty and an innumerable appearance of gallants and

rich coaches, being now the time of universal festivity and joy.” Even in the Puritan

times, May (1654) ” was more observed by people going a-maying than for divers years past ; and, indeed, much sin committed by wicked meetings, with fiddlers, drunkenness, ribaldry, and the like. Great resort came to Hyde Park, many hundreds of coaches,

and gallants in attire: hut most shameful powdered-hair men, and painted and

spotted women.” A few days after, the Lord Protector and many of his Privy

Council witnessed in Hyde Park “a howling of a great ball by fifty Cornish

gentlemen of one side, and fifty of the other ; one party playing in red caps, and the

other in white. The ball they played withal was silver, and designed for that party

which did win the goal.” Evelyn, in May, 1658, ” went to see a coach-race in Hyde

Park ;” and Pepys, August, 1660, ” To Hyde Park by coach, and saw a fine foot-race

three times round the park.” Here a strange accident happened to Cromwell in 1654 :

“The Duke of Holslein made him (Cromwell) a present of a set of gay Friesland coach-horses; with

which, taking the air in the park, attended only with his secretary, Thurloe, and a guard of Janizaries,

he would needs take the place of the coachman, and not content with their ordinary pace, he lashed

them very furiously. But they, unaccustomed to such a rough driver, ran away in a rage, and stopped

not till they had thrown him out of the box, with which fall his pistol fired in his pocket, though with-

out any hurt to himself; by which he might have been instructed how dangerous it was to meddle with

those things wherein he had no experience.” — Ludlow.

Cromwell was partial to Hyde Park here Syndercombe and Cecill lay wait to

assassinate him, when ” the hinges of Hyde Park gate were filed off, in order to their

escape.” The Ring was, from all time previous to the Restoration till far in the reigns

of the Georges, the fashionable haunt. It was situated to the north of the present

Serpentine, and part of the Ranger’s grounds cover its sitej some of the old trees

remain, with a few of the oaks traditionally said to have been planted by Charles II.

Near the ring was the lodge called the ” Grave Prince Maurice’s Head,” and in later

times the ” Cake house ;” a slight stream ran before it ; and the house, approached by

planks, presented a very picturesque appearance : it is engraved in the Gentleman’s

Magazine for 1801.

Reviews have, for nearly two centuries, been favourite spectacles in Hyde Park. At

the Restoration, during a splendid show, the Lord Mayor received notice that ” Colonel

John Lambert was carried by the park a prisoner into Whitehall.”

Pepys “did stand” at another review in 1661, when Charles II. was present, while “the horse and

foot march by and discharge their guns, to show a French marquisse (for whom this muster was caused)

the goodnesse of our firemen ; which, indeed, was very good, though not without a slip now and then ;

and one broadside close to our coach as we had going out of the parke, even to the nearenesse to be ready

to burn our hairs. Yet methought all these gay men are not the soldiers that must do the king’s business,

it being such as these that lost the old king all he had, and were beat by the most ordinary fellows that

could be.”

The Militia review by George II. in 1759, the Volunteers by George III., and the

encampment of the troops after Lord George Gordon’s Riots in 1780, also belong to

the military shows of Hyde Park. Here George III. inspected the Volunteers on his

birth-day, June 4th, for several years : in 1800 the troops numbered 15,000. In August,

1814, were held in this park the Regent’s Fete and Fair, when a mimic sea-fight was

exhibited on the Serpentine, and fireworks from the wall of Kensington Gardens ; and

here have been held in the present century three ” Coronation Fairs,” and firework

displays. Of sterner quality was the rendezvous of the Commonwealth troops in the

park during the Civil War. Essex and Lambert encamped their forces here ; and

Cromwell reviewed his terrible Ironsides. In 1643 the citizens threw up the line of

fortification drawn round the City and suburbs, drawn by order of Parliament ; and one

of its strongest works, ” Oliver’s Mount,” faced Mount-street, in Park-lane. (See Fob-

tipications, p. 354.) Here was the celebrated ” Mount” Coffee-house.

Hyde Park continued with little alteration, till, in 1705, nearly 30 acres were

added to Kensington Gardens, by Queen Anne ; and nearly 300 acres by Caroline,

Queen of George II. (see Kensington Gaedens, p. 493), by whose order also, in

1730-3, was formed the Serpentine River. The Park has also been reduced by grants

of land, between Hyde Park Corner and Park-lane, for building ; and according to a

survey taken in 1790, its extent was 394 acres 2 roods 38 poles. In 1766, John

Gwynne, the architect, proposed to build in Hyde Park a royal palace for George III. ;

and in 1825, a Member of Parliament published a magnificent design for a palace

near Stanhope Gate.

Permission to ” vend victuals ” in Hyde Park was granted by George II. to a pilot

who saved him from wreck in one of his voyages from visiting his Hanoverian domi-

nions; and it is stated that the pilot’s descendants to this day exercise the privilege.

646 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

At the same time the King gave his deliverer a silver-gilt ring, which bears the arras

of Poland impaled with those of Lithuania, surmounted by a regal crown. This ring

was exhibited to the British Archaeological Association, Feb. 9, 1853.

The Conduits of Hyde Park are described at p. 289. Upon the east side, 70 feet

above Trinity high-water mark of the Thames, was the Chelsea Waterworks Reservoir,

which contained about 1,500,000 gallons : the iron railing and dwarf wall were added

to prevent suicides, which were formerly frequent here. The reservoir has been

emptied, and the site laid out as a sunk garden, with much taste ; here is a classic

drinking fountain ; A. Munro, sculptor. Upon the east side was Walnut-tree Walk,

shaded by two rows of noble walnut-trees, extended to a large circle ; these trees

were cut down about 1800, and the wood was used by Government for the stocks of

soldiers’ muskets.

The colossal statue near the south-east corner of the park, cast by Sir R. Westmacott, K.A., from twelve 24-pounders, weighing upwards of 30 tons, is about 18 feet high, and occupies a granite pedestal, bearing this inscription : ” To Arthur Duke of Wellington, and his brave companions in arms, this statue of Achilles, cast from cannon taken in the battles of Salamanca, Vittoria, Toulouse, and Waterloo, is inscribed by their country women.” On the base is inscribed: ” Placed on this spot on the 18th day of June, 1822, by command of his Majesty George IV.” The figure is copied from one of the antique statues on the Monte Cavallo at Rome, and is most improperly called Achilles ! it has never received its sword ! The cost of this monument, 10,000£., was subscribed by ladies.

Gates. — The principal entrance is at Hyde Park Corner, through a triple-arched

and colonnaded screen, designed by Decimus Burton : eastward is Apsley House, nearly

upon the site of which stood the old lodge of the park. In Park-lane is Stanhope-

gate, opened about 1750; and Grosvenor-gate, in 1724, by subscription of the neigh-

bouring inhabitants. Cumberland-gate, at the west end of Oxford-street, was opened

about 1744-5, at the expense of the inhabitants of Cumberland-place and the neigh-

bourhood : it was a mean brick arch, with side entrances : here took place a disgraceful

contest between the people and the soldiery at the funeral of Queen Caroline, August

15, 1821, when two persons were killed by shots from the Horse-guards on duty. In

1822, the unsightly brick and wooden gate was removed ; and handsome iron gates

were substituted, at the cost of nearly 2000Z., by Mr. Henry Philip Hope, of Norfolk-

street, Park-lane. In 1851 these gates were removed for the marble arch from Buck-

ingham Palace, and placed on each side of it j the cost of removing the arch and re-

building it being 4340?. (See Aeches, p. 21.) In the Bayswater-road is Victoria-

gate : nearly opposite is the handsome terrace, Hyde- Park-gardens. Upon the south

side of the park are the Kensington-gate ; the Prince of Wales’s-gate, near the site of

the Half-way House ; and Albert-gate, Knightsbridge.

Rotten Mow, on the south side of the park, extends about 1^ mile from the lodge

at Hyde Park Corner to the Kensington-gate : it is for saddle-horses, who can gallop

over its fine loose gravel without danger from falling ; and it is crowded with eques-

trians between 5 and 7 p.m., during the high London season. The name Rotten is

traced to rotteran, to muster ; which military origin may refer to the park during the

Civil War ; but the derivation is disputed. Between Rotten-row and the Queen’s

Drive was erected the Building for the Great Exhibition of 1851 :

“But yesterday a naked sod,

The dandies sneered from Rotten-row,

And sauntered o’er it to and fro,

And see ’tis done !

As though ’twere by a wizard’s rod,

A blazing arch ot lucid glass

Leaps like a fountain from the grass,

To meet the sun !

A quiet green but few days since,

With cattle browsing in the shade,

And lo ! long lines of bright arcade

In order raised;

A palace as for fairy Prince,

A rare pavilion, such as man

Saw never since mankind began,

And built and glazed !”

May-day Ode, by W. M. Thackeray : Times, May 1, 1851.

PARKS. 647

The Crystal Palace, as the building was appropriately so named, we believe, by-

Douglas Jerrold, its roof and sides being of glass, was designed by Mr. (subsequently

Sir Joseph) Paxton ; and was constructed by Mr. (subsequently Sir Charles) Fox, and

Mr. Henderson. The ground was broken July 30, 1850 ; the first column was placed

Sept. 26 j and the building was opened May 1, 1851.

It was a vast expansion of a conservatory design, built at Chatsworth by Mr. Paxton, for the flower-

ing of the Victoria Lily. The Crystal Palace was cruciform in plan, with a transept, nave, and side

aisles ; consisting of a framework of wrought and cast-iron, firmly braced together, and based upon a

foundation of concrete. It was built without a single scaffold-pole, a pair of shears and the Derrick crane

being the only machinery used in hoisting the materials. In the plan, every measurement was a mul-

tiple of 8. Thus the columns were all 24 feet high, and 24 feet apart ; and the centre aisle or nave was

72 feet, or 9 times 8. Again, one single area, bounded by 4 columns and their crowning girders, was the

type of the whole building, which was a simple aggregation of so many cubes, in extreme length 1851

feet, corresponding with the year of the Exhibition ; width 408 feet ; with an additional projection on the

north side, 936 feet long by 48 wide. The great avenues ran east and west ; very near the centre crossed

the transept, 72 feet high, and 108 wide. Its roof was semicircular, designed by Mr. (subsequently Sir

Charles) Barry, so as to preserve three fine old elms. The other roofs, designed by Mr. Paxton, were flat.

The entire area of the buildingwas 772,784 square feet, or about 19 acres, nearly seven times as much as

St. Paul’s Cathedral. ” The Alhambra and the Tuileries would not have filled up the eastern and western

nave; the National Gallery would have stood beneath the transept; the palace of Versailles (the largest

in the world) would have extended but a little way beyond the transept; and a dozen metropolitan

churches would have stood erect under its roof of glass.” (AthencBum, No. 1227.) The ground area was

divided into a central nave, four side aisles, and several courts and avenues; and a gallery ran through-

out the building. There were about 3000 columns, nearly 3500 girders, and altogether about 4000 tons

of iron built into the structure. The iron skeleton progressed with the framing and glazing, requiring 200

miles of wooden sash-bars, and 20 miles of Paxton gutters for the roof, which required 17 acres of glass ;

besides which, there were 1500 vertical glazed sashes. Flooring 1,000,000 square feet; total wood-work,

600,000 cubic feet. The hollow cast-iron columns conveyed the rain-fall from the roof. The effective

ventilation was by louvre-boards.

The decoration of the interior, devised by Owen Jones, consisted of the application of the primitive

colours, red, blue, and yellow, upon narrow surfaces : it was charmingly artistic, and was rapidly exe-

cuted by 500 painters. During the months of December and January, upwards of 2000 workmen were

employed throughout the building.

The vast Palace was filled with the World’s Industry : in the western portion were the productions

of the United Kingdom, India, and the Colonies ; and the eastern, those of Foreign Countries. The

value of the whole (except the Koh-i-noor diamond) was 1,781,9292. 11». 4i.

The opening of the Exhibition, on May 1, 1851, was proclaimed by Queen Victoria, accompanied by

Prince Albert, the Prince of Wales, and the Princess Royal. Between May 1 and Oct. 11 the number of

visits paid was 6,063,986 ; mean daily average 43,536. On three successive days there entered 107,815,

109,915, 109,760 persons, who paid respectively 51752., 52312., and 52832. There were counted in the

Palace 93,000 persons at one time. Cost of the building, 176,0302. 13*. 8d. Oct. 15, Jury Awards and

closing ceremonial. The whole building was removed before the close of 1852; and, on Nov. 7, 1853, it

was proposed to place upon the site a memorial of the Exhibition, to include a statue of Prince Albert,

the originator of this display of the Industry of all Nations.

This splendid National Memorial is now (1867) being erected in Hyde Park, as

nearly as may be, at the intersecting point of central lines of the two Great Inter-

national Exhibitions (Hyde Park and South Kensington), originated by the Prince

Consort.

The design by Gilbert Scott, R.A., though in some sense a ” Memorial Cross,”

differs widely in type from the form usually described by that term. It is, in fact, a

vast canopy or shrine, overshadowing a colossal statue of the personage to be comme-

morated, and itself throughout enriched with artistic illustrations of or allusions to

the arts and sciences fostered by the Prince, and the virtues which adorned his cha-

racter. The canopy or shrine which forms the main feature of the Memorial is raised

upon a platform approached on all sides by a vast double flight of steps, and stands

upon a basement or podium rising from this elevated platform to a level of about 12

feet. Upon the angles of this podium stand the four great clusters of granite shafts

that support the canopy, which is itself arched on each side from these massive pillars,

each face being terminated by a gable, and each angle by a lofty pinnacle j while over

all rises &fleche or enriched spire of metal work, surmounted by a gemmed and floriated

cross. Beneath the canopy, and raised upon a pedestal, will be placed the quasi-

enthroned statue of the Prince Consort.

The idea of the architect in his design of the canopy, was this :^The first concep-

tion was a shrine. The exquisite metal and jewelled shrines of the 12th and 13th

centuries are nearly always ideal models of larger structures, but of structures of

which the original type never existed. Their pillars were of gold or silver-gilt, en-

riched with wreaths of exquisite pattern-work in many-coloured enamel. Their arches,

gables, and other architectural features were either chased in beautiful foliage cut in

gold or silver, or enriched with alternate plaques of enamel pattern work and of filigree studded with gems. Their roofs were covered with patterns of repousse work or enamel, and enriched with sculptured medallions ; the crestings of roofs and gables

were grilled with exquisite open foliage in gold or silver, while every part was replete with

sculpture, enamel paintings, and jewellery. The architect’s aim, then, was to reproduce

in some degree at full size the ideal structure which these wonderful old jewellers

represented in model. This idea could not, of course, be literally carried out ; but it

has determined the leading characteristics of the monument, and at least so far as the

metal-work is concerned, is being faithfully acted on, while in the more massive parts

of the structure it cannot be carried further than to give its tone to the decorations.

Hyde Park being for the most part high and dry, is perhaps the most airy and

healthy spot in London. The north-west or deer-park, verging upon Kensington

Gardens, is even of a rural character : the trees are picturesque, and deer are occa-

sionally here. The Serpentine has upon its margin some lofty elms : but from other

positions of the park many fine old timber-trees have disappeared, and the famous

Ring of Charles II.’s days can be but imperfectly traced. The drives and walks

have been greatly extended and improved : for the brick wall has been substituted iron

railing ; and the opening of three gates (Victoria, Albert, and Prince of Wales), and

the Queen’s Drive south of the Serpentine, denominate the improvements in the

present reign. From this high ground the artistic eye enjoys the sylvan scenery of

the park ; the old trees fringing the Serpentine, and its water gleaming through their

branches : backed by the rich woods of Kensington Gardens ; and the bold beauty of

the Surrey hills.

Among the floral improvements in Hyde Park is the promenade along the

east side, from Apsley House to the Marble Arch, where the beds of massed flowers

are beautifully effective j and they are continued from the gates by Apsley House

down to the Serpentine. Plantations of ornamental trees are extended along the

south side, in pleasure grounds tastefully planted with shrubs and flowers. Finally,

horse-rides have been made to extend from Victoria Gate to the Magazine Barracks.

Flowers are now grown in Hyde Park, with great success. The first attempt was made by Sir

Benjamin Hall, in 1856, when Chief Commissioner of Works ; but Mr. Cowper, in 1860, made a regular

garden of the space between Stanhope-gate and the Marble Arch, where the massing of colours is very

successful ; between the Marble Arch and Kensington Gardens, the flowers are in patches among the

trees. The flower-beds were so successful in Hyde Park that they were adopted by the side of Rotten-

row, and in other parks. Pipes are laid under ground for the water-mains, and” the Parisian plan of

hose is adopted for watering the flowers and the grass borders.

Tlie Serpentine (so called in distinction from the previous straight canals) is a

pool of water covering fifty acres, formed from natural springs, and originally fed at

the Bayswater extremity by a stream from West-End, near Hampstead, and the over-

plus of certain reservoirs, one of which occupied the site of Trinity Church. In 1834

the stream, or rather sewer, at Bayswater was cut off, and the deficiency was made up

from the Chelsea Waterworks. At the eastern end the Serpentine imperfectly sup-

plies an artificial cascade, formed in 1817 ; and descending into the ” leg of mutton”

pond, the stream leaves Hyde Park at Albert Gate, divides the parish of Chelsea from

that of St. George’s, Hanover-square, and falls into the Thames at Chelsea. The Ser-

pentine supplies the Knightsbridge Barracks and the Horse-guards, the lake in

Buckingham Palace Gardens, and the ornamental water in St. James’s Park. The

depth in Hyde Park varies from 1 to 40 feet, of which Sir John Rennie found, in

1849, in the deepest parts, from 10 to 15 feet of inky, putrid mud — ” a laboratory of

epidemic miasma.” The Serpentine is deepest near the bridge : the whole sheet was

deepened, at a cost of from 10,000Z. to 20,000Z. Here 200,000 persons, on an average,

bathe annually, sometimes 12,000 on a Sunday morning ; and in severe winters the

ice is the greatest metropolitan skating-field. In 1847, pleasure-boats for hire were

introduced upon the Serpentine : the boat-houses are picturesque.

On the north margin The Royal Humane Society, in 1794, built their principal

receiving-house, upon ground presented by George II I. In 1834 the house was re-

built, from the design of J. B. Bunning j the first stone being laid by the late Duke of

Wellington : over the Ionic entrance is sculptured the obverse of the Society’s medal,

—a boy striving to rekindle an almost extinct torch by blowing it ; legend, Lateai

scintillvla forsan — ” Perchance a spark may be concealed.” In the rear are kept

PARKS. 649

boats, ladders, ropes and poles, wicker-boats, life-preserving apparatus, &e. The Royal

Humane Society was founded in 1774, by Drs. Goldsmith, Heberden, Towers, Lettsom,

Hawes, and Cogan. Its receiving-houses in the parks cost 3000Z. a year. In odd

contiguity to the Society’s House in Hyde Park is the Government Magazine, con-

taining stores of ammunition and gunpowder.

Duels fought in Hyde Park. — Temp. Henry VIII., the Duke of B. and Lord B., “near the first tree

behind the Lodge ;” both killed.— 1712. The Duke of Hamilton and Lord Mohun ; both killed. —

1763. Wilkes and Mr. S. Martin, the hero of Churchill’s Duellist. — 1770. Baddeley, the comedian, and

George Garrick.— 1773. Mr. Whately and Mr. Temple.— 1780. The Earl of Shelburne and Col. Fullarton.

—1780. Rev. Mr. Bate and Mr. K., both of the Morning Post.— 1782. Rev. Mr. Allen and Mr. Dulany.—

1783. Lieut.-Col. Thomas and Col. Gordon, the former killed. — 1787. Sir John Macpherson and Major

Browne. — 1792. Messrs. Frizell and Clarke, law-students, the former killed. — 1796. Mr. Carpenter and

Mr. Pride (Americans), the former killed. — 1797. Col. King and Col. Fitzgerald, the latter killed. —

Lieut. W. and Capt. I., the latter killed.— 1822. The Duke of Bedford and the Duke of Buckingham.

Near the site of the Humane Society’s Receiving-house formerly stood a cottage,

presented by George III. to Mrs. Sims, in consideration of her having lost six sons in

war ; the last fell with Abercrombie at Alexandria, March 21, 1801. This cottage has

been painted by Nasmyth, and engraved in the Art Journal, No. 59, N.S.

The Law, with regard to the Parks, according to the opinion of the law-advisers of

the Crown, November, 1856, is in effect that —

There is a right to close the gates and -exclude the public ; or, the gates being open, to exclude per-

sons ; but that persons who have once entered cannot be turned out without notice that the license is

•withdrawn. No force, therefore, can be brought to bear against bodies or masses, which might contain

many who have not had notice. They also say that it would not be practicable to remove any number

individually and prevent them from returning, and remark on the probability of disorder if even an

individual were turned out. The effect is that the Government have nothing but the common law of

trespass to rely upon with its incidents, which are most important. In July, 1866, the above-mentioned

opinion was submitted to Sir W. Bovill and Sir Hugh Cairns, who were particularly requested to say

whether there was any legal authority to disperse by force any meeting for political purposes in the Park.

Their answer was that there is no such authority for any practical purpose. They state that when per-

sons have once entered the Park they can only be ejected after notice served on or brought home to

each individually. If the assembly remain peaceable the police can do nothing but hand out man after

man. In no case can they legally clear the Park by a charge, and it is most important that this should

be known. The Commissioners of Works, spending public money, represent the public. The Rangers

more properly represent the Crown. All these things are important when we are thrown back upon the

technical law of trespass.

On July 23, 1866, a political meeting in Hyde Park having been forbidden by the

Home Secretary of State, and the gates being closed, under the direction of Sir

Richard Mayne, Chief Commissioner of Police, the railings were torn down, and the

mob entered, and committed wanton damage to the flower-beds and shrubberies. The

cost of the erection of new iron railings and foot-gates round Hyde Park, in the main

rendered necessary by the above riot, is stated at upwards of 10,000/.

Kenningtok Park, formerly Kennington Common, which is described at p. 487,

was completed 1852-3. Tn laying out this little park, of 34 acres, an amalgamation

of the plan geometrical and the English styles has been adopted. It is furnished with

a gymnasium and a playground, which, in that populous neighbourhood, are in constant

use. There is likewise a handsome drinking-fountain, presented by Mr. Felix Slade,

of Lambeth, and designed by Mr. Driver. It is constructed of polished granite, sur-

mounted by a bronze casting, which represents Hagar and Ishmael at the well. There

are two large grass enclosures in the centre of these grounds, in which a very good

plan, and one worthy of adoption elsewhere, is pursued to preserve the turf from utter

destruction. Different portions” of the Park are closed and opened alternately to the

public. Were it not for this precaution, there would not be a living blade of grass to

be seen by the end of July ; every vestige of turf would be trampled to death. The

Park is surrounded by a wrought-iron fence, backed by a privet-hedge. The area thus

encircled is only about twelve acres ; and around the lodge — which will be recognised

as the model lodging-house of the Exhibition of 1851 — there is an effective arrange-

ment of common garden flowers in sunk panels of turf. Most of the flowers are raised

on the spot.

Poplar Recreation Grounds, situated between the High-street and East India

Dock-road have been completed, by the Metropolitan Board of Works, and were

opened in May, 1867. The grounds occupy about five acres in extent, and adjoin the

churchyard of St. Matthias, which occupies nearly the same area. The site was

650 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

purchased at a cost of 12,000£., towards which the Metropolitan Board of Works con-

tributed 6000/., and 1500Z. has been realized by the sale of old materials. The re-

mainder is borrowed, and 20 years allowed for its repayment.

Peimeose Hill Pake, about 50 acres at the foot of Primrose Hill, is enclosed and

laid out for cricket, and planted with trees and shrubs, by the Commissioners of Woods

and Forests. On the south side of the hill is a fine open-air gymnasium, which is

more frequented than any other in London.

Regent’s Paee, of 403 acres, lies between the south foot of Primrose Hill and the

New-road, and includes ” Marylebone Farm and Fields.” The relaying out of the estate

was proposed in 1793, and a large premium offered for the best design ; but it was nob

until 1812 that any plan was adopted — the plan of John Nash, architect, who built most

of the fine terraces by which it is surrounded, and proposed to connect this new part of

the town with Carlton House and St. James’s : this has been effected in Regent-street,

which, with the Park, is named from their having been projected and laid out during

the Regency of George IV. The Park is nearly circular in plan, and is comprised

within a ride, or drive of about two miles. The south side is parallel to the Marylebone-

road ; the east side extends northward to Gloucester-gate ; the west side to Hanover-

gate; and the northern curve nearly corresponds with the sweep of the Regent’s

Canal, at the north-western side of which are Macclesfield-bridge and gate. In the

south-west portion of the Park is a sheet of water, in outline resembling the three

legs on an Isle-of-Man halfpenny : it is crossed by wire suspension-bridges, and has

some picturesque islets, large weeping- willows, shrubs, &c. There are 18 or 20 acres

of water on which boats are to be had for hire, and where angling from the banks is

permitted at all times while the gates are open. Near the southernmost point is the

rustic cottage of the Toxopholite Society. In the southern half of the Park are two

circles : the Inner Circle, formerly Jenkins’s nursery-ground, was reserved by Nash as

the site for a palace for George IV. : it is now the garden of the Botanic Society (see

p. 369). On the eastern slope, at the north end of the Park, is the garden of the

Zoological Society. On the east side, a little south of Gloucester-gate, are the enclosed

villa and grounds of the Master of St. Katharine’s Hospital ; the church and domestic

buildings are opposite. (See pp. 166-7.) Among the detached villas in the Park are the

Holme, in the centre, built by William Burton, architect ; St. John’s Lodge (Sir Francis

Henry Goldsmid’s), adjoining the Inner Circle ; St. Dunstan’s Villa, and Holford House,

on the Outer Road; and near Hanover-gate is Hanover Lodge, formerly the Earl of

Dundonald’s. The portico of St. Dunstan’s Villa is adapted from the Temple of the

Winds at Athens : the roof is Venetian ; and in a recess near the entrance are the two

gigantic wooden figures, with clubs and bells, from old St. Dunstan’s Church, Fleet-

street (see p. 160) : they were purchased by the late Marquis of Hertford for 2001.

At the south-east corner of the Park is the Diorama building, converted into a Baptist

chapel in 1854 ; beyond is the Colosseum, described at pp. 280-3. On the south, east,

and north-west sides of the Park are highly-embellished terraces of houses, in which

the Doric and Ionic, the Corinthian, and even the Tuscan, orders have been employed

with ornate effect, aided by architectural sculpture. In the Inner Circle, adjoining

South Villa, is the Observatory, erected in 1837 by Mr. George Bishop, F.R.S.,

F.R.A.S. It consists of a circular equatorial room, with a dome roof; and an arm

containing the altitude and azimuth instrument, micrometers, &c.

The Avenue, an area of four acres, at the south end of the Broad Walk, has been laid out in flower

gardens. Here the flowers are grouped in ribands, arranged with an artist’s eye to colour, the gra-

dations of silver-white, orange, purple, and scarlet seem designed to produce a prismatic effect.

Instead of being mixed with other colours, the yellow calceolaria is massed here and there. The shrubs

and foliage plants grow in great luxuriance. Nearly all the former are flowering shrubs. The spe-

cimens of yucca recurva and the standard hollies — green, golden, and silver, on straight stems— are

especially noticeable. The point d’appui of the garden is a large tazza filled with flowers, and supported

by four griffins. This is placed in the centre of a large curbed bed, and thirty smaller tazzas and vases

are grouped in different parts of the garden. There are fine beds of foliage plants, such as the castor-

oil plant, the Ferdinandia eminens, Cannae, and Centaurea. The flowering shrubs are enclosed by a

hornbeam hedge, trained as a trellis. A few Lombardy poplars, with their silvery flickers, break the

monotony, and add greatly to the apparent extent of the narrow strip of ground. In the summer the

flowers and shrubs, flanked by the horse-chestnuts in full blossom and the fine elms, make a glorious

show. Here is a not unpicturesque red-brick gardener’s cottage ; and there have been added two

fountains— one near Gloucester-gate, and the other in the middle of the Broad Walk, the space round

the latter beautifully laid out with exotics.— Abridged from the Timet.

PARKS. 651

Unlike the other parks, this contains within its boundaries several handsome private

residences, surrounded by picturesque pleasure grounds. Each of the two elder parks

is completely surrounded by houses, so that in one case we have 1000, and in another

nearly 500 acres of trees, grass, and flowers in the interior of our immense metropolis,

just as are the squares in other cities and towns.

Southwark Pake:. — The Metropolitan Board, after eight years’ deliberation, purchased the land for this new Park, at about 911Z. per acre. The site consists of 65 acres of land in the parish of Rotherhithe, bounded by Jamaica Level, Union-road, the Rotherhithe New-road, and the South-Eastern Railway. Of the 65 acres, only 45 are devoted to the purposes of the Park : the remainder being appropriated to building plots, and a road to encircle the Park.

St. James’s Park is in plan an irregular triangle, in form resembling a boy’s kite, eighty-three acres in extent. It was originally a swampy field attached to St. James’s Hospital : the ground was drained and enclosed by Henry VIII., who thus made it the pleasure-ground both of the Hospital — which he had converted into St. James’s Palace — and of Whitehall, whose tilt-yard, cockpit, tennis-court, and bowling-green were on the eastern verge of the Park ; but during the reigns of Elizabeth and the first two Stuarts it was little more than a nursery for deer, and an appendage to the tilt-yard. A procession of 15,000 citizens, ” besides wifflers and other awayters,” on May 8, 1539, passed ” rounde about the Parke of St. James.” In the reign of Charles I. a sort of royal menagerie took the place of the deer with which the “inward park” was stocked in the days of Henry and Elizabeth. Charles, as he walked through the Park to Whitehall on the fatal January 30, 1648-9, is said to have pointed to a tree which had been planted by his brother, Prince Henry, near Spring Gardens. Here Cromwell, as he walked with Whitelock, asked him, ” What if a man should take upon him to be king ?” to which the memorialist replied : ” I think that remedy would be worse than the disease.” Evelyn, in his Sylva, mentions the branchy walk of elms in the Park, ” intermingling their reverend tresses.”

Charles II. added thirty-six acres to the Park, extended the wall towards Pall Mall, had it planted by Le Notre, and, it is believed, by Dr. Morison, formerly employed by the Duke of Orleans. The original account for ” workes and services” is signed by Charles himself. Pepys and Evelyn record the progress of the works : —

” 16 Sept. 1660. To the Park, where I saw how far they had proceeded in the Pell Mell, and in making a river through the Park.” ” 11 Oct. 1660. To walk in St. James’s Park, where we observed the several engines at work to draw up water.” ” 4 Aug. 1661. Walked into St. James’s Park, and there found great and very noble alterations.” ” 27 July, 1662. 1 to walke in the Parke, which is now every day more and more pleasant by the new works upon it.” ” 1 Dec. 1662. Over the Parke, where I first in my life, it being a great frost, did see people sliding with their skeates, which is a very pretty art.” ” 15 Dec. 1662. To the Duke (of York), and followed him into the Parke, where, though the ice was broken and dangerous, yet he would go slide upon his scates, which I did not like ; but he slides very well.” ” 11 Aug. 1664. This day, for a wager, before the king, my lords of Castlehaven and Arran, a son of my Lord of Ormond’s, they two alone did run down and kill a stout buck in St. James’s Park.”— Pepys. ” 19 Feb. 1666-7. In the afternoon I saw a wrestling match for 1000Z. in St. James’s Park, before his Maty, a world of lords, and other spectators, ’twixt the Western and Noithern men. Mr. Secretary Morice and Le Gerard being the judges. The Western men won. Many greate sums were betted.” — Evelyn.

The courtly Waller commemorates the Park, “as lately improved by his Majesty,” 1661. Faithorne’s plan, taken soon after the Restoration, shows the north half of the parade occupied by a square enclosure, surrounded by twenty-one trees, with one tree in the centre ; and in the lower part of the parade broad running water, with a bridge of two arches in the middle. Later views show the Park with long rows of young elm and lime trees, fenced with palings, and occasionally relieved by some fine picturesque old trees.

The Mall, on the north side, a vista half a mile in length, wfcs named from the game of ” pale maille” played here : it was a smooth hollow walk planted on each side, and having an iron hoop suspended from the arm of a high pole, through which ring the ball was struck by a maille, or mallet. (See a drawing, temp. Charles IL, engraved in Smith’s Antiquities of Westminster, and a plate in Carter’s Westminster.)

Here Charles and his courtiers often played : the earth was mixed with powdered cockle-shells to make it bind ; ’* which, however,” says Pepys, ” in dry weather turns to dust, and deads the ball.” (See the account of the game, at p. 636.)

“2 April, 1661. To St. James’s Park, where I saw the Duke of York playing at pall-mall, the first

time that I ever saw the sport.” — Pepys.

Cibber tells us tbat here he had often seen Charles playing with his clogs and

feeding his ducks, which made the common people adore him.

The Bird-cage Walk, on the south side of the Park, nearly in the same line as

the road which still retains the name, had in Charles II.’s time the cages of an

aviary disposed among the trees which bordered it. The keeper of the Volary, or

Aviary, was Edward Storey, from whom or his house is named Storey’s Gate. The

carriage-road between this and Buckingham Gate was, until 1828, only open to the

Royal Family, and the Hereditary Grand Falconer, the Duke of St. Albans.

In the ” inward park” was made a formal Canal, 2800 feet in length and 1Q0

feet broad, running from the Parade to Buckingham House. On„the south of this

canal, near its east end, was the Decoy, a triangular nexus of smaller canals, where

water-fowl were kept. Within the channels of the Decoy was Duck Island, of

which Sir John Flock and St. Evremond were, in succession, appointed governors

(with a salary) by Charles II. ; and Queen Caroline is said to have given the sinecure

to the thresher-poet, Stephen Duck: “the island itself,” says Pennant, “is lost in the

late improvements.”

The Park, as well as the Palace, sheltered persons from arrest ; for, in 1632, John

Perkins, a constable, was imprisoned for serving the Lord Chief-Justice’s warrant upon

John Beard in St. James’s Park. To draw a sword in the Park was also a very serious

offence. Congreve, in his Old Bachelor, makes Bluffe say, ” My blood rises at that

fellow. I can’t stay where he is ; and I must not draw in the Park.” Traitorous

expressions, when uttered in St. James’s Park, were punished more severely. Francis

Heat was whipped, in 1717, from Charing Cross to the upper end of the Haymarket,

fined ten groats, and ordered a month’s imprisonment, for saying aloud in St. James’s

Park, ” God save King James III., and send him a long and properous reign !” and, in

1718, a soldier was whipped in the Park for drinking a health to the Duke of Ormond

and Dr. Sacheverell, and for saying ” he hoped soon to wear his right master’s cloth.”

The Duke of Wharton, too, was seized by the guard in St. James’s Park for singing

the Jacobite air, ” The king shall have his own again.” See Cunningham’s Handbook,

p. 260 ; where are printed, from the Letter-book of the Lord Steward’s Office, two

letters, dated 1677, sent with two lunatics to Bethlehem : Deborah Lyddal, for offering

to throw a stone at the queen ; and Richard Harris, for throwing an orange at the

king, in St. James’s Park.

Evelyn thus records the introduction of skating: — “Dec. 1,1662. Having seene

the strange aDd wonderful dexterity of the sliders on the new canal in St. James’s

Park, performed before their Majesties by divers gentlemen and others, with scheets

after the manner of the Hollanders, with what swiftness as they pass, how suddainly

they stop in full career upon the ice, I went home.” Some of the cavaliers had, pro-

bably, acquired the art when seeking to while away a Dutch winter ; and but for the

temporary overthrow of the monarchy, we should not thus early have had skating in

England. The Park soon became a resort for all classes, since, in 1683, the Duke of

York records, Dec. 4 (a very hard frost), ” This morning the boys began to slide upon

the canal in the Park.”

Evelyn, in 1664, went to ” the Physique Garden in St. James’s,” where he first saw

” orange-trees and other fine trees.” He enumerates in the menagerie, ” an ornocra-

tylus, or pelican ; a fowle between a storke and a swan ; a melancholy water-fowl,

brought from Astracan by the Russian ambassador ; a milk-white raven ; two Baiearian

cranes,” one of which had a wooden leg ” made by a soulder :” there were also ” deere

of severall countries^ white, spotted like leopards ; antelopes, an elk, red deer, roebucks,

staggs, Guinea goates, Arabian sheepe, &c.” There were ” withy-potts, or nests, for

the wild fowle to lay their eggs in, a little above y e surface of y e water.”

” 25 Feb. 1664. This night I walk’d into St. James his Parke, where 1 saw many strange creatures, as

divers sorts of outlandish deer, Guiny sheep, a white raven, a great parrot, a storke. . . . Here are

very stately walkes set with lime trees on both sides, and a fine pallmall.”— Journal of Mr. S. Browne,

ton of Sir Thomas Browne.

Evelyn, on March 2, 1671, attended Charles through St. James’s Park, where he

saw and heard ” a familiar discourse between the King and Mrs. Nelly, as they called

an impudent comedian j she looking out of her garden on a terrace at the top, and the

PARKS. 653

King standing on the green walk under it.” ” Of the mount, or raised terrace, on

•which Nelly stood, a portion may still be seen under the park-wall of Marlborough

House.” (Cunningham’s Nell Gwyn, p. 118.) In the royal garden where Charles

stood, and which was then the northern boundary of the Park, we find Master Pepys,

in his Diary, stealing apples like a schoolboy. Pepys also portrays a court cavalcade

in the Park, all flaunting with feathers, in which Charles appears between the Countess

of Castlemaine and the Queen, and Mrs. Stewart.

Succeeding kings allowed the people the privilege of walking in the Mall ; and the

passage from Spring Gardens was opened in 1699 by permission of King William.

Queen Caroline, however, talked of shutting up the Park, and converting it into a

noble garden for St. James’s Palace : she asked Walpole what it might probably cost ;

who replied, ” Only three crowns.” Dean Swift, who often walked here with the

poets Prior and Rowe, writes of skating as a novelty to Stella, in 1711 : “Delicious

walking weather,” says he ; ” and the Canal and Rosamond’s Pond full of rabble

sliding, and with skaitts, if you know what it is.” The gloomy Rosamond’s Pond, of

oblong shape, and overhung by the trees of the Long Avenue, is mentioned in a grant

of Henry VIII. It occurs as a place of assignation in the comedies of Otway, Con-

greve, Farquhar, Southern, and Colley Cibber ; and Pope calls it ” Rosamonda’s Lake.”

Its name is referred to the frequency of love-suicides committed here. The pond was

filled up in 1770, when the gate into Petty France was opened for bringing in the soil

to fill up the pond and the upper part of the canal. Hogarth painted a large view and

a cabinet view of Rosamond’s Pond : for the latter he received but 1 1. 7s., the receipt in

the handwriting of Mrs. Hogarth. In a house belonging to the Crown, at the south-

east corner of Rosamond’s Pond, was born George Colman the Younger, who describes

the snow-white tents of the Guards, who were encamped in the Park during the Riots

of 1780. The Wellington Barracks, built near the site of Rosamond’s Pond, were

first occupied by troops on March 1, 1814 ; the Military Chapel was opened May 1, 1838.

The trees have been thinned by various means. Dryden records, by a violent wind,

February 7, 1698-9 : ” The graat trees in St. James’s Park are many of them torn up

from the roots, as they were before Oliver Cromwell’s death, and the late Queen’s.”

The uniformity of Bird-cage Walk has been spoiled by the new road. Samouelle, in his

Compendium of Entomology, figures a destructive moth ” found in July, in St. James’s

Park, against trees.”

St. James’s Park was a favourite resort of Goldsmith, and is thus characterized by him: —

“If a man be splenetic, he may every day meet companions on the seats in St. James’s Park, with

whose groaus he may mix his own, and pathetically talk of the weather.” (Essays.) The strolling

player takes a walk in St. James’s Park, “about the hour at which company leave it to go to dinner.

There were but few in the walks; and those who stayed, seemed by their looks rather more willing to

forget that they had an appetite, than gain one.” (Essays.) And dinnerless, Jack Spindle mends his

appetite by a walk in the Park.

After the death of Charles II., St. James’s Park ceased to be the favourite haunt of

the Sovereign, but it continued to be the promenade of the people ; and here, in the

summer, till early in the present century, gay company walked for one or two hours

after dinner ; but the evening dinner robbed the Park of this charm, and the Mall

became principally a thoroughfare for busy passengers.

” My spirits sunk, and a tear started into my eyes, as I brought to mind those crowds of beauty, rank,

and fashion, which, till within these few years, used to be displayed in the centre Mall of this Park on

Sunday evenings during the spring and summer. How often in my youth had I been a delighted spec-

tator of the enchanted and enchanting assemblage ! Here used to promenade, for one or two hours

after dinner, the whole British world of gaiety, beauty, and splendour. Here could be seen in one

moving mass, extending the whole length of the Mall, 5000 of the most lovely women in this country of

female beauty, all splendidly attired, and accompanied by as many well-dressed men. What a change,

I exclaimed, has a few years wrought in these once happy and cheerful personages. How many of those

who on this very spot then delighted my eyes, are now mouldering in the silent grave !” — Sir Richard

Phillips’s Mornirufs Walk from London to Kew, 1817.

For the Peace Commemoration Fete, on August 1, 1814, the Mall and Bird-cage

• Walk were lighted with Chinese lanterns ; a Chinese bridge and seven-storied pagoda

were erected across the canal : they were illuminated with lamps, and fireworks were

discharged from them, which set fire to the pagoda, and burnt its three upper stories,

when two persons lost their lives. Canova, when asked what struck him most forcibly

during his visit to England, is said to have replied, ” that the trumpery Chinese bridge

654 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

in St. James’s Park should be the production of the government, whilst that of Water-

loo was the work of a private company.” — Quarterly Review.

The State-Paper Office, further south, occupying part of the site of the house of

Lord Chancellor Jeffreys, was built by Sir John Soane in 1833 : it was his latest work,

and resembled an Italian palazzo : it was taken down for the site of the new Foreign

and India Offices. At No. 17, Duke-street, died in 1849, aged 81, Sir Marc Isam-

bard Brunei, the engineer of the Thames Tunnel.

Upon the south side of the Park, too, is Milton’s garden-house, in Petty France.

Hazlitt lived in this house in 1813, when Haydon was one of a christening-party of

” Charles Lamb and his poor sister, and all sorts of odd clever people, in a large room,

wainscoted and ancient, where Milton had meditated.” (Haydon’s Autobiography,

vol. i. p. 211.) In the garden-wall is a doorway, now blocked up, but which once

opened into the Park, and was probably that used by Milton in passing from his house

to Whitehall. In Queen-square-place, and looking upon the garden-ground of Milton’s

house, was the house of Jeremy Bentham, who died here in 1832.

The hints for supplanting the forest-trees which skirt the Park, by flowering shrubs,

and dressing the ground in a gayer style, so as to convert even the gloomy alleys of

St. James’s Park into a lively and agreeable promenade, were first published in ” A

Letter to the Rt. Hon. Sir Charles Long,” &c, 1825.

In 1827 was commenced the relaying out of the inner Park. The straight canal was

altered and extended to a winding lake, with islands of evergreens : at the west end was

a fountain. The borders of the principal walk are planted with evergreens, which are

scientifically labelled ; some of the fine old elms remain. The glimpses of grand archi-

tectural objects from this Park are very striking, and include the towers of Westminster

Abbey and the new Houses of Parliament ; the extensive front of Buckingham Palace ;

the York Column, rising from between terraces of mansions ; and the Horse-Guards,

terminating the picturesque vista of the lake ; although the ornamental effect is spoiled

by an ugly engineering bridge. Upon the eastern island is the Swiss cottage of the

Ornithological Society, built in 1841 with a grant of 300£. from the Lords of the Trea-

sury : the design is by J. B. Watson, and contains a council-room, keeper’s apartments,

steam-hatching apparatus ; contiguous are feeding-places and decoys ; and the aquatic

fowl breed on the island, making their own nests among the shrubs and grasses. In

1849 an experimental crop of Forty-day Maize (from the Pyrenees) was successfully

grown and ripened in this Park. For the privilego of farming the chairs, 25£. is paid

annually to the office of Woods and Forests.

The fine old trees of the grounds of Carlton House formerly overhung the road by

the park-wall, now the site of the Psestum-Doric substructure of Carlton-house-terrace ;

the opening in which to the York Column was formed by command of William IV., as

had been the Spring Garden gate by William III. Milk Fair, leftward of this gate,

commemorated by Tom Brown, in 1700, has disappeared. The vista of tho Mall,

which consists of elms, limes, and planes, is terminated by the grand front of Buck-

ingham Palace.

On the Parade is the immense mortar cast at Seville by order of Napoleon, employed

by Marshal Soult at the siege of Cadiz in 1812, and abandoned by the French army in

their retreat from Salamanca : it was presented by the Spanish Cortes to the Prince

Regent. The gun-metal bed and carriage were cast at Woolwich in 1814, and consist

of a crouching dragon, with upraised wings and scorpion-tail, involving the trunnions ;

it is allegorical of the monster Geryon, destroyed by Hercules. The mortar itself is 8

feet long, 12 inches diameter in bore, and has thrown shells 3^ miles : it weighs

about 5 tons. On the pedestal are inscriptions in Latin and English. When Soult was

in England, in 1838, he good-humouredly recognised his lost gun. Here was also for-

merly a small piece of artillery which had been taken from Bonaparte at Waterloo.

Upon the Parade was marshalled the State Funeral Procession of the great Duke of

Wellington, November 18, 1852. The body was removed from Chelsea Hospital on

the previous midnight, and deposited in the Audience-Chamber at the Horse-Guards.

Beneath a tent upon the Parade-ground was stationed the Funeral Car, whereon tho

coffin being placed, and the command given, tho cortege, in slow and solemn splcudour,

moved down the Mall past Buckingham Palace, whence the procession was seen by

Her Majesty and the Royal Family.

PARLIAMENT HOUSES. 655

Victobia Pake, Bethnal-green, equal to the entire area of Kensington Gardens,

originated as follows : — In the 4th and 5th years of Her present Majesty’s reign, an

Act was passed to enable the Commissioners of Woods and Forests to complete the sale

of York House, and to purchase with the proceeds a Royal Park. The Duke of Suther-

land paid 72,000£. for the remainder of the lease of York House, and this money was

applied to the purchase of about 290 acres of land, situated in the parishes of St. John,

Hackney ; St. Matthew, Bethnal-green ; and St. Mary, Stratford-le-Bow, county of

Middlesex. Nearly one-third of tbe acreage mentioned is taken for building ground;

the rest is Victoria Park. Its site had been previously market-gardens and brickfields.

The ornamental lake is made over the rough brickfield, near to which stood Bishop

Bonner’s famous hall. The Park is bounded on the north side by Hackney ; on the

south by Sir G. Duckett’s Canal, running nearly east and west ; and on the west by the

Regent’s Canal. It is divided into two portions — the Ornamental or “West Park, and

the East Park. In the former there is an ornamental lake about ten acres of surface,

with three islands. Here boats are hired out ; and there are waterfowl of various

kinds. On the south-west side of the lake there is a fine avenue of elm trees, with a

carriage-drive and shady walks ,• and an arcade, furnished with seats. On the north-

west end of the lake is a walk called ” The Vale,” which is planted with choice trees,

shrubs, and flowers. Close adjacent are the greenhouses and pits for raising and

wintering the plants. In this portion of the Park there are several separate flower-

gardens, riband borders 300 yards long, and mixed flower-beds. The East Park is used

for games, and contains two bathing lakes, which are well supplied with water. These

are much frequented ; as many as 7000 persons often bathe here in one morning. The

extent of these two lakes is about six acres. At the extreme end of the Park is the

cricket-ground, of 35 or 40 acres. Here 60 or 80 wickets are often pitched on

Saturdays. About one-third of the way through tbe Park is the superb Victoria

Drinking-fountain, presented by Miss Burdett Coutts, described at page 358 ; and, to

add to the means afforded for public exercise and recreation, there is a gymnasium, as

there are also swings and merry-go-rounds. The Park has often 30,000 visitors in a

single day. Wednesday afternoon is the children’s day. In the neighbourhood has

been swept away a wretched village of hovels, once known as Botany Bay, from so

many of its inhabitants being sent to the real place. Formerly this Park was on

Sundays the great resort of controversialists, especially such as believe in all manner of

unbelief, and who attracted here congregations of different persuasions ; but the preach-

ing of so many of them being language of the most blasphemous description, in 1856,

all preaching here was forbidden by authority.

In fine weather, when the band plays, over 100,000 persons are frequently collected In this Park.

The people are orderly, most of them being of the humbler classes, and their appreciation of the flowers

is quite as keen as that of frequenters of the West-end parks. Some of the Spitalfields weavers have a

great fondness for flowers, and contrive somehow or other in the most unlikely places to rear very

choice varieties. In small, wretched-looking yards, where little air and only the mid-day sun can

penetrate, you may see patches of garden, evidently tended with uncommon care, and yielding to their

cultivators a fair reward in fragrance and in blossom. Some of the weavers even manage by bits of

broken glass and a framework which just holds together, to put up something which does duty as a

greenhouse ; and in this triumph of patience and ingenuity they spend much of their leisure, happy

when they can make up a birthday bouquet for some friend or relation. The flowers in the neighbouring

park, with their novel grouping and striking contrasts of colour, are, of course, a continual fund of

pleasure to these poor artisans, and gladden many a moment when perhaps work is not too plentiful

and home thoughts are not very happy. In Victoria Park the plants and flowers are labelled in letters

which he who walks may read, without need of getting over fence or bordering. A smaller lake than

that in which the boating and the bathing go on is devoted to yacht-sailing. This amusement seems

almost confined to East London; and here on a summer evening, when a cap-full of wind is to be had,

you may see the lake whitened by forty or fifty toy boats and yachts, of all rigs and sizes, while here and

there a miniature steamboat is puffing and panting. There is even a yacht-club whose members com-

pete with their toy-yachts for silver cups and other prizes. The expense of keeping up a yacht here is

not considerable, and the whole squadron may be laid up until wanted in a boathouse provided for the

purpose. But the matches and trials of these tiny craft are a special attraction of the Park, and draw

together every evening hundreds of people. Ample space is available for cricket ; and in the two gym-

nasia candidates for swinging, jumping, and climbing appear to be never wanting. — Times, September,

1864

PARLIAMENT SOUSES, TEE,

STYLED also ” New Westminster Palace,” occupy the site of the Royal Palace of

the monarchs of England, from Edward the Confessor to Queen Elizabeth.

656 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

Westminster Palace is first named in a charter of Edward the Confessor, ” made”

eoon after 1052 : here the Confessor died, Jan. 14, 1066. On the Easter succeeding,

King Harold came here from York. William the Norman held councils here ; and in

1069 Alfric, Abbot of Peterborough, was tried before the king in curia, at West-

minster, — this being one of the first records of the holding of a law-court on this

spot. William Rufus added the Great Sail, wherein he held his court in 1099 ; as

did also Henry I. Stephen founded the palace chapel, which was dedicated to St.

Stephen. In the reign of Henry II., Fitzstephen records: “on the west, and on the

bank of the river, the Royal Palace exalts its head, and stretches wide, an incom-

parable structure, furnished with bastions and a breastwork, at the distance of two

miles from the City.” The Close Rolls, in the Tower of London, contain many

curious entries concerning the palace in the time of John and Henry III. : here,

in a great council, Henry confirmed the Magna Charta and the Charta de Foresta : in

his reign, also, the gibbet was removed from the palace. In 1238 the whole palace

was flooded by the Thames, and boats were afloat in the Great Hall. There are

numerous records in this reign of painting and decorating the palace, storing its

cellars with wine, &c. (See Painted Chamber, p. 625.) Of the repairs of the

mews, the new buttery and kitchen, and the rebuilding and painting of St. Stephen’s

Chapel, in the reign of Edward I., there are minute accounts. In 1298 the palace

was nearly destroyed by fire, but was restored by Edward II. St. Stephen’s Chapel

was completed by Edward III. The poet Chaucer was clerk of the palace works in

the reign of Richard II., who rebuilt Westminster Hall nearly as we now see it. In

1512 a great part of the palace was “once again burnt, since which time it has not

been re-edified : only the Great Hall, with the offices near adjoining, are kept in good

repairs ; and it serveth, as before it did, for feasts at coronations, arraignments of

great persons charged with treasons, keeping of the courts of justice, &c.j but the

princes have been lodged in other palaces about the City, as at Baynard’s Castle, at

Bridewell, and Whitehall (sometimes called York Place), and sometimes at St. James’s.”

(Strype’s Stow’s London, vol. ii. p. 628, edit. 1755.) Some buildings were added by

Henry VIII., who is supposed to have built the Star Chamber ; a portion of which,

however, bore the date 1602. Parliaments were held in Westminster Hall temp.

Henry III., and thenceforth in the Painted Chamber and White Chamber. After the

Suppression, the Commons sat in St. Stephen’s Chapel, until its destruction by fire

Oct. 16, 1834, with the House of Lords, and the surrounding Parliamentary buildings.

The scene of the conflagration was painted by J. M. W. Turner, R.A.

The demesne of the Old Palace was bounded on the east by the river Thames ; on

the north by the Woolstaple, now Bridge-street ; on the west by the precincts of St.

Margaret’s Churcb and Westminster Abbey, behind Abingdon-street ; and on the

south by the line of the present College-street, where formerly ran a stream, called

the Great Ditch (now a sewer), outside the palace garden-wall.

Among the more ancient buildings which existed to our time, was the Painted

Chamber. Next was the Old Souse of Lords (the old Parliament Chamber), rebuilt

by Henry II. on the foundations of Edward the Confessor’s reign ; the walls were

nearly seven feet thick, and the vaults (Guy Fawkes’ cellar) had been the kitchen of

the Old Palace : this building was taken down about 1823, prior to the erection of

the Royal Gallery and Entrance, by Soane, R.A. Southward was the Prince’s Chamber

(then also demolished), with foundations of Edward the Confessor’s time, and a super-

structure with lancet-windows, temp. Henry III. : the walls were painted in oil with

scriptural figures, and hung with tapestry representing the birth of Queen Elizabeth.

Next was the Old Court of Requests, supposed to have been the Great Hall of the

Confessor’s palace : this was, until 1834, the House of Lords, and was hung with

tapestry representing the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588 : it was destroyed in

the Great Fire, after which the interior was refitted for the House of Commons.

The Armada Tapestry was woven by Spiering, from the designs of Henry Cornelius Vroom, at

Haarlem, for Lord Howard of Effingham, Lord High Admiral of the English fleet which engaged the

Armada. It was sold by him to James I., and consisted originally of ten compartments, with borders

containing portraits of the officers of the English fleet. These hangings were engraved by Pine in 1739.

St. Stephen’s Chapel had its beautiful architecture and sumptuous decoration hidden until the enlargement of the interior in “1800, when its painting, gilding, and sculp-

ture, its traceried and brilliant windows, were discovered. Among the mural paintings

were the histories of Jonah, Daniel, Jeremiah, Job, Tobit, Judith, Susannah, and of

Bel and the Dragon ; the Ascension of Christ, and the Miracles and Martyrdom of

the Apostles ; and in the windows were the stories of Adam and Eve, and of Noah and

his family, of Abraham, Joseph, and the Israelites ; and of the Life of the Saviour,

from his baptism to his crucifixion and death. Among the decorations were figures of

angels and armed knights, Edward III. and his family, and heraldic shields. The

jewels, vestments, and furniture of the chapel were very superb. The Cloisters were

first built in 1356, south of the chapel, on the spot subsequently called Cotton Garden.*

The Crypt, or under-chapel of St. Stephen is described at p. 304.

On the south side, probably, was the small chapel of St. Mary de la Pewe, or Our

Lady of the Pew ; wherein Richard II. offered to the Virgin, previously to meeting

the insurgents under Wat Tyler in Smithfield, in 1381. Westminster Hall will be

described hereafter. Upon its western side were built the Law Courts, by Soane,

R.A., upon the site of the old Exchequer Court, &c. On the east side of New Palace-

yard was an arch, temp. Henry III., leading to the Thames ; and the old Exchequer

buildings and the Star Chamber, described at p. 450. On the northern side of New

Palace-yard, directly fronting the entrance-porch of the Great Hall, on a spot sub-

sequently hidden by the houses on the terrace, stood the famous Clock-tower, built and

furnished with a clock, temp. Edward I., with a fine of 800 marks levied on Chief-

Justice Sir Ralph de Hingham for altering a record : the keepers of this clock- tower

were appointed by the Sovereign, and were paid 6d. a day at the Exchequer. The

tower was taken down about 1707 ; and its bell, ” Great Tom of Westminster,” was

subsequently re-cast (with additional metal) for the great bell of St. Paul’s Cathedral.

Hatton describes the House of Commons, altered by Sir Christopher Wren, in 1706,

as “a commodious building, accommodated with several ranks of seats, covered with

green cloth (baize ?), and matted under foot, for 513 gentlemen. On three sides of

this house are beautiful wainscot galleries, sustained by cantaleevers, enriched with

fruit and other carved curiosities.”

Of the House of Lords, in 1778, we have a portion in Copley’s fine picture of the

fall of the great Earl of Chatham. Of the several Gates to the old palace, the only

one of which we have any record is that begun by Richard III. in 1484, at the east

end of Union-street, and taken down in 1706 ; and a century later, in a fragment of

this gate built into a partition-wall, was found a capital, sculptured with William Rufus

granting a charter to Gislebertus, Abbot of Westminster : this capital was sold by Mr.

Capon to Sir Gregory Page Turner, Bart., for 100 guineas. A plan of the old palace,

measured 1793-1823, is engraved in Vetusta Montmenta, vol. v.; in J. T. Smith’s

Antiquities of Westminster; and in Brayley and Britton’s Westminster Palace, 1836,

admirably illustrated, from drawings by R. W. Billings.

For rebuilding, in 1836 was selected from 97 sets the design of Charles Barry, R.A.

The coffer-dam for the river-front was commenced 1837; the river-wall 1839;

and, on April 27, 1840, was laid the first stone, at the north end of the Speaker’s

house. The exterior material is fine magnesian limestone, from Anston, in Yorkshire ;

and Caen stone for the interior ; the river-terrace is of Aberdeen granite ; the whole

building stands on a bed of concrete 12 feet thick. The vast pile covers about eight

acres, and has four principal fronts, the eastern or river being 940 feet in length.

The plan contains 11 open quadrangles or courts, which, besides 500 apartments

and 18 official residences, flank the royal state-apartments, the Houses of Lords

and Commons, and the great Central Hall. The interior walls are fine brick; the

bearers of the floors are cast-iron, with brick arches turned from girder to girder;

the entire roofs are of wrought-iron covered with cast-iron plates galvanized ; so that

timber has not been used in the carcases of the entire building ; and the principle of

making the Palace as nearly fire-proof as possible in the roofs has been thoroughly

carried out.

* Sir Robert Cotton had a house and garden abutting against the Painted Chamber ; and it was

there that his collection of MSS., now in the British Museum, was originally stored. In Cotton House

in 1820, were lodged the Italian witnesses against Queen Caroline on her Trial.

PARLIAMENT HOUSES. 659

The New Palace is the largest public edifice which has been erected for several

centuries in England ; and in the arrangement of its apartments for the transaction

of public business, in its lighting, ventilation, lire-proof construction, supply of water,

&c, it is the most perfect building in Europe. The style is Tudor (Henry VIII.),

with picturesque portions of the town-halls of the Low Countries, and three grand

features: a Clock Tower at the northern extremity, resembling that of the Town-

house at Brussels; a great Central Mall, with an open stone lantern and spire;

and the Royal or Victoria Tower, at the south-west angle.

In 1841 was issued the Fine Arts Commission for rebuilding the Houses of Parliament ; and in 1848

the Commission to superintend the completion of the New Palace. Certain portions of the external

stonework having decayed, a Commission was issued to investigate the cause; competing chemical

processes were adopted as remedies by hardening or indurating the stone, which had been injudiciously

selected : time can only decide the merits of these processes. For details, see Year-Book of Facts. 1861

and 1862.

The vast edifice covers at least twice the site of the old Palace of Westminster,

about half the new ground occupied being taken from the Thames. The East or

River Front has at the ends projecting wings, each 120 feet in length, with towers

of beautiful design, leaving between them a terrace 700 feet long, and 33 feet wide.

The entire length is 910 feet. The wing-towers have crested roofs, and open-work

pinnacles, which, with those of the bays, carry gilded vanes. Between the principal

and one-pair floors is a rich band of sculpture, composed of the royal arms of England

in each reign, from William I. to Queen Victoria. The band below the principal floor

is inscribed with the date of each Sovereign’s accession and decease; and the panels

on each side of the coat-of-arms have sceptres and labels, with badges and inscriptions.

In the parapet of each bay is a niched figure of an angel bearing a shield. The

carved panels of the six oriel windows have the arms of Queen Victoria, to indicate

that the building was erected in her reign. The wing-towers, with their octagonal

stone pinnacles and perforated iron ornaments at their angles and crests, remind

one of the picturesque roofs of the chateaux and belfry-towers of the Low Countries.

The North Front has bays and buttresses similar to those of the River Front; the

bands are sculptured with the quarterings of the kings of England between the

Heptarchy and the Conquest, inscriptions and dates of accession, &c. ; while the

niches between the windows in each bay contain effigies of the Sovereigns whose arms

are below. This front terminates at the west with the Clock Tower and turreted

lantern spire. The height of this tower is 316 feet from high-water mark (Trinity

standard) to the top of the sceptre on its roof. The clock has the largest dials in the

world — that is, where the clock is an integral portion of the design ; the only larger

one being that of Mechlin, the dial of which is of open metal-work, applied over, but

unconnected with the architecture. The roof is fully ornamented and finished with

gilding and colour to an extent not elsewhere to be seen in this country. For this

tower two great hour-bells were provided ; both of which were broken, as described at

p. 44. The weight of gold-leaf used in decorating the clock-tower up to June 30,

1857, was about 95^ ounces; cost of gold-leaf 890£. 6s. 3d.; wages of artificers,

2291. 11*. 3d. ; completion of the work, about 4001. The gold is pure, and treble

the thickness of ordinary gold-leaf.

The Clock was made by Mr. Dent, junior, from the designs of Mr. B. Benison, about 1855. The four

dials are 22 feet in diameter, and are considered to be the largest in the world, with a minute-hand,

which, on account of its great length, velocity, weight, friction, and the action of the wind upon it,

requires at least twenty times more force to drive it than the hour-hand. This clock goes for 8 days.

The great wheel of the going part is 27 inches in diameter; the pendulum is 15 feet long, and weighs

680 pounds ; and the scape-wheel, which is driven by the musical-box spring, weighs about half an

ounce. All the wheels, except the scape-wheel, are of cast-iron. The barrel is 23 inches in diameter,

but only 14 inches long, as it does not require a rope above a quarter of an inch thick. The second

wheel is 12 inches in diameter. The great wheels have all 180 teeth, the second wheel of the hour

striking part has 105, and a pinion of fifteen. The great wheels in the chiming part of the clock are

38i inches in diameter. The clock is said to be at least eight times as large as a full-sized cathedral

clock. It occupies its keepers two hours a week in winding it up. It goes with a rate of under one second

a week, in spite of any atmospheric changes. (Curiosities of Clocks and Watches, p. 205.) It reports

its own time to Greenwich by electrical connexion, and the clockmaker who takes care of it receives

Greenwich time by electricity, and sets the clock right whenever its error becomes sensible, which

seldom has to be done more than once a month. It may be relied oa within less than one second a

week, which is seven times greater accuracy than was required in the original conditions. The entire

machinery of the clock occupies a space 16 feet long, by 5 feet in width, and its weight is over four tons.

An arrangement is also made which will admit of the wheels being taken out of the frame singly witu-

U TJ 2

660 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

out disturbing the others, and the clock is fitted with the patent gravity escapement of Mr. Dent. The

barrel is so constructed as that the hands will keep going while the clock is being wound up. The lines

of the clock are of patent wire rope, and the pallets of the escapement are jewelled with sapphires, and

not with agate, as is usually the case. The minute-hand is 16 feet long, and, notwithstanding that it is

made of copper and beaten out as thin as is consistent with its length and strength, it still weighs 2 cwt.

The hour hand is nine feet long, and is fastened with the minute-hand to the centre of the dial by a

huge gilt rose (part of the arms of Westminster), which is about the size of a small dining-table. All

the interstices between the figures and work on the clock face are glazed in with enamelled glass, so as

to present the appearance of a white dial in the day and allow it to be illuminated during the night.

Each dial is lit with 60 gas jets, which are turned on and off by a peculiar adaptation of the clock-work.

The light in the dial thus wanes as day dawns and increases with the fading twilight. The cost of the

gas for this is 5001. per annum. The clock, altogether, cost more than 22,0CKM.

Tlie South Front resembles the north, has similar decorations chronologically arranged,

and terminates westward with the Victoria Tower.

Saxon Kings and Queens at the South Front, commencing at the wing tower, and proceeding from

base to summit in each bay: — Agatha, Harold II., Editha, Edward III., Hardicanute, Harold, Emma,

Canute, Elgiva, Edmund, Emma, Etheired, Edward II., Elfleda, Edgar, Edwin, Edred, Elgina, Edmund,

Athelstan, Elfleda, Edward L, Elwitha, Alfred, Etheired, Ethelbert, Ethelbald, Judith, Egbert, Ethel-

wolf; two kings of Mercia, Northumberland, East Anglia, Wessex, Essex, Kent, and Sussex; the whole

sculptured in stone by John Thomas.

The Victoria Tower is the largest and highest square tower in the world, being 75

feet square, and 336 feet high to the top of the pinnacle, and over 400 feet to the top

of the flag-staff. The foundation is of solid concrete, 9 feet 6 inches deep, with solid

brickwork over that, the whole inclosed and strengthened by piling. The building

was commenced April 2, 1842, and grew at the rate of 23 feet per year until completed j

it presses upon the foundation with a weight little short of 30,000 tons. The walls

are 12 feet thick up to the base of the first tier of windows, and thence 6 feet. The

storied windows are 44 feet high by 32 feet wide, and 5 feet deep. The figures,

which look so small and infantine in the niches on the sides, are colossal masses, nearly

10 feet high, and weighing many tons. The supporters of the coats of arms of our

kings are as large as horses j and a well staircase of iron winds up in apparently endless

spirals, till the circling balustrade is merged together in the long perspective, termi-

nating at a dim bluish spot no bigger than your hand, which marks the outlet on to

the tower-roof. A person standing on the ground under the centre of the tower can

see up at a glance, as through a telescope, from the bottom to the top. The tower

is fireproof, and was intended to be used as a grand repository for the State papers,

records, and muniments of the nation ; and for this purpose it is divided into eleven

stories, each of which, with the exception of the basement story and the first floor

immediately over it, contains sixteen fireproof rooms. The roof, though made as light

as is consistent with its safety from the wind, nevertheless weighs upwards of 400

tons. That little pierced parapet, which from the street looks scarce sufficient to

prevent a man from falling over, is actually sixteen feet high. The lions and crowns

on its battlemented top are more than six feet high, while even the gilt tops to the

four turrets, which from the ground are hardly distinguishable, are wrought-iron

crowns 5 feet 2 inches in diameter, and weighing one ton each. The roof, sixteen feet

above the parapet, is surrounded with a gilt railing six feet high, the four corners are

guarded by four stone lions twenty feet high ; and from the base of the corners spring four

cast-iron flying arched buttresses, formed in the centre in a kind of crown about thirty

feet above the roof. Here is the colossal flagstaff, of rolled sheet iron bolted together,

110 feet long, 3 feet in diameter at the base, and weighing between sixteen and

eighteen tons. The flag, 60 feet long by 45 feet broad, required upwards of 400 yards

of bunting to make it ; it has to be hauled up by machinery. The little turrets at

the corners reach ninety feet above the roof. They are divided into two stories, the

first or lower being about sixty feet above the roof; and here a low balcony, with stone

work breast-high, allows the visitor to come right out upon the outside of the turret and

walk around it. The view almost repays the effort made to reach it. All London

lies beneath you, looking like a diminished and smoky model of itself, in which some-

how the streets seem broader and more empty, and the houses lower and more regular,

than they ever appear to those on terra firma. On a clear day not only all London

can be seen from the summit of these pinnacles, but even all its suburbs, from Hounslow

to Shooter’s-hill on one side, and from Harrow to the red bleak-looking downs beyond

Addington on the other. The portal is of sufficient capacity to admit the Royal Stato

PARLIAMENT HOUSES. 661

coach to be driven to the foot of the staircase within the tower. Colossal statues of

the Lion of England, bearing the National Standard, flank the portal ; while carving,

rich and emblematical, adorns the walls and groined roof of the interior. High

above a rich quatrefoil band, differing in design, and containing heraldic badges,

foliage, and initials, comes the first tier of windows, with their rich tracery and lofty

two-centred arches. Above these windows are strange devices in the way of shields

and supporters, which here and there show the three lions passant guardant, supported

by such animals as are unknown to modern English heraldry. Nevertheless, these

are the Royal arms of England’s former kings. Within the porch and over the arch-

way on the east side are niches, containing statues of the Guardian Saints of the United

Kingdom — St. George of England, St. Andrew of Scotland, and St. Patrick of Ireland ;

while the similar archway on the north side, which forms the access to the Royal stair-

case has niches of accordant design, one containing a large statue of her Majesty Queen

Victoria in the centre, while those on either side contain allegorical figures of Justice

and Mercy. Recurring to the exterior of the Tower, immediately over the above great

entrance, as well as on the south side, is a row of rich niches, the centre one higher

than the rest, and containing a statue of the Queen ; while the others are occupied by

her Majesty’s father and mother, the late Duke and Duchess of Kent, and other mem-

bers of the Royal Family. (Abridged chiefly from The Times journal.)

The West Front, towards New Palace-yard, is composed of bays divided by bold

buttresses, terminating in rich pinnacles. This land-front will hereafter embrace

the area of the present Law Courts. The niches of the buttresses will contain statues

of eminent commoners. The portion of this front complete, is that opposite Henry the

Seventh’s Chapel, called St. Margaret’s Porch ; and the gable of Westminster Hall,

which has been advanced southward, the great window being replaced, thus forms St.

Stephen’s Porch, with much of the varied and piquant character of the Town-hall of

Louvain. The turrets contain statuettes of Edward III. and Queen Philippa, St. George

and St. Andrew, Henry VII. and Elizabeth of York, St. Patrick and St. Stephen. In

the gable are statuettes of Edward the Confessor and William Rnfus, William IV. and

Queen Victoria ; and this facade is richly sculptured with the Royal arms, the separate

insignia of England, Ireland, and Scotland, badges, &c. The whole composition should

be seen from Poet’s Corner, and it combines well with Henry the Seventh’s Chapel.

Between the Victoria Tower and St. Stephen’s Porch is a range of buildings four

stories in height, with a central clock-tower 120 feet high. Besides the great towers

already named, oriels and turrets add effect to the sky-line of the building, whether

viewed from the exterior or from the courts.

The whole front from St. Stephen’s Porch to Victoria Tower is appropriated for offices

of the House of Peers, including peers’ private entrance and staircase, committee-rooms,

waiting-rooms, and the numerous other apartments required. It also includes a large

room to be called the Peers’ Robing- Room, which is to be decorated in fresco by Mr.

Herbert, R.A. This is lighted from the top, and fitted up in oak, as is the case with

the other apartments. The frescoes will be eight in number, of large size, — the

subjects Scriptural.

“The Palace of Westminster stands alone and matchless in Europe among the

architectural monuments of this busy age. From the border of the Thames, from

St. James’s Park or Waterloo-place, from Piccadilly, or the bridge across the Ser-

pentine, the spectacle of that large square tower, of the central needle, and far away

of the more fantastic Beffroi — all grouping at every step in some different combi-

nation — stamp the whole building as the massive conception of a master mind.” —

{Saturday Semeto.)

One of the Public Entrances to the Houses of Parliament is by St. Stephen’s Stair-

case, ascending from St. Margaret’s Porch : the bosses, panels, and decorative work of

the ceiling and the supporting arches are very elaborate ; the walls will be embellished

with frescoes. Westminster Hall forms the grand vestibule of approach from the

north. About midway, on the east side of the Hall, is the Members’ Entrance to the

House of Commons, through the restored Cloisters of St. Stephen’s : the fan-tracery

of the roof, and a small projecting chapel or oratory, are very beautiful. A cloister

built by Henry VIII. has been restored, as a relic of English mediaeval art. An upper cloister has been added, by which is a staircase to the House of Commons. Eeturning

to Westminster Hall, at the south end is a flight of steps to St. Stephen’s Porch,

65 feet in height : the great central window is 48 feet high and 25 feet wide, and is

filled with stained glass, by Hardman, charged with the insignia of the Sovereigns of

England. On the right is the entrance from St. Stephen’s Staircase, and on the left

is a superb doorway leading into St. Stephens’s Hall, 95 feet long by 30 feet wide,

and 56 feet high, reared upon the ancient Crypt of St. Stephen’s, which has been

restored for use as the Palace Chapel. From the floor of St. Stephen’s Hall there

is no one step throughout the whole extent, — all is of one level. Next is

The Central Sail, an octagon 70 feet square, with the largest span of stone Gothic

roof, of similar form, in Europe : the height from the floor to the key-stone is 75 feet,

and the bosses measure 4 feet in diameter. The eight sides contain alternately great

doorways and windows, the latter to be filled with stained glass; and the niches

between the arches contain portrait and costume statues of the English Sovereigns and

their Queens, sculptured in Caen stone by John Thomas. Among the most striking

are William I. ; Henry I. ; Richard I. and his Queen ; King John ; Eleanor Queen of

Edward I. ; Edward III. and his Queen Philippa ; Henry V. and his Queen Katherine ;

Richard III. ; Henry VII. and his Queen Elizabeth. The encaustic-tile pavement is

very fine. Thence a corridor leads north to the Commons’ Lobby and House of

Commons, and south to the Peers’ Lobby and House of Peers. The archway west

communicates with St. Stephen’s Hall : and the east leads to the Lower Waiting Sail ;

the Conference Sail, in the River Front ; and the Upper Waiting Sail, embellished

with frescoes, including the Patience of Griselda (from Chaucer), by Cope ; Disinheritance

of Cordelia by King Lear (from Shakspeare), by Herbert, R.A. ; the Temptation of

Adam and Eve (from Milton), by Horsley ; and St. Cecilia (from Dryden), by Tenniel.

The Electric Telegraph Office (opened April 1, 1853) is in the Central Hall;

whence wires are laid to the Company’s Office and the metropolitan stations. The

north gable of Westminster Hall and the adjoining Law Courts, Sir Charles Barry*

proposed to make accord with this beautiful front ; New Palace Yard being inclosed

by parliamentary buildings, thus making it, by means of an important gateway looking

towards Whitehall, the entrance courtyard of the new Palace, as it was originally of

the old Palace of the time of Richard ll.f

The Royal Entrance is by the Victoria Tower, already described. At the summit

of the Royal Staircase is the Norman Porch, named from its statues of kings of the

Norman line, and frescoes of scenes from Anglo-Norman history ; its beautifully groined

roof and clustered columns, rich bosses and ribs, are of the same period. To the right

is the Queen’s Robing-room, painted by Dyce, R.A., with frescoes allegorical of chivalry

fostering generous and religious feelings. Here are two frescoes in large panels, by

Maclise, R.A. : the Meeting of Wellington and Blucher after Waterloo ; the Death of

Nelson — one side only is completed ; Mr. Dyce died February 14, 1864. Next is the

Victoria or Royal Gallery, 110 feet in length by 45 feet in width, and 45 feet high ;

to be decorated with frescoes from English history, an armorial band beneath the

stained-glass windows, and a panelled and superbly enriched ceiling. To this gallery

the public are admitted, by tickets (to be obtained of the Lord Great Chamberlain), to

view the procession of her Majesty to open and prorogue Parliament.

The Prince’s Chamber, a kind of ante-room to the House of Lords, has the entrance-

* A very beautiful memorial tablet to perpetuate the memory of the late Sir Charles Barry has been

erected in the nave of Westminster Abbey, over the spot where the distinguished architect of the Houses

of Parliament lies buried ; and nearly adjoining the grave of the late Mr. Robert Stephenson, to whom,

it will be remembered, a monumental brass, representing a full-length figure of the eminent engineer,

was inscribed a few years since. The memorial, which has been placed in the Abbey by the family of

the late Sir C. Barry, consists of a large cross let into a massive slab of black marble about 12 feet in

length by 5 feet in width, and the inscription on the cross is as follows : — ” Sacred to the memory of the

late Sir C. Barry, B.A., F.B.S., architect of the New Palace at Westminster and other buildings, who

died on the 12th of May, 1860, aged 64 years, and lies buried beneath this brass.” The following text

is also inscribed round the outside of the marble slab : — ” Whatsoever ye do, do it heartily, as to the

Lord and not unto men, for ye serve the Lord Christ.” Colossiam iii. 23, 24.

t ” The new Palace Yard being anciently enclosed by a wall, there were four gates therein, the only

one at present remaining is that on the east side leading to Westminster Stairs— the three others which

were demolished were that on the north which led to Woolstaple, that on the west called Highgate, a

very beautiful and stately edifice, situate at the east end of Union-street : it was taken down in the year

1706, as was also the third at the north end of St. Margaret’s-lane, anno 1731.”— Maitland 1739.

PARLIAMENT HOUSES. 663

doorway richly decorated with the national arms, armorial roses and quatrefoils; and

opposite, on the north side, in a corresponding arch, is the statue of Queen Victoria,

¦with figures of Justice and Mercy, and bas-reliefs, by Gibson, R.A. Upon the walls

are twelve bas-reliefs, by Theed, carved in oak, of memorable events in Tudor history ;

and over these panels, are twenty -eight portraits of the same period, painted on a gold

ground. The frieze is enriched with oak-leaves and acorns, and armorial shields and

labels ; the windows are painted with the rose, thistle, and shamrock, and regal crowns ;

and the armorial ceiling and Tudor fire-places are dight with colour, gilding, and

sculpture. From the Prince’s chamber we enter

The HotrsE of Lords, extremely rich in gilding, polychromy, wrought metal, and

carved work. Its dimensions arc, length in the clear, 91 feet, breadth 45 feet, and

height 45 feet, so that it is a double cube. The walls are 3 feet 1 inch thick. East

and west are twelve lofty windows, six on either side, filled with painted-glass whole-

length portraits of the kings and queens, consort and regnant, of the United Kingdom :

six containing figures of the royal line of England before the union of the crowns ;

three, of the royal line of Scotland from Bruce to James VI.; and three, of the

Sovereigns of Great Britain from the reign of Charles I. The style of colouring in

these windows is that of 1450-1500.

At each end of the House are three archways, within which are these wall-frescoes : —

Over the Throne : Edward III. conferring the Order of the Garter on the Black Prince; C. W. Cope,

R.A. The Baptism of St. Ethelbert; W. Dyee, E.A. Prince Henry acknowledging the authority of

Judge Gascoigne; C. W. Cope, R.A.

Over the Strangers’ Gallery: The Spirit of Justice; D. Maclise, E.A. The Spirit of Religion; J. C.

Horsley. The Spirit of Chivalry; D. Maclise, R.A.

Between the windows, archways, and in the corners, are canopied niches, with pedestals

supported by angels bearing shields charged with the arms of the eighteen barons who

obtained Magna Charta from King John, and whose bronze effigies occupy the niches.

Above these niches are segments of arches, which, as trusses, support the main arches

of the ceiling, and are elaborately pierced and carved.

The ceiling is flat, and divided into compartments containing lozenges charged with

devices and symbols : the royal monogram, the monograms of the Prince of Wales and

Prince Consort ; the cognisances of the white hart of Richard II. ; the sun of the

House of Yoi-k; the crown in a bush, Henry VII.; the falcon, dragon, and greyhound;

the lion passant of England, the lion rampant of Scotland, and the harp of Ireland ;

sceptres, orbs, and crowns; the scales of Justice; mitres and crosiers, and swords of

mercy ; coronets, and the triple plume of the Prince of Wales. Among the devices

are the rose of England and the pomegranate of Castile; the portcullis of Beaufort,

the lily of France, and the lion of England ; and the armorial shields of the Saxon

Heptarchy. The massive beams appear like solid gold : they are inscribed on the sides

with religious and loyal mottoes.

Beneath the windows, the walls are covered with oak panelling and carved busts of

the Sovereigns of England ; and above is the inscription ” God save the Queen,” in

Tudor characters. Thence springs a coving, in the southern division emblazoned with

the arms of lord chancellors and their Sovereigns, and northward with the bishops’

arms. This coving supports a gallery with wrought-metal railing, richly-carved panel-

ling, and pillars which support, a brattishing.

The centre of the southern end of the House is occupied by the Throne, on either

side of which is a doorway leading to the Prince’s Chamber. At the northern end of

the House, over the principal doorway, is the Strangers’ Gallery, behind the Reporters’

Gallery, upon the front of which are painted the badges of the sovereigns of England ;

and over the archways are painted on shields the coat-armour of the Saxon, Norman,

Plantagenet, Tudor, Stuart, and Hanoverian Houses; the arms of the archiepiscopal

sees, and some of the bishoprics ; and in front of the gallery is a clock with an exqui-

sitely carved case and dial enamelled in colours. On the right of the Bar is the seat of

the Usher of the Black Rod. The Peers’ seats (accommodating 235) are ranged

longitudinally from north to south. At the south end is the clerks’ table ; and beyond

it are the woolsacks, covered with crimson cloth. At the north end is The Bar, a

dwarf screen, at which appear the Members of the House of Commons, and at which

664 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

counsel plead. At the four angles of the area is a superb brass candelabrum, by

Hardman, 17 feet high, and weighing 11-” target=”_top”> cwt.

The Kotai Theone, at the south end, is elevated on steps (the centre three, and

the sides two), which are covered with a carpet of bright scarlet, powdered with white

roses and lions, and fringed with gold-colour. The canopy to the throne is in three

compartments : the central one, much loftier than the others, for her Majesty ; that on

the right hand for the Prince of Wales, and that on the left for the Prince Consort.

The back of the central compartment is panelled with lions passant, carved and gilded,

on a red ground ; and above are the royal arms of England, elaborately emblazoned,

surmounted by the royal monogram and “Dieu et mon droit,” in perforated letters;

and a brattishing of Greek crosses and fleur-de-lis crests. Above are the crests of

England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, richly carved ; the ceiling bears the monogram

V. R. within an exquisite border, and the flat surfaces painted with stars. The span-

drels of the canopy, and the octagonal pillars with coronal capitals, are exquisitely

carved. In front of the canopy, above a brattishing of perforated Tudor flowers, are

five traceried ogee arches : in the central one is the figure of St. George and the

Dragon ; and in the two sides are knights of the Garter and Bath, the Thistle and St.

Patrick. The angle-buttresses of this canopy have coronal pendants ; on the fronts

and sides are animals, on the summits open-worked royal crowns. On the sides like-

wise are shields of the arms of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales, beautifully

carved, painted, and gilded ; and upon pedestals are sitting figures of winged angels

holding shields enamelled with the arms of England. The side compartments of the

canopy have, the one the heraldic symbols of the Prince of Wales, and the other those

of Prince Albert, blended with the architectural features : they have covings, gilded,

and pedestals supporting a lion and unicorn holding shields of arms ; the angle-but-

tresses have coronal pendants, and the shafts are surmounted by crowns. On either

hand is a dwarf wing with pedestal, on which are seated the royal supporters, the lion

and unicorn, holding standards enamelled with the arms of England.

The Queen’s Chair of State, or Throne, in general outline resembles ” the coronation

chair :” the legs rest upon four lions couchant ; the base has quatrefoil panels, with

crowns and V. R.; sprays of roses, shamrocks, and thistles; and a broad bar of roses

and leaves : in the panels beneath the arms of the chair are lions passant and treillage ;

upon the back pinnacles are a lion and unicorn, seated, holding scrolls and flanking the

gable, within which is a circle of exquisitely quatre-foiled ornament, inclosing the

monogram V. R. ; the exterior ridge is carved with roses, and the apex surmounted

with a richly decorated crown. The back of the chair is bordered with large egg-

shaped pieces of crystal, within which are the royal arms of England, embroidered on

velvet. The Footstool has carved sides, and a crimson velvet top, gorgeously embroi-

dered with roses in a border of fleurs-de-lis.

The State Chairs for the Prince of Wales and Prince Consort are curule-shaped,

have circular-headed backs, embroidered on velvet with the ostrich triple-plume and

the shield of arms. The throne and footstool, and the two princes’ chairs, are gilded

throughout.

The House of Peers was first occupied by their lordships April 15, 1847.

The Peers’ Lobby is 38 feet square and 33 feet high, and has on either side a lofty

arch, above which are painted, within arches, the arms of the Saxon, Norman, Plan-

tagenet, Tudor, Stuart, and Hanoverian royal lines, each surmounted by a royal crown.

The north doorway opens into the House of Commons Corridor, the south doorway

opens into the House of Lords : the arch is boldly sculptured with Tudor roses, royally

crowned ; the inner arch is enriched with gilded oak-leaves. The space over is filled

with the royal arms, roses, thistles, and shamrocks, coloured and gilded. The gates

are of massive brass, by Hardman, and of richly floriated design, the frames studded

with Norman roses. These gates weigh l£ tons, are 11 feet high, and 6 feet wide;

and are of a material not used in England for such a purpose for nearly 400 years.

The side-wall compartments of the Lobby are filled with ogee arches ; and the upper

stories are windows, painted by Hardman, and Ballantyne, and Allan, with the arms of

the early families of the aristocracy of England. The roof is painted with roses,

PARLIAMENT HOUSES. 665

thistles, and shamrocks, in squares, on a blue ground, and relieved with gilding. The

pavement is encaustic tiles, by Minton ; alleys of black marble, including ” Dieu et

mon droit” in tiles, V. R., the lions of England, &c. ; and in the centre is a Tudor rose

of Derbyshire marble, bordered with engraved brass. At each corner of the lobby is a

magnificent gas-standard, about 12 feet high.

The Peers’ Libraries are a magnificent suite of rooms ; above the oak book-shelves

is a frieze, with panels of the arms of the Chief Justices of Englaud. The Peers’

Robing-room it is proposed to decorate with frescoes illustrating Human Justice and

its development in Law and Judgment, by Herbert, E.A. The one executed is in

water-glass; the subject, Moses bringing down the Second Tables of the Law, oc-

cupied the painter three years : size 22 feet by 10 feet 6 inches ; figures life-size.

Returning to the Peers’ Lobby, the archway on the north side gives access to the

Peers’ Corridor, corresponding with the Commons’ Corridor immediately opposite in

the Central Hall, the walls of which are panelled for frescoes, some of which have

been completed. The decorations of the Corridors leading from the Central Hall,

to the Houses of Lords and Commons, are as follows : —

The Peer*’ Corridor.— C. W. Cope, E.A., The Burial of Charles I. ; The Parting of Lord and Lady

Bussell ; Expulsion of the Fellows of a College at Oxford for refusinsr to sign the Covenant ; The Em-

barkation of the Pilgrim Fathers for New England ; The Defence of Basing House; The setting out of

the Train Bands from London to relieve Gloucester ; Charles I. erecting his standard at Nottingham.

The Common)’ Corridor. — E. M. Ward, E.A., Alice Lisle assisting the Fugitives to Escape after the

Battle of Sedgmoor; Jane Lane assisting Charles II. to Escape after the Battle of Worcester; The

Last Sleep of Argyle; The Execution of Montrose; The Landing of Charles II. at Dover.

The Central Hall has been already described. Leaving this through an arched

doorway on the west side, we enter St. Stephen’s Hall, which occupies the site

of the old St. Stephen’s Chapel. The Hall has a beautiful stone vaulting, the

bosses of which have subjects from the life of St. Stephen ; its windows are filled with

appropriate glass, and on pedestals are marble statues of Selden, Foley, R.A. ;

Hampden, Foley, R.A. ; Lord Falkland, Bell ; Lord Clarendon, Marshall, R.A. ; Lord

Somers, Marshall, R.A. ; Sir Robert Walpole, Bell ; Lord Chatham, M’Dowell, R.A. ;

Lord Mansfield, Baily, R.A. ; Burke, Theed; Fox, Baily, R.A.; Pitt, M’Dowell, R.A j

Grantham, Carew. A small staircase at one end leads to St. Stephen’s Crypt, de-

scribed at p. 304. In the niches of the doorway to St. Stephen’s Hall are twelve

statues of early Kings and Queens. We leave the Hall for St. Stephen’s Porch,

whence a fine view is obtained of Westminster Hall, which it was proposed by Sir

Charles Barry to make an antechamber to the House of Legislature. By a beautiful

new doorway on the east side we enter the Cloisters of St. Stephen’s, which have been

restored and enlarged. From the upper Cloister by the Lobby we enter

The House of Commons, 75 feet long, 45 feet wide, and 41 feet high ; the size

being as small as possible for speaking and hearing without effort during the average

attendance of Members, about 300. The twelve side windows are painted with the

arms of boroughs, by Hardman ; and at each end is a stone screen filled with brass

tracery. The ceiling has the sides and ends inclined, and the centre flat : it is divided

by massive ribs into compartments, which are filled with ground-glass tinted with the

rose, portcullis, and floriated circles; behind were originally placed the gas-lights,

with Faraday’s patent ventilation, cutting off connexion between the gas and the air

of the apartment, the vitiated air being conveyed away by tubes into a chamber above

the ceiling. The artificial light is now supplied from the chamber above the ceilings,

in which about 1000 feet of gas are consumed per hour in the evening sittings ; none

of the products of combustion escape into the House. The floor of the House is of

perforated cast iron, covered with matting, through which hot and cold air are admitted.

The Ventilation at present adopted in the two Houses is that of exhaustion, the air being put in

motion by means of heat applied by coke-fires in great upcast shafts, the two chief being in the Victoria

Tower and the Clock Tower. Under as well as above ground are hundreds of air-courses ; some for

supplying cold air, others for warm air, others for carrying off vitiated air. There are in this great

palace steam-pipes, of which the aggregate length is about 15 miles, and 1200 stop-cocks and valves

connected with these pipes. Taking the House that sits longest, we learn from Dr. Percy’s able Report,

that the air for the House of Commons is admitted from the Star Court and the Commons Court; it is

strained through gauze, and then warmed when necessary by Gurney’s batteries ; after which it ascends

through the floor of the House. Dr. Percy tells us that, although a great number of minor details are

666 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

defective and need completion, yet all appliances for effective ventilation exist; experiments have

demonstrated that the supply of fresh air passing through the Houses under varying conditions has

generally exceeded the proportion declared by the highest authorities to be amply sufficient. Satisfactory

as this may be, Dr. Percy reminds us that too much fresh air cannot be supplied, provided its tempera-

ture and its state as to moisture be suitable, and no draught be perceptible — a condition which should

be regarded as a fundamental principle in every so-called system of ventilation. While in some instances

the complaints made may be well founded, it is pretty certain that in other instances they resulted from

the special bodily conditions of the individuals making them; as the state of the stomach as to the

quantity of food which it contains, the amount of alcoholic liquor circulating through the system, the

muscular exertion which the body may have recently undergone, as well as the condition of mental

exertion or excitement, will greatly modify our impressions as to the agreeableness of the temperature

and the perfection of the ventilation.

It is impossible to burn the House down : you might set fire to and destroy the furni-

ture and fittings; but the flooring, walls, and roof would remain intact. The walls

are panelled with oak two-thirds up, carved with the linen-pattern, armorial shields,

pendants, foliated mouldings, and brattishings. Upon three sides are galleries for

Members and Strangers ; the Reporters’ Gallery being at the north end, over the

Speaker’s Chair, a sort of canopied throne elaborately carved with the royal arms, &c.

Behind the brass tracery above the Reporters’ Gallery is a gallery for ladies. At the

northern end of the House is The Bar, temporarily formed by sliding rods of brass ;

and here is the special seat of the Serjeant-at-arms. The Ministerial seats are on the

front bench to the right of the Speaker, the leaders of the Opposition occupying the

front bench opposite. Below the Speaker’s Chair is the Clerks’ Table, whereon, during

the business of the House, is placed the Speaker’s Mace ; not, as generally supposed,

” the fool’s bauble” which Cromwell ordered to be taken away, but the mace made at

the Restoration. Along both sides of the House are the Division Lobbies, ” Ayes”

west, and ” Noes” east; these being oak-panelled corridors, with stained-glass windows:

the chandeliers are of chased brass.

The Commons first assembled in their new House February 3, 1852 ; eight days

after which (February 11), Mr. Barry received knighthood.

The Commons Lobby is a rich apartment 45 feet square, and has on each side an

archway ; carved open screens inscribed ” Domine salvam fac Reginam ;” and windows

painted with the arms of parliamentary boroughs : the brass gas-standards, by Hard-

man, are elaborately chased. The doorways lead to the Library, the Post-office,

Vote-paper Office, Central Hall, &c. The Libraries are fitted with dark oak. The

’Refreshment Rooms for the Peers and Commons are similarly arranged, and respec-

tively are divided by a carved oak screen.

The public are admitted to view both Houses of Parliament, and all the public

portion of the New Palace of Westminster, every Saturday between 10 and 4 o’clock,

during the session, by tickets ; which are obtainable on Saturdays, between 11 and 4

o’clock, at the Office of the Lord Great Chamberlain, in the Royal Court.

Admission to hear the Debates : Lords — A Peer’s order ; Commons — Any Mem-

ber’s, or the Speaker’s, order. The House of Lords is open to the public, without

ticket, during the hearing of Appeals.

The Speaker’s Souse occupies part of the two pavilions, forming the end of the

river front of the Palace, next Westminster Bridge, and is approached by archways

from Palace-yard. It comprises from sixty to seventy rooms, and is finished

throughout in the style of the structure generally. The staircase, with its carvings,

tile-paving, and brass-work, is exceedingly effective and elegant, and everywhere there

is a large amount of painted and gilded decoration. Cloisters, approached from the

House, surround a court about 20 feet square : the window openings in the cloisters

are filled with stained glass, containing the arms of all the Speakers, with the date of

election. The principal floor includes the State dining-room ; the drawing-room,

37 feet 3 inches by 28 feet 9 inches; morning-room, 34 feet 6 inches by 23 feet 9 inches;

and a smaller dining-room, 34 feet by 24 feet 6 inches. The State dining-room is

45 feet by 23 feet 6 inches. Frames are set in the walls to receive a collection of portraits

of past Speakers. The rooms are lighted at night by wax-candles in corona? ; to light

the four rooms requires 400 wax-candles.

A Descriptive Handbook for the Pictures in the Souses of Parliament, by T. J.

Gullick, Painter (published by authority), will at once satisfy the requirements of

artists and the general public : the accounts of the Pictures are written with care

PATERNOSTER-ROW. 667

and discrimination. And a Guide to the Palace is printed by permission of the Lord

Great Chamberlain, and published by Warrington and Co.

PATERNOSTER-ROW,

BETWEEN the north side of St. Paul’s Churchyard, and the south of Newgate-

street, is one of a knot of monastic localities ; and is named from the turners of

rosaries, or Pater Nosters (tenth beads), dwelling there, with stationers or text-writers,

who wrote and sold ABC, with the Pater Noster, Ave, Creed, Graces, &c, in the reign

of Henry IV. Hatton describes it 1708 ” between Cheapside Conduit east, and Amen-

corner west; and the name, as also those of Ave-Maria-lane (at its west end), Creed-lane

(in Ludgate-street, opposite), and Amen-corner, given by reason of the religious houses

formerly of Black and Gray Friars, between which these streets are situated.” Pater-

noster-row was next “taken up” by mercers, silkmen, and lacemen : we read of Pepys,

in 1660 buying here ” moyre for a morning waistcoat ;” and the street was ofttimes

blocked up with the coaches of the nobility and gentry. But few names of publishers

are met with as carrying on business in Paternoster-row before the Great Fire : one of

these is “R. Harford, in Queen’s-head-alley, Paternoster-row, 1642,” and another,

“Christopher Meredith, Crane-alley, Paternoster-row.” After the Great Fire, the

mercers mostly migrated westward, as to Holywell-street and Covent Garden ; but

in a periodical of 1707 we read of ” the sempstresses of Paternoster-row :” and Strype,

in 1720, enumerates among its inhabitants tire-women, mercers, and silkmen. Here

lived Alderman Thomas, the mercer, whose shop bore the motto of Sir William Turner,

” Keep your shop, and your shop will keep you.” {Spectator, No. 509.) Strype also

mentions ” at the upper end, some stationers and large warehouses for booksellers ;”

but we find, as early as 1564, that Henry Denham, bookseller, lived at the Star, in

Paternoster-row, with the motto, Os homini sublime dedit. In the reign of Queen

Anne the booksellers removed here from Little Britain ; and, from about 1774, the

trade became changed to publishing books in ” Paternoster-row numbers.” Among

their publishers were Harrison, Cook, and the Hoggs ; to the latter succeeded their

shopman, Thomas Kelly, Alderman of Farringdon Within, and Lord Mayor, 1836-7.

Here was the printing-office of Henry Sampson Woodfall, the printer of the Public

Advertiser, wherein originally appeared Junius’s Letters.

At ” the Bible and Crown ” (the sign boldly carved in wood, coloured and gilt, in the

string-course above the window), lived the Rivingtons, the High-Church publishers, from

1710 to 1853: here they continued the Annual Register, originally Dodsley’s, with Edmund

Burke as a contributor; and here, in 1791, the Rivingtons commenced the British Critic :

but ” the old shop,” where Horsley and Tomline, Warburton and Hurd, used to meet,

was, in 1854, altered to a ” shawl emporium.” At No. 47 lived Robert Baldwin, pub-

lisher of the London Magazine, commenced 1732. The premises are now the publishing-

house of Messrs. William and Robert Chambers, of Edinburgh : the former Lord

Provost, 1866. Here the Robinsons established themselves 1763, the head of the firm

being ” King of the Booksellers :” here they published the Annual Register, with a

sale of 7000 copies each volume ; and the unsatisfactory Biographical Dictionary, by

Alexander Chalmers. At No. 39 have lived nearly a century and a half the Long-

mans; the imprint of Thomas Longman, with Thomas and John Osborne, at the sign of

” the Ship and Black Swan,” is dated 1725 ; and the same year we find a book of

Whiston’s bearing the same names, although an edition of Rowe’s Dramatic Works,

2 vols., 1725, is stated to be the earliest book with Longman’s imprint. Here was

commenced the original Cyclopedia, by Ephraim Chambers, upon which was based the

New Cyclopaedia of Dr. Rees. For several years the firm gave here dinners and soirees

to authors and artists ; and they have acquired world-wide repute as the publishers of

the works of Scott, Mackintosh, Southey, Sydney Smith, Moore, and Macaulay.

Messrs. Longman’s own sale of books has amounted to five millions of volumes in the

year. They possess some portraits of eminent literary persons.

The premises were rebuilt in handsome Renaissance style in 1863 ; the design in-

cluding the rebuilding of the adjoining house of Messrs. Blackwood and Sons, of Edin-

663 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

burgh, at the extreme north-west corner. The facade is executed in Portland stone. The

character of the carving, especially of the lower stories, is somewhat symbolical natural

foliage. On the key-stone of the central arch is represented Literature supported by

the Arts, Sciences, and Education. In the spandrels of the same are the ” Ship” and

the ” Swan,” being half-size copies of two medallions, saved from the old buildings,

and which had been trade signs or parts of these premises since the Great Fire.

No. 33, Hamilton, Adams, and Co., has been rebuilt in handsome style ; also No.

23, Kent and Co. No. 56, the Depot of the Religious Tract Society, was erected

in 1844, at a cost of 12,000£. : the handsome stone frontage, of 120 feet, is in the

Italian style. The Society commenced operations, in 1799, with a small handbill ; its

annual distribution of books and tracts in 1853 was nearly 26 millions, and its gross

income 9497£. ; in 1866, circulation 46,000,000. The Society issues five illustrated

periodicals, including the Leisure Sour and the Sunday at Some.

No. 50, long the Chapter Coffee-house, described at pp. 263-4, was closed as a coffee-

house, in December, 1853 ; having been for a century and more the resort of authors,

booksellers, and politicians : the bouse is referred to in the correspondence of Chatterton.

” A contemporary anecdote exhibits Goldsmith paymaster, at the Chapter Coffee-house, for Churchill’s

friend, Charles Lloyd, who, in his careless way, without a shilling to pay for the entertainment, had

invited him to sup with some friends of Grub-street.” — Forster’s Life of Goldsmith, p. 232.

Between Paternoster-row and Newgate-street is Newgate Market : here, in 1709

(Tatler, No. 44), was exhibited the Groaning Board :

“At the sign of the Woolsack, in Newgate Market, is to be seen a strange and wonderful elm-board ;

wbkhbeing touched with a hot iron, doth express itself as if it were a man dying with groans, &c. It

been presented to the king and his nobles, and hath given great satisfaction.” — Advertisement.

Panyer-alley, conjectured to have been named from its having been the standing of

bakers with their paniers, when bread was only sold in markets, and not in shops or

houses, is described at pp. 416 and 614.

At ” the sign of the Castle,” in Paternoster-row, Tarlton, Queen Elizabeth’s favourite

stage-clown, kept an ordinary, stated to have been on the site of Dolly’s chop-house.

” The Castle,” of which a token exists, was destroyed in the Great Fire, but was re-

built ; and here ” the Castle Society of Music ” performed. The premises were sub-

sequently the Oxford Bible Warehouse, destroyed by fire in 1822, and rebuilt.

Warwick-lane and Ivy-lane are noticed at p. 614.

There are likewise a Paternoster-row and Little Paternoster-row in Spitalfields,

where was formerly the Priory of St. Mary Spittle.

PENTONVILLE,

A DISTRICT of St. James’s parish, was originally a field of the Clerkenwell

Nunnery. It was in part the estate of Henry Peuton, Esq. ; and when the New-

road was formed through it, White Conduit House, and the house attached to Dobney’s

Bowling-green, were almost the only buildings here. One of the earliest was Hermes

House (in Hermes-street), built by Dr. de Valangin (a pupil of Boerhaave), who lived

to see Penton’s mile or town rising around him. Here lived the noted William Hunt-

ington, S.S., when he married the widow of Sir James Sanderson, Bart., ex-Lord

Mayor. Upon the north side of the New-road (Pentonville-hill) is St. James’s

Chapel, built 1788 : it has a clever altar-picture of Christ raising the damsel Tabitha.

Below the Chapel is the London Female’ Penitentiary, established 1807. In Regent-

terrace died the popular sporting writer, Pierce Egan, in 1849, at the full age of 77 :

and in Penton-place lived Grimaldi, ” Old Joe,” born in Stanhope-street, Clare-market,

in 1778, the year preceding that in which Garrick died.

Gerard, in his Serial, edit. 1633, describes certain kinds of orchis growing in dry

pastures and heaths, and upon chalky hills, and ” plentifully in sundry places, as in the

field by Islington, near London, where there is a bowling-green, under a few old

shrubby oaks.” The spot alluded to seems to have been Winchester-place, now the

Pentonville-road. Thomas Cooke, the notorious miser, lived here.

PICCADILLY. 669

PICCADILLY,

A LEADING street, 110 yards less than a mile in length, extends, in a line with

Coventry-street, from the north end of the Haymarket westward to Hyde Park

Corner. The name is derived from the run’s, called ” pickadils ” or ” peccadilloes,”

worn by the gallants of James I. and Charles I. ; and the stiffened points of which re-

sembled spear-heads, or picardills, a diminutive of pica, spear, Spanish and Italian.

Blount, in his Glossographia (1656), interprets it as the round hem about the edge or

skirt of a garment, and a stiff collar or band for the neck and shoulders ; whence the

wooden peccadilloes (the pillory) in Hudibras. Hence the first house built in the road

may have been named ” from its being the utmost or skirt house of the suburbs that

way;” and may not the name have originated from the pillory having been often set

up in this suburb or open ground ? Mr. Peter Cunningham took considerable pains to

unravel this question. Pennant traces the name to Piccadillas, turnovers or cakes,

which may have been sold in the suburban fields. Others say it took name from this :

” that one Higgins, a tailor, who built it, got most of his estate by piccadillas.” But

the name occurs many years earlier than the mention of the first house, or Piccadilly

House : thus Gerard, in his Herbal (1596), states that ” the small wild bu-glosse

growes upon the drie ditch-bankes about Pickadilla.” The road is referred to, in

Stow’s narrative of Sir Thomas Wyat’s rebellion in 1554, as ” the highway on the hill

over gainst St. James’s ;” and in Aggas’s Map (1560) it is lettered, ” The Waye to

Redinge.” The upper part of the Haymarket, and the fields adjoining north and

west, were the Pickadilly of the Restoration. Evelyn quotes the Commissioners’

orders, July 13, 1662, to pave ” the Haymarket about Pigudello;” and tradesmen’s

tokens of this date bear ” Pickadilla ” and ” Pickadilly.”

Piccadilly Hall appears to have been built by one Robert Baker, ” in the fields

behind the Mews,” leased to him by St. Martin’s parish, and sold by his widow to

Colonel Panton, who built Panton-square, and Panton-street. Lord Clarendon, in his

History of the Rebellion, speaks of ” Mr. Hyde going to a house called Piccadilly for

entertainment and gaming :” this house, with its gravel walks and bowling-greens, ex-

tended from the corner of Windmill-street and the site of Panton-square, as shown in

Porter and Faithorne’s Map, 1658. Mr. Cunningham found (see Handbook, 2nd edit,

p. 396), in the parish accounts of St. Martin’s, Robte Backer, of Pickadilley Halle ;”

and the receipts for Lammas money paid for the premises as late as 1670. Sir John

Suckling, the poet, was one of the frequenters ; and Aubrey remembered Suckling’s

” sisters coming to the Peccadillo bowling-green, crying, for the feare he should lose all

their portions.” The house was taken down about 1685 : a tennis-court in the rear

remained to our time, upon the site of the Argyll Rooms, Great Windmill-street. The

Society of Antiquaries possess a printed proclamation (temp. Charles II. 1671) against

the increase of buildings in Windmill-fields and the fields adjoining Soho ; and in tho

Plan of 1658, Great Windmill-street consists of straggling houses, and a windmill in a

field on the west side. The spacious house upon the east side was built for Dr. William

Hunter in 1770 : it had an amphitheatre and a magnificent museum (see p. 597). He

died here March 30, 1783. At the north-east end of the Haymarket stood the

gaming-house built by the barber of the Earl of Pembroke, and hence called Shaver’s

Hall : it is described by Gerard, in a letter to Lord Strafford in 1635, as ” a new

Spring Gardens, erected in the fields beyond the Mews :” its tennis-court remained in

James-street, until 1867, when it was altered for another occupation.

From Piccadilly being applied to the Hall and the buildings in the fields north

and west of the Haymarket (in ” Dogs-fields, Windmill-fields, and the fields adjoining

Soho”), early maps show the name to have been extended to the line of street to

Swallow-street, where begins Portugal-street, named after Catherine of Braganza,

queen of Charles II. : in an Act 3 James II. is named ” the mansion-house of the Earl

of Burlington, fronting Portugal-street ;” but that it was considered a subordinate

street, is shown by Wren having made the principal front of St. James’s Church face

Jermyn-street, with its handsome Ionic door. The name of Piccadilly, however, be-

came gradually extended to the whole line. Hatton, 1708, describes Piccadilly as

670 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

between Coventry-street and the end of the Haymarket, and Portugal-street. Until

1721 the road was mostly unpaved, and coaches were often overturned in the hollow.

The line from Devonshire House westward was, until the year 1740, chiefly occupied

by the figure-yards of statuaries, where also ” numberless wretched figures were

manufactured in lead for gardens.”* About this time an adjoining field was bought by

a brewer for his empty butts at 301., and sold in 1764. for 2500Z. (Malcolm.) In 1757

a tract of ground was leased to James Hamilton, Esq., who built thereon Hamilton-

place.

Hamilton-place is called after James Hamilton, Esq., Banger of Hyde Park in the reign of

Charles II., and the elder Hamilton of De Grammont’s Memoirs. No. 1, in 1813, was inhabited by

Lady Catherine Tylney Long : —

” Long may Long Tylney Wellesley Long Pole live.”

In 1818, this house passed to Lord Chancellor Eldon. No. 4, in 1814, passed to the great Duke of

“Wellington, whose London house it was when the Battle of Waterloo was won by this fine genius for

war. In this house, the bibliopole, Mr. Grenville, collected the fine Library bequeathed by him to the

British Museum. (See page 584!) No. 5 was bought by Mr. Joseph Denison, M.P., for 10,000 guineas, and

presented to his sister, Marchioness of Conyngham, who assembled here a fine collection of china; she

died in 1861, aged 92. At No. 7, Mr. John Philip Miles, of Leigh Court, made his collection of pictures of

the Italian school. This same No. 7 was afterwards inhabited by the late Mr. H. A. J. Munro, of Novar,

and the rooms refitted with another fine collection of pictures. Here were to be seen the celebrated

” Madonna dei Candelabri,” of Raffaelle, some noble landscapes by Turner, and a View of Venice, by

Bonington. No one house that I can call to mind, has held two private collections of pictures equally

famous as were once to be seen at No. 7. — Peter Cunningham; Builder, March 4, 1865.

Westward was The Hercules Pillars, which, with other noted Piccadilly inns, is

described at p. 455. In one of these petty taverns at Hyde Park Corner, Sir Richard

Steele and the poet Savage dined together, after having written a pamphlet, which

Savage sold for two guineas, to enable them to pay the reckoning. Among the strag-

gling houses here was the school kept by a Roman Catholic convert named Deane,

where Pope spent nearly two years of his boyhood ; and got up a play out of Homer,

the part of Ajax being performed by the gardener.

“Towards Hide Park” was Winstanley’s mathematical water-theatre, mentioned

in the Tatler, No. 74 (Sept. 29, 1709) : it had a windmill at the top ; and the quantity

of water used in the exhibition was from 200 to 300 tuns, ” with which curious effects

produced by hydraulic pressure were exhibited in the evening.” Evelyn speaks of

Winstanley, who built the first Eddystone Lighthouse; and of another mechanical

genius, Sir Samuel Morland, who writes from his ” hut near Hyde Park Gate.”

Nobth Side. — Apsley House, east of Hyde Park Gate, is described at pp. 541-543.

No. 142, Lord Willoughby de Eresby’s mansion, was sold in 1866 for 25,250Z., crown

lease, forty years ; in the same year its works of art realized upwards of 9000?.

At No. 145, the Marquis of Northampton, as President of the Royal Society, gave his

conversazioni. No. 147, the Baron Lionel de Rothschild’s (see p. 547), is partly built

upon the site of the mansion of William Beckford, the author of Vathek. At

Nos. 138 and 139, Piccadilly, lived the Duke of Queensbury, ” Old Q.,” the voluptuous

millionaire, who died at the age of eighty-six. At No. 138, in 1865, was dispersed

the valuable collection formed by the late Earl of Cadogan of plate ; Sevres, Chelsea,

Dresden, and other porcelain; antiquities, and objects of art and virtu, many of

historic interest ; the old silver plate brought from one to three guineas per or,.

No. 137, Gloucester House, is described at p. 549. Next is Park Lane, formerly

Tyburn-lane. Twenty years since, or thereabout, the Duke of Wellington was

walking up the narrow roadway of Park-lane, when, opposite Gloucester House, a

carter came along with a country wagon and team of horses : he called to the Duke,

who, being very deaf, did not hear the man, who had very nearly, with his wain,

thrown down and driven over the hero of a hundred fights. Opposite, in the Green

Park, was the Deputy- Ranger’s Lodge, built by Robert Adam, 1768, taken down,

1841 ; the pair of graceful stags upon the gate-piers, placed there by Lord William

Gordon, when Deputy-Ranger, was removed to the piers of Albert Gate, Hyde Park.

* East of Hertford House, ” near the Queen’s Mead House, in Hyde-park-road,” was the leaden

figure-yard established by John Van Nost, who came to England with King William III. A favourite

garden figure was an African kneeling witli a sun-dial on his head, such as we see to this day in the

garden of Clement’s Inn, and commonly said to have been brought from Italy by Lord Clare !

PICCADILLY. 671

At the corner of Down-street (leading to May Fair, see p. 564), is the mansion of

Mrs. Hope, described at p. 551 ; and further east, No. 106, Coventry Hoitsb

(see p. 246), closed as a club, March, 1854; No. 105, Hertford House, p. 550;

No. 94, Cambridge House, p. 547; No. 82, Bath House, p. 544; Devonshire

House, p. 548.*

Mr. Hope died at his mansion, in Piccadilly. He was the eldest son of the wealthy capitalist of

Amsterdam (the author oiAnastasius), by Miss Beresford, youngest daughter of Lord Decies, Archbishop

of Tuam, who married secondly the late Marshal Viscount Beresford. He was consequently brother of

Mr. Adrian Hope, of the banking firm at Amsterdam, and of Mr. Alexander Beresford Hope. He sat in

Parliament for East Looe and Gloucester, and was a Conservative in politics. His only child married,

in 1861, the Earl of Lincoln, now Duke of Newcastle. Mr. Hope was one of the earliest promoters

of the London and Westminster Joint-Stock Bank ; and the first Chairman of the Great Eastern Steam-

ship Company.

Half-moon-street was built in 1730, and was named from the Half-moon Ale-house

at the corner. Clarges-street was built 1717-18, and named from Sir Walter Clarges.

At the south-west corner is the mansion of the Duke of Grafton, designed by Sir

Kobert Taylor : here is the magnificent Louvre portrait of Charles I. on his horse, by

Vandyke. At No. 12, Clarges-street, lived for eight years Edmund Kean, the tragedian,

who kept in the house a tame puma. Next door, at No. 11, lived Lady Hamilton at

the time of Lord Nelson’s death.f Bolton-street was in 1708 “the most westerly

street in London, between the road to Knightsbridge south, and the fields north”

(Hatton). Here lived the Earl of Peterborough, who, in his autobiography (for-

tunately never printed), confesses having committed three capital crimes before he was

twenty years of age.

No. 80, Piccadilly, was the house from which Sir Francis Burdett was taken into

custody, April 6, 1810, by the Serjeant-at-Arms, after a resistance of four days:

” The lady she sate and she played on her lute,

And she sung, ’ Will you come to the bower?’

The serjeant-at-arms had stood hitherto mute,

And now he advanced, like an impudent brute,

And said, ’ Will you come to the Tower?’ ’*

In the riot which ensued, the Life Guards charged the mob, whence they got the flash

sobriquet ” Piccadilly Butchers.”

Stratton-street was named from the Stratton line of the Berkeleys, on whose estate

it was bnilt. No. 1 was the mansion of Mrs. Coutts, the widow of the rich banker,

and afterwards Duchess of St. Albans, ” who brought back the dukedom to the point

from which it set out — the stage ” (Leigh Hunt). By her grace the mansion was

bequeathed, with the greater portion of her immense wealth, to Miss Angela Burdett

Coutts, youngest daughter of Sir Francis Burdett, Bart.

Berkeley-street, built in 1642, and then the extremity of Piccadilly, was named from

Berkeley House, on the site of Devonshire House. Dover-street was built about 1688,

upon the estate of Henry Jermyn, Lord Dover, who resided on the east side ; as did

John Evelyn, who had been ” oftentimes so cheerful, and sometimes so sad, with

Chancellor Hyde ” on that very ground. On the west side lived Dr. John Arbuthnot,

physician to Queen Anne, ” Martinus Scriblerus,” and the friend of Pope, Swift, Gay,

and Prior. No. 37, sculptured with a mitre, is the town-house of the Bishop of Ely.

At No? 38 lived Lord King, who wrote a life of his profound kinsman, John Locke ;

published 1829. Albemarle-street was built by Sir Thomas Bond, of Peckham, on

part of the site of Clarendon House. In 1708 it was ” a street of excellent new

buildings, inhabited by persons of quality, between the fields and Portugal-street.”

“The earliest date now to be found upon the site of Clarendon House is cut in stone, and let into

the south wall of a public-house, the sign of The Duke of Albemarle in Dover-street, thus : * This is

* The ticket of admission to the performances of the Build of Literature and Art (first given at

Devonshire House, 1851), was designed by E. M. Ward, A.R.A. On the left is Richard Wilson, the

painter, with a picture under his arm, entering a pawnbroker’s shop. On the right is Daniel Defoe

coming out of Edmund Curll’s shop, with the manuscript of Bobinton Crusoe in his hand : his wife is

inquiring as to his success in selling the manuscript, and her little girl is standing in front. In the

centre foreground are grouped a palette, brushes, and books ; and at the top is a kneeling child smelling

a rose, and another pouring water into a rose-bud.

t In 1853 were added to the MSS. in the British Museum 63 autograph letters of Lord Nelson,

addressed to Lady Hamilton, from 1798 to 1305 ; including the last letter Nelson ever wrote, found in

his cabin, after the battle of Trafalgar, October 21st, 1805.

Stafford-street, 1686.’ In a plan of London etched by Hollar, in 1686, it is evident that the centre of

Clarendon House must have occupied the whole of the site of Stafford-street.” — Smith’s Streets.

Clarendon Souse was commenced by Lord Chancellor Clarendon in 1664, ” encou-

raged thereto by the royal grant of land, by the opportunity of purchasing the stones

which had been designed for the repairs of St. Paul’s, and by that passion for building

to which he was naturally too much inclined.” (Evelyn.) About the same time,

Lord Berkeley began to build Berkeley House on the west; and Sir John Denham,

Burlington House on the east. During the war and the plague year, Clarendon

employed about 300 workmen, which raised a great outcry against him : ” some called

it ’ Dunkirk House,’ intimating that it was built by his share of the price of Dunkirk :

others called it ’ Holland House,’ because he was believed to be no friend to the war ;

so it was given out that he had the money from the Dutch. It was visible that in a

time of public calamity he was building a very noble palace.” (Burnet.) Pepys

records that some rude people, in 1667, ” had been at my Lord Chancellor’s, where

they cut down the trees before his house and broke his windows ; and a gibbet either

set up before or painted upon his gate, and these words writ : ’ Three sights to be

seen — Dunkirk, Tangier, and a barren queen.’ ” He was lampooned also in one of the

State Poems, entitled ” Clarendon’s House-warming.” The day before his lordship’s

flight, Evelyn ” found him in his garden at his new-built palace, sitting in his gowt

wheele-chayre, and seeing the gates setting up towards the north and the fields. He

looked and spake very disconsolately. Next morning I heard he was gone.” Evelyn,

dining at Clarendon House with the Lord Chancellor’s eldest son, Lord Cornbury,

after his father’s flight, describes the mansion as ” now bravely furnished, especially

with the pictures of most of our English and modern wits, poets, philosophers, famous

and learned Englishmen ;” most of these pictures have been brought from Cornbury,

a seat of the Earls of Clarendon, Oxon, to the Grove, Watford, Herts.

Clarendon House was subsequently let to the great Duke of Ormond. After Lord

Clarendon’s death in exile, it was sold, in 1675, for 26,000Z. to the young Duke of

Albemarle, who soon parted with it to Sir Thomas Bond, by whom the mansion was

taken down, and Bond-street and Albemarle-buildings (now street) and Stafford-street

were built upon the site. A map in the Crowle Pennant shows the entrance-gate to

the court-yard to have been in Piccadilly, directly opposite St. James’ s-street ; and the

grounds to have extended to the site of Bruton-street. Two Corinthian pilasters,

long preserved, at the Three Kings’ Inn gateway, No. 75, in Piccadilly, are believed to

have belonged to Clarendon House ; the name is preserved in the Clarendon Hotel,

built upon a portion of the gardens between Albemarle and Bond-streets.

” All the waste ground at the upper end of Albemarle and Dover-streets is purchased by the Duke

of Grafton and the Earl of Grantham, for gardening ; and the road there leading to May Fair is ordered

to be turned.” — The British Journal, March 30, 1723. (This purchase is commemorated in Grqfton-

street.)

In Albemarle-street, at an apothecary’s, lodged Dr. Berkeley when he was made

Dean of Derry. Richard Glover, the merchant-poet, who wrote ” Leonidas ” and

“Admiral Hosier’s Ghost,” died here in 1785. On the east side is the Moyal

Institution ; the columnar facade by L. Vulliamy, 1838, adapted from the remains of

Mars Ultor and Jupiter Stator, and the Pantheon at Rome. No. 23 is the Alfred

Club-house (see p. 240). At No. 50, since 1812, have lived John Murray, father

and son, publishers j the former, ” the friend and publisher of Lord Byron,” died

1813. Opposite is Grillion’s Hotel, where Louis XVIII. sojourned in 1814 : here and

at the Clarendon were held the Roxburghe Club Dinners.

Bond-street was commenced in 1686 by Sir Thomas Bond, Bart., Comptroller of

the Household to Queen Henrietta-Maria. ” Bond-street loungers, who pass from

2 till 5 o’clock,” are mentioned in the Weekly Journal, June 1, 1717. At No. 41,

“at the Silk-Bag Shop,” died, March 18, 1768, Laurence Sterne, broken-hearted,

neglected, and in debt : some of the most touching scenes in Tom Jones are laid at

Mr. Allworthy’s lodgings in Bond-street. Here lodged James Boswell when he gave a

dinner to Johnson, Goldsmith, Reynolds, and Garrick. No. 27 was the library of Ebers,

who in seven years lost 44,080?. by the Italian Opera-house, Haymarket. No. 10 has

a large billiard-room, painted 1850 in encaustic by E. P. Lambert, with panels bordered

with arabesques ; the principal subjects being Bacchus and Ariadne, Hebe, ” Willie

PICCADILLY.

673

brew’d a peck o’ inaut,” ” Let me the cannikin clink,” and the ” Wassail bowl.” The

tasteful house-front, No. 21, was designed by the Inwoods, architects of St. Pancras*

Church, Euston-road.

In 1766, the mansion, now the Clarendon Hotel, was let by the Duke of Grafton to Mr. Pitt (Earl of

Chatham), for his town house. M. Grillion, proprietor of the Clarendon Hotel, was once rather unex-

pectedly honoured by the visit of two guests, the French ex-Queen Amelie and Prince Napoleon Jerome.

To eacli the presence of the other was made known, but the ex-Queen acknowledged the right of the

Pr>- U, “~w ;« :he hotel. The Prince, like a gentleman, offered to withdraw if his presence gave the

venerable lady any displeasure; but the ex-Queen would not hear of his being put to any inconvenience.

The delicacy and courtesy of M. Grillion were taxed, but stood the test. The Clarendon has more issues

than one, and the worthy host contrived that the two illustrious personages should never find them-

selves on the same staircase. — Athenceum, Ho, 2001.

Burlington Gardens, originally ” Ten- Acres Fields,” extended from Bond-street to

Uxbeidge House, noticed at p. 557: here died, April 29,

iticulous correspondent renimua

.t there is no such institution in

l as ” The Albany.” Zvlr. G. S.

in his ” Ghosts of Piccadilly,”

)wn clearly the curious status of

amous building. ” Not ’ The

’”; the definite article, though

universal, was not used by the

I tenants of the cbjfnbers, and it

2s a writer wlifc jbossips about

o respect their ¦nflbm.”

i Mr. Stragt is ijlt quite accurate,

’he AlbEV^I

^akas heSugges

w b9*”f0und

a of

liar

of whom Mr

ly, we may

s further ^.h

were oriAn

e, one of

)liopbile, L

id library

Anglesey, K.G., aged 86. In Cork-street the

Marshal Wade a house with a beautiful front, ill-

i by Rubens, but in vain : Lord Chesterfield said

;ld not live in it, but intended to take the house

le). At the south-east corner of Grafton-street

rt, who published so many pretty picture-books

d-street was the Clifford-street Club (see p. 245).

an open field called Conduit-mead (now street),

which were found in 1867, in excavating large

Jos. 34 and 35, New Bond-street : these cellars

re, and will contain upwards of half a million

elson lodged in 1797. At No. 21 was exhibited,

y Haydon for Sir Robert Peel, and upon which

let.

3t, are the Burlington Aecade (see p. 20), and

o. 52, adjoining, are the Albany Chamb ers, let in

ere the :Cj designed by Sir William Cnambers, was sold

rites. Inci- s t Viscount Melbourne, who exchanged it with

the ante- Dover, House, Whitehall. In 1804 the mansion

rjjfe House. j an d fi rs t let in chambers, named Albany from

ouses on The ceilings of the mansion were painted for

upied by e y, and Rebecca. In chambers here have lived

and, whose i Sj Lord Byron, Lord Lytton, Lord Macaulay,

site were originally the houses of the Earl of

y no means as

in these days,

the modern

hambers therrf’afce quite as

this resist

to Blen-

H

Stephen Fox, brother of Charles. dy stanhope, with large gardens,

;here too, sold it to the first Lord e t i n London without a turning : at the corner

urne, and by Melbourne it was rcn> died Sir William Petty, the earliest writer

t. England, and ancestor of the Lansdowne family :

a letter from Sir William Tetty to Pepys is dated Piccadilly, September, 1687. The

Dilettanti Club met at The Prince, in this street, in 1783.

Swallow-street is named from ” Swallow Close,” part of the crown lands granted to

Lord Chancellor Clarendon : here was the oldest Scottish Presbyterian church in the

metropolis, and rebuilt (see p. 222). a Swallow-street originally extended northward to

Tyburn-road, from the centre of the present Regent-street. St. James’s Hall is

described at pp. 426-427. Ayr or Air-street was in 1659 the most westerly street.

South Side. — Hyde Park Corner turnpike-gate was removed in 1825. The long

dead wall of the Park (now open railing) was hung with ballads ; here robberies after

dark were frequent.

Arlington-street, “a very graceful and pleasant street” (Ration, 1708), was built

upon the property of Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, about 1689: hence, also,

JBennet-street. In Arlington-street lived the Duchess of Cleveland, after the death of

Charles II.; Lady Mary Wortley Montague, before her marriage; William Pulteney,

Earl of Bath, on the west side, next door to Sir Robert Walpole, where was born

Horace Walpole, who wrote in 1768, “From my earliest memory, Arlington-street

has been the ministerial street ;” in 1750 he records a highwayman attacking a post-

chaise in Piccadilly, at 11 o’clock on a Sunday night, and escaping. Upon the site of Stafford-street, 1686.’ In a plan of London etched by Hollar, in 1686, it is evident that the centre of

Clarendon House must have occupied the whole of the site of Stafford-street.”— Smith’s Streets,

Clarendon Souse was commenced by Lord Chancellor Clarendon in 1664, ” encou-

raged thereto by the royal grant of land, by the opportunity of purchasing the stones

which had been designed for the repairs of St. Paul’s, and by that passion for building

to which he was naturally too much inclined.” (Evelyn.) About the same time,

Lord Berkeley began to build Berkeley House on the west ; and Sir John Denham,

Burlington House on the east. During the war and the plague year, Clarendon

employed about 300 workmen, which raised a great outcry against him : ” some called

it ’ Dunkirk House,’ intimating that it was built by his share of the price of Dunkirk :

others called it ’ Holland House,’ because he was believed to be no friend to the war ;

so it was given out that he had the money from the Dutch. It was visible that in a

time of public calamity he was building a very noble palace “• -fiTe return of the In? B

records that some rude people, in 1667, “had been at my Loi the n foil° r * Jl t w hiding*

they cut down the trees before bis house and broke his windows previous stateine!

set up before or painted upon his gate, and these words writ

seen — Dunkirk, Tangier, and a barren queen.’ ” He was lampc /

State Poems, entitled “Clarendon’s House-warming.” The da TotaJ Gold and Bullior

flight, Evelyn “found him in his garden at his new-built pal Of tfrh”’i

wheele-chayre, and seeing the gates setting up towards the noi in Bank of ISiM^i

looked and spake very disconsolately. Next morning I heard 1 ^f a f urv and Darlebus-

dining at Clarendon House with the Lord Chancellor’s eldes Nates of Othfe* B.

after his father’s flight, describes the mansion as “now brave ^il.Vj °t Exchange” and

with the pictures of most of our English and modern wits, poe Discount j”t ’”

and learned Englishmen;” most of these pictures have been 1 Bills Ty «?*q –

a seat of the Earls of Clarendon, Oxon, to the Grove, Watford, felr^tmeftt* ’•••*•’••••”•*< Clarendon House was subsequently let to the great Duke ol Other Assets 1 Clarendon’s death in exile, it was sold, in 1675, for 26,000Z. ^ ital V.’.*.::.”;, Albemarle, who soon parted with it to Sir Thomas Bond, by Notes in C’ Y”r taken down, and Bond-street and Albemarle-buildings (now sP, State Deposits were built upon the site. A map in the Crowle Pennant sho Other J ’ *rnv s ** 8 ’ the court-yard to have been in Piccadilly, directly opposite St. Clearing Hotfse Met S grounds to have extended to the site of Bruton-street. T fa*^*? „ 3 ^^55,fi84, against M long preserved, at the Three Kings’ Inn gateway, No. 75, in P er – have belonged to Clarendon House ; the name is preserved i built upon a portion of the gardens between Albemarle and Be OIL XKM’S ” All the waste ground at the upper end of Albemarle and Dover-stre ,. . of Grafton and the Earl of Grantham, for gardening ; and the road there 1 rn-A y-X ’ street.) **zF(&lW} D Tr>r!!%

In Albemarle-street, at an apothecary’s, lodged Dr. BerlfiTude oil f» r m~Jiu ;

Dean of Derry. Richard Glover, the merchant-poet, who wrote ” Leonidas ” and

“Admiral Hosier’s Ghost,” died here in 1785. On the east side is the Royal

Institution ; the columnar facade by L. Vulliamy, 1838, adapted from the remains of

Mars Ultor and Jupiter Stator, and the Pantheon at Borne. No. 23 is the Aifeed

Club-house (see p. 240). At No. 50, since 1812, have lived John Murray, father

and son, publishers; the former, “the friend and publisher of Lord Byron,” died

1843. Opposite is Grillion’s Hotel, where Louis XVIII. sojourned in 1814 : here and

at the Clarendon were held the Roxburghe Club Dinners.

Bond-street was commenced in 1686 by Sir Thomas Bond, Bart., Comptroller of

the Household to Queen Henrietta-Maria. ” Bond-street loungers, who pass from

2 till 5 o’clock,” are mentioned in the Weekly Journal, June 1, 1717. At No. 41,

“at the Silk-Bag Shop,” died, March 18, 1768, Laurence Sterne, broken-hearted,

neglected, and in debt : some of the most touching scenes in Tom Jones are laid at

Mr. Allworthy’s lodgings in Bond-street. Here lodged James Boswell when he gave a

dinner to Johnson, Goldsmith, Reynolds, and Garrick. No. 27 was the library of Ebers,

who in seven years lost 44,080Z. by the Italian Opera-house, Haymarket. No. 10 has

a large billiard-room, painted 1850 in encaustic by E. F. Lambert, with panels bordered

with arabesques; the principal subjects being Bacchus and Ariadne, Hebe, “Willie

PICCADILLY. 673

brew’d a peck o’ rnaut,” ” Let me the cannikin clink,” and the ” Wassail bowl.” The

tasteful house-front, No. 21, was designed by the Inwoods, architects of St. Pancras’

Church, Euston-road.

In 1766, the mansion, now the Clarendon Hotel, was let by the Duke of Grafton to Mr. Pitt (Earl of

Chatham), for his town house. M. Grillion, proprietor of the Clarendon Hotel, was once rather unex-

pectedly honoured by the visit of two guests, the French ex-Queen Amelie and Prince Napoleon Jerome.

To each the n^sence of the other was made known, but the ex -Queen acknowledged the right of the

P”*—© to De in the hotel. The Prince, like a gentleman, offered to withdraw if his presence gave the

venerable lady any displeasure; but the ex-Queen would not hear of his being put to any inconvenience.

The delicacy and courtesy of M. Grillion were taxed, but stood the test. The Clarendon has more issues

than one, and the worthy host contrived that the two illustrious personages should never find them-

selves on the same staircase. — Atheiueum, Xo. 2001.

Burlington Gardens, originally ” Ten- Acres Fields,” extended from Bond-street to

Swallow-street : here is Uxbridge House, noticed at p. 557 : here died, April 29,

1854, Field-Marshal the Marquis of Anglesey, K.G., aged 86. In Cork-street the

Earl of Burlington designed for Field-Marshal Wade a house with a beautiful front, ill-

contrived inside to suit a large cartoon by Rubens, but in vain : Lord Chesterfield said

that ” to be sure he (the Marshal) could not live in it, but intended to take the house

over against it, to look at it ” ( Walpole). At the south-east corner of Grafton-street

was the book-shop of Benjamin Tabart, who published so many pretty picture-books

for children. At the corner of Clifford-street was the Clifford-street Club (see p. 245).

New Bond-street site was in 1700 an open field called Conduit-mead (now street),

from the Conduit there, remains of which were found in 1867, in excavating large

wine-cellars for Mr. Basil Woodd, at Nos. 34 and 35, New Bond-street : these cellars

cover more than one-third of an acre, and will contain upwards of half a million

bottles of wine. At No. 141, Lord Nelson lodged in 1797. At No. 21 was exhibited,

” Napoleon at St. Helena,” painted by Haydon for Sir Robert Peel, and upon which

Wordsworth wrote his memorable sonnet.

In Piccadilly, east of Old Bond-street, are the Burlington Arcade (see p. 20), and

Burlington House (see p. 545). No. 52, adjoining, are the Albany Chamb ers, let in

suites to single gentlemen. The centre, designed by Sir William Chambers, was sold

in 1770, by Lord Holland, to the first Viscount Melbourne, who exchanged it with

the Duke of York for Melbourne, now Dover, House, Whitehall. In 1804 the mansion

in Piccadilly was altered and enlarged, and first let in chambers, named Albany from

the second title of the Duke of York. The ceilings of the mansion were painted for

Lord Melbourne by Cipriani, Wheatley, and Rebecca. In chambers here have lived

George Canning, M. G. (Monk) Lewis, Lord Byron, Lord Lytton, Lord Macaulay,

and Lord John Manners. Upon the site were originally the houses of the Earl of

Sunderland, Sir John Clarges, and Lady Stanhope, with large gardens.

Sackville-street is the longest street in London without a turning : at the corner

house, east, opposite St. James’s Church, died Sir William Petty, the earliest writer

on the science of political economy in England, and ancestor of the Lansdowne family :

a letter from Sir William Petty to Pepys is dated Piccadilly, September, 1687. The

Dilettanti Club met at The Prince, in this street, in 1783.

Swallow-street is named from ” Swallow Close,” part of the crown lands granted to

Lord Chancellor Clarendon : here was the oldest Scottish Presbyterian church in the

metropolis, and rebuilt (see p. 222). i Swallow-street originally extended northward to

Tyburn-road, from the centre of the present Regent-street. St. James’s Hall is

described at pp. 426-427. Ayr or Air-street was in 1659 the most westerly street.

South Side. — Hyde Park Corner turnpike-gate was removed in 1825. The long

dead wall of the Park (now open railing) was hung with ballads ; here robberies after

dark were frequent.

Arlington-street, “a very graceful and pleasant street” (Ratton, 1708), was built

upon the property of Henry Bennet, Earl of Arlington, about 1689: hence, also,

Bennet-street. In Arlington-street lived the Duchess of Cleveland, after the death of

Charles II.; Lady Mary Wortley Montague, before her marriage; William Pulteney,

Earl of Bath, on the west side, next door to Sir Robert Walpole, where was born

Horace Walpole, who wrote in 1768, “From my earliest memory, Arlington-street

has been the ministerial street ;” in 1750 he records a highwayman attacking a post-

chaise in Piccadilly, at 11 o’clock on a Sunday night, and escaping. Upon the site of Walpole’s house Kent built No. 17, for Pelham the Minister, the house now the

Earl of Yarborough’s. Lord Nelson lodged in this street in 1800-1, when Lady

Nelson separated from him. At No. 16 (the Duke of Rutland’s), the Duke of York,

second son of George III., lay sick, from August 26, 1826, to his death, Jan. 5, 1827,

as touchingly narrated by Sir Herbert Taylor. No. 26, Beaufort House, was in

1854 sold to the Duke of Hamilton. The houses on the west side of the street com-

mand a charming view of the Green Park.

St. James’s-street, Bury-street, Jermyn-street, King-street, and St. James’ s-place,

are described at pp. 480-483.

No. 160, Piccadilly, is the entrance to the Wellington Dining -House (formerly Crock-

ford’s Club). The Egyptian Hale is described at p. 319.

At No. 169, Wright, the publisher of the Anti-Jacobin, kept shop, which was the

resort of the friends of the Ministry, as Debrett’s was of the Opposition. In a first-

floor met the editors of the Anti-Jacobin, including Canning, Frere, and Pitt ; with

Gifford as working editor, and Upcott (Wright’s assistant) as amanuensis. (See Notes

and Queries ; and Poetry of the Anti-Jacobin, new edition, 1854.) In Wright’s shop,

Peter Pindar (Wolcot) was castigated by Gifford. No. 177 was the shop of William

Pickering, the eminent publisher, whose title-pages bear the Aldine anchor: his

valuable stock of old books, rare works on angling, modern copyrights and reprints,

was dispersed in 1854. No. 182 (Fortnura and Mason’s) is designed from a mansion

at Padua, renovated and altered. The Museum of Practical Geology is described

at p. 595. In the Inventory of Rich’s Theatrical Properties (Tatler, July 16, 1709)

is ” Aurungzebe’s scymitar, made by Will. Brown in Piccadilly.” Megent Circus (see

Regent- street).

No. 201, Piccadilly, is the St. James’s Gallery of Art, where is exhibited a most remarkable collec-

tion of pictures principally in Water-Colours, painted by E. Facon Watson, from nature; mostly scenes

of rural life, one hundred in number : they unite solidity with brilliancy of colour, and are distinguished

by the most elaborate care and delicacy of manipulation ; the foliage, flowers, and grasses (especially

the ferns), are of microscopic accuracy, and the atmosphere of remarkable transparency and charac-

teristic beauty. Many of them are executed in a new style in the practice of the art, which is the artist’s

secret.” They were painted in the leisure of a life-time, and are unquestionably exquisite works of art.

St. James’s Chuech is described at p. 169 : in 1867 the interior was renovated and

altered according to Wren’s original intention : it has two large sunlights in the ceiling.

Nollekens, the sculptor, when a boy, with Scheemakers, the sculptor, in Vine-street, ” had an idle

propensity for bell-tolling, and in that art, for which many allowed him to have a superior talent, he

would frequently indulge by running down George-court to St. James’s Church, to know how funerals

went on. Whenever his master missed him, and the dead-bell was tolling, he knew perfectly well what

Joey was at.” — Smith’s Life of NoUekens.

PICTURE GALLERIES (PUBLIC).

NATIONAL GALLERY (The), on the north side of Trafalgar-square, was built

between 1832 and 1838, from the design of Professor Wilkins, R.A., and was

his latest work. Its length is 461 feet, and the greatest width 56 feet ; and it is

built partly with the materials of the King’s Mews, the site of which it occupies. The

best feature is the centre, the Corinthian columns of which are from the portico of

Carlton House, and are adapted from the Temple of Jupiter Stator at Rome.* This

portico has interior columns, the only example in the metropolis ; and the view com-

mands the broad vista of Parliament-street and Whitehall, and the picturesque towers

of the Palace at Westminster. But the Gallery central dome is ill-proportioned and

puny; and the corresponding cupolas upon the wings are poor imitations of Vanbrugh’s

embellishment of private mansions. Through the eastern wing is a thoroughfare to

Duke’s-court, claimed by the inhabitants as a right of way long enjoyed by them

through the King’s Mews. The vestibule is divided, by screens of scagliola columns

(with scenic effect), into two halls ; and from each is a staircase leading to the upper

floors, each a suite of five rooms. The eastern wing is appropriated to the Royal

Academy of Aets, which see. The western wing is occupied by the national col-

lection of pictures. The ground-floor is mostly official apartments, but was originally

intended as a depository for public records.

In the hall are S. Joseph’s marble statue of Sir David Wilkie, R.A., with his palette

* A complete set of casts from these fine specimens of ancient art exists in the Museum of Mr. Joseph

Gwilt, F.S.A., Abingdon-street, Westminster.

PICTURE GALLERIES {PUBLIC). 675

inserted beneath glass in the pedestal ; a fine alto-relievo, in marble, by T. Banks, E.A.,

of Thetis and her Nymphs rising from the Sea to condole with Achilles on the loss of

Patroclus ; a bronze bust of the Emperor Napoleon; and a marble bust of William

Mulready, R.A., by H. Weekes, R.A.

The National Gallery was founded in 1824, by the purchase of Mr. Angerstein’s

collection of pictures for 57,000£. : it is said, upon the suggestion of George IV. ; but

it originated equally in Sir George Beaumont’s offer, in 1823, to the Trustees of the

British Museum, to present his collection to the public. The Angerstein pictures (38)

were first exhibited in the house of Mr. Angerstein, 100, Pall Mall, May 10, 1824;

whither Sir George Beaumont’s 16 pictures were transferred in 1826. In 1831,

35 pictures were bequeathed by the Rev. W. Holwell Carr ; in 1836, 6 pictures were

presented by William IV. ; 17 bequeathed in 1837 by Lieut.-Col. Ollney ; 15 be-

queathed in 1838 by Lord Farnborough ; 14 bequeathed in 1846 by R. Simmons :

and the Gallery has since been increased, by donations, bequests, and comparatively

few Government purchases, to about 495 pictures ; independently of the Vernon and Turner collections.

The current expenses connected with the National Gallery amount to an annual sum of 15,894£., of which the Director receives 1000Z., and the Keeper and Secretary 750Z. The establishment at Trafalgar-square costs 1523£, of which 327£. is given to curators, and 7861. to police. A sum of 621?. is spent at South Kensington, 2000£. is allowed for travelling expenses, agency, &c., and 10,000£. for the purchase of pictures.

The first Catalogue of the National Gallery, by W. Young Ottley, has long been out of print : the fullest extant is by B. N. Wornum. Among the more notable pictures are two Groups of Saints and the Baptism of Christ, (eleven pictures,) by Taddeo Gad Ji, painted in tempera, bright colour upon a gold background ; curious specimens of middle-age art.

Italian School: The Virgin and Child, with Saints and a Dead Christ (lunette) from an altar-piece,

by Francesco Francia, early Bolognese School. Virgin and Child, with St. John, by P. Perugino; divinely

holy in character and expression. The Baising of Lazarus, by Sebastian del Piombo : the figure of

Lazarus by Michael Angelo. St. Catherine of Alexandria, the Vision of a Knight, portrait of Pope

Julius II., and fragment of a Cartoon of the Murder. of the Innocents, by Eaphael; and the Madonna,

Infant Christ, and John, (Garvagh Eaphael, 90001.) Three of Correggio’s greatest works : Mercury in-

structing Cupid in the presence of Venus ; the Ecce Homo ; and the Holy Family (La Vierge au Panier) :

the three pictures cost 14,400/. A Holy Family, Noli me tangere, and Bacchus and Ariadne, by Titian.

Susannah and the Elders, by Ludovico Caracci. Eight works of Annibale Caracci : Silenus gathering

Grapes ; Pan (or Silenus) teaching Apollo to play on the Beed ; and Christ appearing to St. Peter. Nine

works of Guido, including Susannah and the Elders; Andromeda and the ” Ecce Homo.” Ten works of

Claude (Landscapes and Seaports), including the Chigi and Bouillon Claudes, the latter the Embarkation

of the Queen of Sheba. A fine Landscape (Mercury and the Woodman) by Salvator Rosa. Gaston de

Foix, by Giorgione. The Madonna and Child enthroned, with Saints John and Christopher, with the

Doge Giovanni Mocenigo, in adoration, by Vittore Carpaccio. St. Bock with the Angel, by Paolo

Moraudo. Venetian Senator, by Francesco Bonsignori. The Madonna, Infant Christ, and St. Anne, by

Libri. Madonna in Prayer, and Madonna and Child, by Sasso Ferrato. Christ and his Disciples going

to Emmaus, by Melone. Milanese Nobleman, by Solario. ” Ecce Homo,” by La Spagna.

Spanish School : Philip IV. of Spain hunting the Wild Boar, Portrait of Philip, the Nativity, (in the

Manger,) and the Dead Warrior, by Velasquez. The Holy Family, St. John with the Lamb, and the

Spanish Peasant-boy, by Murillo.

Flemish School: Portraits of a Flemish Gentleman and Lady, in a bedchamber; under the mirror is

written “Johannes de Eyck fait hie, 1434.” Nine works of Bubens: including the Sabine Women;

Peace and War, presented to Charles I. by Bubens, in 1630 ; the Brazen Serpent ; St. Bavon, harmonious

and picturesque ; Bubens’s own Chateau ; the Judgment of Paris, from the Orleans Collection ; and tho

Apotheosis of James I., sketched for the Whitehall ceiling. Vandyke’s magnificent St. Ambrosius and

the Emperor Theodosius ; and the same painter’s ” Gevartius,” or Vander Geest, a portrait scarcely

equalled in the world, — but by some attributed to Bubens. The Woman taken in Adultery, one of

Bembrandfs finest early works; Christ taken down from the Cross; Christ blessing little Children;

his Adoration of the Shepherds; a Woman Bathing; and three of his marvellous portraits. A sunny

Landscape, with cattle and figures, by Cuyp. The Misers, or Money-changers, by David Teniers.

French School: Eight works of Nicholas Poussin, including two Bacchanalian Festivals, and the

Plague of Ashdod, very fine. Also, six works of Gaspar Poussin, including his masterpiece, a Landscape

with Abraham and Isaac ; and his fine classical picture of Dido and ./Eneas in a Storm.

Mnglish School : Sun rising in a Mist, and Dido building Carthage, by J. M. W. Turner. Mr. Lewis,

the comedian, ” Gentleman Lewis,” by M. A. Shee, bequeathed by the son of Mr. Lewis, with 10,000/. in

money, the proceeds, about 300/. a year, to be laid out in the improvement of the Fine Art*.

The Ttjenee Pictures are arranged chronologically, and comprehend three

distinct styles, mostly corresponding with Turner’s three visits to Italy in 1819, 1829, and

1840. The first period reaches to his 27th year, when he was forming a style, by

studying his English predecessors, Wilson, Loutherbourg, and Gainsborough ; his

earliest oil-pictures resemble those of Wilson in style. In the second period, 1802 to

1830, Turner is seen at first as a follower of Claude and Gaspar Poussin, and then

striking out a style of landscape-painting, entirely original, and wholly unrivalled for

brilliancy of colouring and effect ; the majority of his greatest works belong to that period, from his Calais Pier, 1803, to the Ulysses deriding Polyphemus, 1829. In his

third period, dated from 1830, during the last twenty years of his life, everything else

was sacrificed to the splendour of light and colour ; yet some of Turner’s finest works

belong to this period — as his Childe Harold’s Pilgrimage, 1832, and the Temeraire,

1839. The Turner pictures, as arranged by Mr. Wornum, have been hung in the west

room of the National Gallery.

RoyaIi Academy ov Arts (the) occupies the east wing of the National Gallery,

already described. The Academy originated in a Society of Artists in Peter’s-court,

St. Martin’s-lane.* With its apparatus Hogarth established the Society of Incorpo-

rated Artists, who held their first Exhibition at the house of the Society of Arts, in

the Adelphi, April 21, 1760 ; next in Spring Gardens. In 1768 certain artists seceded

from the Society, were constituted a ” Royal Academy,” removed to Pall Mall, and

elected Reynolds president (at the first Exhibition, in 1769, there were 136 pictures,

and only three sold) ; and George III. granted them, in 1771, apartments in Old

Somerset House.

The Foundation consists of 40 Royal Academicians ; 20 Associates, from whom the

members are chosen to fill up vacancies; and six Associate Engravers. The Academi-

cians elect from among themselves annually the President j they also appoint a Secre-

tary and Keeper. The Council of eight members elect among the body Professors of

Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture ; and appoint a Professor of Anatomy, who must

be a surgeon. Dr. Johnson was first President of Ancient Literature; and Dr. Gold-

smith, Professor in Ancient History, was succeeded by Edward Gibbon. Lectures are

delivered to the students and exhibiting artists, free of expense : and prize medals are

awarded biennially and annually. Students are also sent to Rome at the expense of

the Academy. The members are under the superintendence and control of the Queen,

who confirms and signs all appointments.

Among the Foundation Members of the Academy were Sir Joshua Reynolds {President) ; Sir William

Chambers, the architect of Somerset House ; Gainsborough and Wilson, the eminent landscape-painters ;

Benjamin AVest (the second President); Joseph Wilton, the sculptor; P. Bartolozzi, the engraver;

Charles Catton, Master of the Painter-Stainers’ Company; and Angelica Kauffmann and Mary Moser. —

(See Zoffany’s Picture of the Royal Academicians, 1773.)

Upon the rebuilding of Somerset House, apartments in the western wing were given

to the Academicians ; and the first Exhibition here was opened May, 1780.

The Library ceiling was painted by Sir Joshua Reynolds and Cipriani : the centre, by Reynolds,

represents ” the Theory of Painting,” a majestic female, holding compasses and a label inscribed,

” Theory is the knowledge of what is truly nature.” The four compartments, by Cipriani, were per-

sonifications of Nature, History, Allegory, and Fable. The Council-room was painted by West : centre,

the Graces unveiling Nature, surrounded by figures of the Four Elements ; oval pictures of Invention,

Composition, Design, and Colouring, by Angelica Kauffmann; medallions of Apelles, Phidias, Apollodorus,

and Archimedes; and a circle of chiaroscuro medallions of Palladio, Bernini, Michael Angelo, Fiammingo,

Raffaelle, Domenichino, Titian, and Rubens, painted by Rebecca.

Horace Walpole writes to Mason :— ” You know, I suppose, that the Royal Academy at Somerset

House is opened. It is quite a Roman palace, and finished in perfect taste, as well as boundless expense.

Gainsborough has five landscapes there, of which one especially is worthy of any collection and

of any painter that ever existed.” Walpole’s copy of “the Exhibition Catalogue” for 1780 exhibits

against the landscapes by Gainsborough MS. expressions of ” charming,” ” very spirited,” ” as admirable

as the great masters.”

In 1838 the Academy removed to the National Gallery. They possess a library of

prints, and books on art (see p. 464), which is open to students. Here are also several

pictures by old masters. The School for Drawing from the Antique is held in the

Sculpture-room ; the School for Painting in the West-room ; and the School for Draw-

ing from the Life-model is held in the interior of the dome of the edifice. In the Hall

of Casts (mostly presented by George IV., and procured through the intervention of

Canova) are a beautiful group of Niobe and her Daughters ; the graceful Mercury of

the Vatican ; Fauns with their Cymbals ; the Egyptian Jupiter, and the Olympian ;

Apollo and the Muses ; the Laocoon ; the Fighting and Dying Warrior j a mutilated

remnant of a statue of Theseus, &c. Upon the ceiling of the Council-room are the

paintings, by Sir Joshua Reynolds and other Academicians, transferred from the Library

and Council-room at Somerset House.

* This Society (according to Edwards) was formed from a ” Life School,” or Living Model Academy,

which was established in the house of Peter Hyde, a painter, in Greyhound-court, between MiK’ord-lane

and Arundel-street, Strand, under the direction of Mr. Moser, afterwards the first Keeper of the Royal

Academy. The School removed to Peter’s-court about 1739. The houses in Greyhound-court were

taken down between 1851 and 1854.

PICTURE GALLERIES (PUBLIC). 677

The Diploma Pictures and Sculptures (each member presenting a work of art upon

his election) are placed in the Council-room, and include Sir Joshua Reynolds’ full-

length portrait of George III. ; Fuseli’s ” Thor battering the Serpent of Midgard in

the boat of Hymer the Giant;” a Rustic Girl, by Lawrence ; the Tribute- Money, by

Copley ; Charity, by Stothard ; Jael and Sisera, by Northcote ; the Falling Giant, by-

Banks ; and Apollo and Marpessa, and a cast of the Shield of Achilles, by Flaxman ;

Christ blessing little Children, by West ; Boys digging for a Rat, by Wilkie ; Opie’s

Infancy and Age; portrait of Gainsborough, by himself; Sir William Chambers, by

Reynolds; and Sir Joshua in his doctor’s robes, by himself. Cupid and Psyche, by

Nollekens ; bust of Flaxman, by Baily ; West, by Chantrey, &c.

There are, also, a celebrated copy, size of the original, of the Last Supper, by

Leonardo da Vinci, made by his pupil, Marco d’Oggioue; copies of the Descent from

the Cross, and the two Volets, by Rubens, made by Guy Head ; and copies of the

Cartoons of RafTaelle, by Thornhill, — the size of the originals, Also, small copies in

oil of the frescoes by Raffaelle in the Vatican ; two fine Cartoons (the Holy Family

and St. Anna, and Leda) by L. da Vinci ; bas-relief in marble of the Holy Family, by

Michael Angelo, presented by Sir George Beaumont, &c. Among the memorials pre-

served by the Academy are two palettes of Reynolds and Hogarth. The Diploma

Pictures, &c, may be seen by application in writing to the Keeper of the Gallery.

The Exhibition is opened annually on the first Monday in May ; admission 1*., cata-

logue Is. : it closes the last week in July ; but there is an after-exhibition. All works

sent for exhibition are submitted to the Council, whose decision is final. The receipts

at the door have reached, in one season, 11,6002.

The qualifications for becoming a Student of the Royal Academy are, an approved drawing or mode

by the applicant, and testimony of his moral character ; and next, an approved drawing or model of an

antique figure in the Academy, accompanied by outline drawings of an anatomical figure and skeleton,

not less than two feet high, with list, references, &c. A similar rule applies to Architectural Students.

The Annual Dinner is given by the Academicians on Saturday previous to the open-

ing of the Exhibition, in the West Room, where hangs the massive chandelier presented

to the Academy by George IV.

In less than a ninety-nine years “crown and public” tenure of existence Academy of Arts” in London has had ./ice presidents: — 1. Sir Joshua Reynolds ; 2. Benjamin West,

¦who declined knighthood ; 3. Sir Thomas Lawrence; 4. Sir Martin Archer Shee; 5. Sir Charles Lock

Eastlake.

Total sum3 received from the Annual Exhibition, from 1769 to 1859 (inclusive), less the expenses

attending the same, 267,583£. 15». 5d., — sums received by dividends on stock, &c., 91.567J. 8s. 9d., — sums

received from his Majesty’s Privy Purse, from 1769 to 1780, 6116Z. 2*.,— Turner bequest, 20.000Z.,— sums

expended by the Royal Academy, from the commencement of the institution, in the gratuitous instruc-

tion of the students, general management, &c., 218,4692. 5*., — paid in pensions to distressed and super-

annuated members and their widows, from 1802 to 1859, 28,7392. 0». Id., donations to distressed and

superannuated artists and their families, from 1769 to 1859, 32,7722. 58. lOi. The balance in favour of

the Academy in 1867 was 104,4992. 19». 8d.

A new Gallery for the Academy is in course of erection in the rear of Burlington

House, Piccadilly, which is to form the frontage of the Academy.

The Sheepshanks’ Pictures, were, in 1857, by a deed of gift presented to the nation

by Mr. Sheepshanks of Rutland-gate, and are deposited in a building erected for the

purpose at South Kensington.

It comprises 233 oil paintings, cabinet size, ranging over a period of fifty years, and embracing very choice examples of many of the most eminent painters of the time. The collection is incidentally noticed at page 604. A complete list appeared in the Athenceum, No. 1530. It is especially rich in the works of Mulready, Leslie, Landseer, Wilkie, Stothard, and Webster. Of Mulready there are 34 examples— the earliest painted in 1806, the latest in 1848 : among them is the famous Choosing the Wedding Gown.

By Leslie there are 24 paintings, the best illustrations from Shakspeare, Moliere, and Sterne. By Landseer there are 16 paintings, besides drawings and sketches ; the largest picture is the Drover’s
Departure — scene in the Grampians ; also the Old Shepherd’s Chief Mourner. The five pictures by Turner include, the vessel in distress off Yarmouth ; and Venice. The only fine picture by Wilkie is
The Refusal— Duncan Gray. The six by Webster are all good examples. Stothard’s 10 pictures include several of his Shakspeare pieces. Further, here are 9 examples by Collins; 6 by Constable; as many by Redgrave; 3 each by Stanfield, Roberts, Lee, and Danby; 2 each by Etty, Eastlake, and Creswick; 9 by Callcott ; 11 by Cooke ; 9 by Cope : 4 by Uwins, &c. ; besides drawings by Turner, Prout, &c.

The Vernon Collection of the English School, 162 pictures, temporarily exhibited at South Kensington, was presented to the nation in 1847, by Mr. Robert Vernon, who died at his house, No. 50, Pall Mall, May 22, 1849, in the 75th year of his age.

Among the pictures are : Sir Joshua Reynolds — the Age of Innocence (very fine), cost Mr. Vernon 1450 guineas. Gainsborough — Landscape : Sunset (fine). Richard Wilson — lour small pictures (fine).
Sir A. W. Callcott— Littlehampton Pier (fine). Wilkie— The Newsmongers (fine); The Bagpiper (fine). Collins, R.A.— Happy as a King. J. M. W. Turner, R.A.— William III. landing at Torbay ; Composition Landscape (fine) ; Two Views in Venice (fine). Clarkson Stanfleld, R.A.— The Entrance to the Zuyder Zee (fine). David Roberts, R. A.— Interior of St. Paul’s at Antwerp (fine). Sir Edwin Landseer, R.A. — Peace and War (Peace very fine) ; Highland Piper and Dogs ; Spaniels of King Charles’s breed ; the Dying Stag; High Life and Low Life Dogs. W. Mulready, R.A.— The Last In ; the Ford. T. Webster R.A.— The Dame School (fine). D. Maclise, R.A.— Play Scene in Hamlet. E. M. Ward, R.A.— South Sea Bubble ; Disgrace of Clarendon.

Both the above collections are open on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Saturdays, free ; and on Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays (students’ days) on payment of 6d. each.

The National Portrait Galleey, 29, Great George-street, Westminster, was established in 1856, with a Government grant for 2000?., when the Earl of Ellesmere presented the famous Chandos Shakspeare, which he had purchased at the Stowe sale in 1848, for 355 guineas ; the Gallery has since been supported by an annual grant of 2000?. for purchases, and by donations of portraits of unquestionable importance, subject to the approbation of the trustees, without partisan or sectarian exclusiveness.

Admission free on Wednesdays and Saturdays.

The National Poeteait Exhibition of Pictures, obtained by loan, originated by the Earl of Derby, was held in the new building at the South Kensington Museum, in the year 1866-7 ; the historic periods “of the paintings extending from the twelfth century to 1688; and in 1867, from 1688 to 1800.

Dulwich Galleey, founded by Sir Francis Bourgeois, R.A., who left to the College 354 pictures, 10,000Z. to erect and keep in repair a building, and 2000?. to provide for the care of the pictures : built by the suggestion of John Philip Kemble, the actor, at Alleyn’s College, Dulwich. (See p. 274.) The Murillos and Cuyps (19) are especially fine. Teniers, 21 in all. Mrs. Sheridan and Mrs. Tickell, by Gainsborough, full-lengths, very fine. Mrs. Siddons, and his own portrait, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, are indifferent duplicates. This is the only Collection free to the public which affords an opportunity for studying the Dutch masters. Open each week free, except Thursday and Friday, charge 6d.

Among the private Picture Galleries of London are several to which access can be obtained by accredited application, by letter, to the proprietor. Such are — the collection in Devonshire House (see p. 548), rich in Italian pictures, and more particularly cf the Venetian school ; Sir Robert Peel’s, of which Waagen speaks so highly as ” a series of faultless pearls of the Flemish and Dutch schools ;” the Bridgewater, formerly the Stafford Gallery (p. 545), to which a great work in four folio volumes has been specially dedicated, and which holds the first rank among English collections, being rich in all schools — pre-eminently so in the highest, and containing above 300 pictures ; the collection in Stafford House (p. 557), belonging to the Duke of Sutherland; Lord
Ashburton’s (p. 544) ; the Duke of Wellington’s (p. 542) ; Mrs. Hope’s (p. 551) ; and the Marquis of Westminster’s, better known as the Grosvenor Gallery (p. 550), one of the wealthiest in the country in the works of Rembrandt, and the Dutch and Flemish painters, and containing many and valuable works in all the other chief schools.

PIMLICO,

A NAME of gardens of public entertainment, often mentioned by our early dramatists, and in this respect resembling ” Spring Garden.” In a rare tract, Newes from Mogadon, 1598 : ” Have at thee, then, my merrie boys, and hey for old Ben Pimlico’s nut-browne ’.” and the place, in or near Hoxton, was afterwards named from him. Ben Jonson has,

“A second Hogsden,
In days of Pimlico and eye-bright.” — The Alchemist.

” Pimlico path ” is a gay resort of his Bartholomew Fair ; and Meercraft in The Devil is an A.ss, says : —

“I’ll have thee, Captain Gilthead, and march up
And take in Pimlico, and kill the bush
At every tavern.”

In 1609 was printed a tract entitled Pimlico, or Prince Red Cap, ’tis a Mad World at Hogsden. The name is still preserved in ” Pimlico Walk,” from opposite St. John’s church to High-street, Hoxton, a ” near cut ” to the Britannia Theatre. Sir Lionel

Eash, in Greene’s Tu Quoque, sends his daughter “as far as Pimlico for a draught of Derby ale, that it may bring colour into her cheeks.” Massinger mentions,

” Eating 1 pudding-pies on a Sunday,
At Pimlico or Islington.” — City Madam.

Aubrey, in his Swrrey, speaks of ” a Pimlico Garden on Bankside.” Pimlico, the district between Knightsbridge and the Thames, and St. James’s Park and Chelsea, was noted for its public gardens : as the Mulberry Garden, now part of the site of Buckingham Palace; the Dwarf Tavern and Gardens, afterwards Spring Gardens, between Ebury -street and Belgrave-terrace ; the Star and Garter, at the end of Five-Fields-row, famous for its equestrianism, fireworks, and dancing ; and the Orange, upon the site of St. Barnabas’ church. Here, too, were Banelagh and New Ranelagh. But the largest garden in Pimlico was Jenny’s Whim, to the left of the road over Ebury (late the Wooden) Bridge, formerly Jenny’s Whim Bridge. The site is now covered by St. George’s-row. The tavern was opened temp. George I. for fireworks, and in its grounds were a pond for duck-hunting, garden-plots, alcoves, and grotesque figures : it was a summer resort of the upper classes; and a tract of 1755 is entitled “Jenny’s Whim, or a sure Guide to the Nobility and Gentry,” &c. In later years it was frequented by crowds from bull-baiting in the adjoining fields. Among the old signs were the Bag o’ Nails, Arabella-row, from Ben Jonson’s ” Bacchanals ;” the Compasses, of Cromwell’s time (near Grosvenor-row) ; and the Gun Tavern and Tea-gardens, Queen’s-row, with its arbours, and costume figures, the last to disappear. Pimlico is still noted for its ale-breweries.

Upon the verge of St. James’s Park were Tart Hall, and Arlington, subsequently Buckingham, House, architect, Captain Wynde or Wynne, a native of Bergen-op-Zoom.

So late as 1763, Buckingham House enjoyed an uninterrupted prospect south and west to the river, there being only a few scattered cottages, and the Stag Brewery,” between it and the Thames.—

W. Bardwell.

Pimlico contains the Belgrave district, including Belgrave, Eaton, and Chester Squares, and the Grosvenor-road ; beyond which the Eccleston sub-district of new squares, terraces, and streets, extends to the Thames. Here are two churches in the Early Decorated style : Holy Trinity, close to Vauxhall Bridge ; and St. Gabriel’s, Warwick-square, with a spire 160 feet high.

Ebury Street and Square are named from Ebury Farm, 430 acres (lammas land), leased by Queen Elizabeth at 2l. per annum.

In Lower Belgrave-place, corner of Eccleston-street, Sir Francis Chantrey, R.A., lived 27 years, and executed his finest busts, statues, and monuments : he died here Nov. 25, 1841. Next door but one, at No. 27, lived Allan Cunningham, the poet, and foreman to Chantrey.

In Stafford-row died, in 1796, Bichard Yates, the celebrated comedian, and teacher of acting, aged 89.

He was found dead through disappointment of a dinner of eels, which he ordered of his housekeeper, but which she failed to provide.

At Pimlico, facing the south wing of Buckingham Palace, is the office of the Duchy of Cornwall, formerly at Somerset House. The site was purchased by the public from the land revenues, at 4300Z., and the building cost about 10,000Z. The fronts are mostly formed in cement, painted stone-colour. Here are managed the affairs of the Duchy of Cornwall, from the revenues of which is derived more than half the income of the Prince of Wales.

Pimlico is also the name of a place near Clitheroe, in Lancashire ; Lord Orrery (in his Letters) mentions ” Pimlicoe, Dublin ;” and ” Pemlico ” is the name of a bird of Barbadoes, ” which presageth storms.” — Notes and Queries, Nos. 29, 31, and 125.

PLAGUE, THE GREAT.

LONDON has frequently suffered from the ravages of pestilence ; and thousands and

tens of thousands of the inhabitants have been swept by its virulence into one

common grave. But at no period of its history was the mortality so devastating as in

the year 1665, the ” last great visitation,” as it is emphatically entitled by Defoe in

his Journal of the Plague Year. This work was originally published in 1722 : now,

as Defoe was only two years of age when the Great Pestilence occurred, his Journal

680 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

was long considered as much a work of imagination as his Robinson Crusoe ; but there

is abundant evidence of his having compiled the Journal from contemporary sources ;

as the Collection of all the Bills of Mortality for 1665, published as London’s Dread-

ful Visitation ; the Loimologia of Dr. Hodges ; and God’s Terrible Voice in the City,

by the Rev. Thomas Vincent, 1667 ; and many of the events which De Foe records

derive collateral support from the respective Diaries of Pepys, Evelyn, and Lord Claren-

don — works which were not published until very long after Defoe’s decease, and the

manuscripts of which he could never have perused. Defoe is believed to have been

familiar with the manuscript Account of the Great Plague by William Boghurst, a

medical practitioner, formerly in the Sloane Collection, and now preserved in the British

Museum : it is a thin quarto manuscript of 170 pages, from which only a few extracts

have been published. Boghurst was an apothecary in St. Giles’s-in-the-Fields ; and he

states that he was the only person who had then (1666) written on the late Plague

from experience and observation. Kapin and Hume have recorded the event in little

more than a single sentence ; but Dr. Lingard has grouped the details of De Foe’s

Journal into a terrific picture, which has been compared to the celebrated delineation

of the Plague of Athens by Thucydides.

“No one can take up the book (Defoe’s) without believing that it is the saddler of Whitechapel who

is telling his own story ; that he was an eye-witness to all he relates : that he actually saw the blazing

star which portended the calamity ; that he witnessed the grass growing in the streets, read the inscrip-

tions upon the doors of the infected houses; heard the bellman crying, ’Bring out your dead. ’* saw the

dead-carts conveying people to their graves, and was present at the digging of the pits in which they

were deposited.” — Wilson’s Life and Timet of Defoe.

The Great Plague was imported, in December, 1664, by goods from Holland, where,

in Amsterdam alone, 20,000 persons had been carried off by the same infection within

a short time. The infected goods were opened at a house in St. Giles’s parish, near

the upper end of Drury-lane, wherein died four persons ; and the parish books record

of this period the appointment of searchers, shutting up of infected houses, and contri-

butions by assessment and subscription. A Frenchman, who lived near the infected

house in Drury-lane, removed into Bear-binder-lane (leading to St. Swithin’s-lane),

where he died, and thus spread the distemper in the City. Between December and

the ensuing April the deaths without the walls of the City greatly increased, and in

May every street in St. Giles’s was infected. In July, in August, and September the

deaths ranged from 1000 to 7000 per week ; and 4000 are stated to have died in one

fatal night ! In the latter month fires were burnt in the streets three nights and days,

” to purge and purify the air.”

” St. James’s Park was quite locked up ; ” and, July 22 : “I by coach home, not meeting with but two

coaches and but two carts, from White Hall to my own house, that 1 could observe ; and the streets

mighty thin of people.” — Pepys.

” June 7th.— The hottest day that ever 1 felt in my life. This day, much against my will, I did in

Drury-lane see two or three houses marked with a red cross upon the doors, and ’ Lord have mercy upon

us !’ writ there.” — Pepys.

” Sept. 7. — I went all along the City and suburbs, from Kent-street to St. James’s, — a dismal pas-

sage, and dangerous, to see so many coffins exposed in the streets, now thin of people ; the shops shut

up, and all in mournful silence, as not knowing whose turn it might be next.” — Evelyn.

” Within the walls,

The most frequented once and noisy parts

Of town, now midnight silence reigns e’en there :

A midnight silence at the noon of day !

And grass, untrodden, springs beneath the feet.” — Dryden.

The Court removed from Whitehall to Hampton Court, and thence to Salisbury and Oxford; and the Londoners, leaving their city, carried the infection into the country; so that it spread, towards the end of this and the following year, over a great part of England. The Plague gradually abated in the metropolis ; but it was not until Nov. 20, 1666, that public thanksgivings were offered up to God for assuaging the pestilence in London, Westminster, and within the bills of mortality. There were reported dead of the Plague in 1664-5, 68,596; probably less by one-third than the actual number.

Among the Plague medicines were Pill Rufus and Venice treacle. Another antidote was sack. Tobacco was used as a prophylactic ; and amulets were worn against infection.

Among many touching episodes of the Plague, is that of a blind Highland bagpiper, who, having fallen asleep upon the steps of St. Andrew’s Church, Holborn-hill, was conveyed away in the dead-cart ; and but for the howling of his faithful dog, which waked him from his trance, he would have been buried as a corpse. Of the piper and his dog a group was sculptured by Caius Gabriel Cibber : it was long after purchased by John the great Duke of Argyll, subsequently to whose death it for many years occupied a site in a garden in the front of No. 178, Tottenham-court-road, whence it disappeared about 1825. (See London Magazine, April, 1820.)

Another episode is that of a grocer in Wood-street, Cheapside, who shut himself up with his family, with a store of provisions, his only communication being by a wicket made in the door, and a rope and pulley to draw up or let anything down into the street; and thus they escaped infection.

In the Intelligencer, for the year 1665, No. 51, appeared the following advertisement : —

” This is to notify that the master of the Cock and Bottle, commonly called the Cock Alehouse, at Temple Bar, hath dismissed his servants and shut up his house for this long vacation, intending (God willing) to return at Michaelmas next ; so that all persons whatsoever who have any accompts with the said master, or farthings belonging to the said house, are desired to repair thither before the 8th of this instant July, and they shall receive satisfaction.” One of these farthings is still preserved at the Cock Tavern.

Forty years before, Evelyn records 1625 as ” the year in which the pestilence was so epidemical, that there dy’d in London 5000 a week.” In another great Plague year, 1603, there died 30,561 : —

” London now smokes with vapors that arise
From his foule sweat, himselfe he so bestirres :
’ Cast out your dead !’ the carcase-carrier cries,
Which he by heapes in groundlesse graves interres.

* « • »

” The London lanes (thereby themselves to save)
Did vomit out their undigested dead,
Who by cart-loads are carried to the grave :
For all these lanes with folke were overfed.

* * * *

” Time never knew, since he bcgunne his houres
(For aught we reade), a plague so long remaine
In any citie as this plague of ours ;
For now six yeares in London it hath laine.”

The Triumph of Death, by John Davies, 1609.

It will be recollected, from the several accounts of the Plague in London, that a cross was affixed by the authorities to the door of the house where there was infection.

In the Guildhall Library, not long since, among some broadsides, was found one of these ” Plague Crosses.” It was the ordinary size of a broadside, and bore a cross extending to the edges of the paper, on which were printed the words, ” Lord have mercy upon us.” In the four quarters formed by the limbs of the cross were printed directions for managing the patient, regulations for visits, medicines, food, and water.

This ” Cross” unfortunately, is not now to be found.

POLICE.

THE original Police of the metropolis (which until the commencement of the last century, comprised only the ” City and liberties,” with Westminster) consisted of the aldermen, deputy-aldermen, common-councilmen, ward-clerk, ward-bedell, inquestmen or leet jury, and constables of the several wards, who were formerly themselves the night-watchmen by rotation, of Englishmen, — for no stranger was allowed to discharge so responsible an office: the ward, with its precincts, being no other than the highest development of the Anglo-Saxon hundred with its tithings. We find this form of Police to have existed from the earliest settlement of the valley of the Thames by a northern nation ; and to have continued in use, as the type and model for the rest of the realm, until the institution of the present Police.

The few officers of the central Police in the City, — the upper-marshal, the under-marshal, and the marshalmen, — under whom was organized, at a very modern date, a subordinate force of sixty-eight men, were in like manner the type of the Bow-street and other police attached to the several magistrates’ offices established in the outlying portions of the metropolis so recently as the close of the last century.

In the metropolitan parishes without the City, the watch was chiefly under local acts ; the establishment in each consisting of a beadle, constables, and generally head-boroughs, street-keepers, and watchmen, as in the several wards of the City, but working to a result much worse : the petty constables being served by deputies, in many instances characters of the worst and lowest description ; having no salary, but living by extortion, and countenancing all species of vice.

To abolish such a system, Sir Robert Peel’s Metropolitan Police Act of the 10th of George IV. c. 44, was passed, superseding the Bow-street foot-patrol, and the whole of the parochial police and watch outside the City, by one force both for day and night duty; in the sole appointment, order, and superintendence of two Commissioners, acting under the responsibility of the Secretary of State for the Home Department.*

The Metropolitan Police force consisted at the beginning of 1867, of 7548 men — namely, 27 superintendents, 221 inspectors, 818 sergeants, and 6482 constables, a small increase over the return of the previous year. The highest salary of a constable was 78/., the lowest 49/. 8s., exclusive of clothing and coals. The cost of the police for the year 1866, including the dockyard police and all incidental expenses, such as for refreshments supplied to destitute prisoners and medical aid for poor persons in cases of accident in the public throughfares, amounted to 621,819/. The Metropolitan Police- rate of 1866 produced 383,133/. ; the Treasury contributed 117,519/., besides large special payments for the dockyard police and services at military stations and public offices. Private individuals or companies paid 6204/., and the theatres 258/. for the services of the police. The cost of the police courts in 1866 amounted to 49,535/. j

it falls upon the public purse. There is one chief magistrate receiving 1500/. a year, and 22 magistrates with 1200/. The fees and penalties levied at the police-courts of these magistrates, and of other justices within the district, amounted to 15,186/. ; these fees and penalties are paid over to the Exchequer.

The first chief magistrate (and, indeed, the first stipendiary magistrate, in the sense of being paid by stipend only, to the exclusion of fees) was Sir J. Fielding, the half-brother of Henry Fielding, the novelist. The following is a list of the chief magistrates from the institution of the office to the present day: — Sir John Fielding, Sir W. Addington, Sir Richard Ford, Mr. Bead, Sir Nathaniel Conant, Sir Eobert Baker, Sir Richard Birnie, Sir Frederic A. Roe, Mr. Hall, Sir Thomas Henry. Sir Robert Baker resigned his office in 1821, in consequence of a complaint that had been made of his conduct in allowing the funeral procession of Queen Caroline to be diverted from the appointed course. Sir Frederic A. Roe, who was knighted in 1832, received a baronetcy in 1836, upon succeeding to the estates of his uncle, Mr. Adair Roe. Sir Richard Birnie was the only chief magistrate who had not been a junior magistrate.

The great living machine keeps guard over our metropolis, with its millions of rateable property, and watches at night, in order that its resident population may sleep in safety; although six thousand professional thieves are constantly on the watch for opportunities to plunder. During the night the Police never cease patrolling the whole time they are on duty, being forbidden even to sit down. The Police District is mapped out into divisions, the divisions into subdivisions, the sub-divisions into sections, and the sections into beats, all being numbered, and the limit carefully defined. To every beat certain constables are specifically assigned ; and they are provided with little maps called beat-cards. So thoroughly has this arrangement been carried into effect, that every street, road, lane, alley, and court within the metropolitan district — that is, the whole of the metropolis — is visited constantly day and night by some of the police. Within a circle of six miles from St. Paul’s, the beats are ordinarily traversed in periods varying from 70 to 25 minutes j and there are points which, in fact, are never free from inspection. Nor must it be supposed that this system places the wealthier localities at a disadvantage ; for it is an axiom in police, that you guard St. James’s by watching St Giles’s.

” Intelligence is conveyed from one constable to the other till it reaches the station-house j thence, by an admirable arrangement of routes and messengers, it passes to the Central Office at Whitehall, thence along radiating lines to each division, and from the divisional station-house to every constable in the district. In a case of emergency, * The late Vincent George Dowling claimed to be the originator of the plan on which this new police system was organized: even the names of the officers— inspector, sergeant, &e. — were published in Bell’s Life in London (of which newspaper Dowling was editor) nearly two years before the system was proposed by Sir Robert Peel. Mr. T. Duffus Hardy contributed, from documents in the Record Office, important information to Sir Robert Peel on the ancient police arrangements of London.

The Commissioner could communicate intelligence to every man in the force, and collect the whole of the men in one place, in two hours. The power of rapid concentration has worked so effectually, that since the establishment of the Metropolitan Police, it has never been found necessary to call the military into actual operation in aid of the civil force. Nor can clearer proof be given of perfect discipline, than the fact that 5000 men in the prime and vigour of life, with moderate wages,— 2*. 5d. to 3*. per day, — exposed in an unusual degree to the worst temptations of London, and discharging, for the most part during the night, a very laborious duty, always irksome and often dangerous, are kept in complete control without any extraordinary coercive power.” — Edinburgh Review.

The Corporation have their own Police ; the ordering of the force being vested in the Commissioner, subject to the approbation of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, or any three of them ; and also of the Secretary of State for the Home Department.

In addition to a Commissioner, chief superintendent, surgeon, receiver, and four clerks, the force consists of 1 superintendent, 14 inspectors, 14 station-sergeants, 12 detective-sergeants, 56 sergeants, and 590 constables. The entire annual cost is about 65,000/. The clothing, helmets, stocks, and armlets cost, for the year, 2951/. Os. 2d. ; lanterns and oil, 310/. The estimated income for the year is 67,161/. 9*. 2d. ; derived from the following sources : — Produce of 8d. in the pound on the assessable rental of the City (1,518,332/.), after deducting 6 per cent, for poundage and deficiencies, 47,575/. ; proportion of expenses from City’s cash, 15,175/. 16s. 6d. ; estimated fines and penalties, 550/. ; payment out of Bridge-house estate for watching London and Blackfriars Bridges, 668/. 4*. ; rents from constables, 1078/. 4s. ; payment for men on private service at the Bank, Post-office, Blackwall Railway, City of London Union, Inland Revenue-office, Times-office, Guildhall justice-room, as assistant-gaoler, omnibus time-keepers, Messrs. Gooch and Cousens, Messrs. Pawson and Co., and Messrs. Kearns, Major, and Field, 2114/. 4s. 8d. These accounts show an estimated surplus of receipts over expenditure amounting to 2597/. 10s. 8d.

The Horse Patrol was added in 1836 ; and the Thames Police, with the Westminster Constabulary and the Police-office Agency, in 1838, when the old detective force was superseded.

Before the establishment of the Thames Police, by Mr. R. Colquhoun, the annual loss by robberies alone upon the river was half a million sterling ; the depredators being termed river-pirates, light and heavy horsemen, mud-larks, cope-men, scuffle-hunters. They were frequently known to weigh a ship’s anchor, hoist it with the cable into a boat, and when discovered, to hail the captain, tell him of his loss, and row away. They also cut craft and lighters adrift, ran them ashore, and cleared them. Many of the light-horsemen cleared five guineas a night ; and an apprentice to a game-waterman often kept his country-house and saddle-horse. In 1797, the first year of the Police, the saving to the West India merchants alone was computed at 100,0002. ; and 2200 culprits were convicted of misdemeanours on the river during the same period.

POPULATION.

TAPERELL and Innes’s Map of London and Westminster in the early part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1560), based upon Vertue’s Map, 1737, shows on the east the Tower, standing separated from London, and Finsbury and Spitalfields with their trees and hedge-rows; while on the west of Temple Bar, the villages of Charing, St. Giles’s, and other scattered hamlets are aggregated, and Westminster is a distinct city. The intervening north bank of the river Thames, or the Strand, has a line of seats and gardens of the nobility. At the date of this map London contained about 145,000 inhabitants. In the narrative of the visit of the Duke de Nayera to the Court of Henry VIII. in 1513, London is described as one of the largest cities in Christendom, ” its extent being near a league.” ” There were 150,000 houses in London before the Fire. About 15,000 or 16,000 die yearly in London when no plague, which is thrice more than in Amsterdam. The excise in London comes to about 12,000/. a year. London stands on 460 acres of ground. Lost in books 150,000/. at the Fire of London. London Bridge is 800 feet long, 60 feet high, and 30 broad ; it hath a drawbridge in the middle, and 20 feet between each arch.” — Diary of the Eev. John Ward, 1648 to 1673.

Sir William Petty, in his Political Arithmetic, printed in 1683, after much study of statistical returns and bills of mortality, demonstrates that the growth of the metropolis must stop of its own accord before the year of grace 1800; at which period the population would, by his computation, have arrived at exactly 5,359,000.

Nay more, were it not for this halt, he shows that the increase would double in forty years, with a slightly accelerating increment, as he gives the amount of human beings in the city for 1840 at 10,718,880 ! The identical year 1800, the commencement of a truly important century, found London still enlarging: brick-fields and scaffolding were invading all its outskirts ; but the inhabitants, who had increased in a reasonably rapid ratio, numbered only 830,000.

” There are no accurate accounts of the population of London previously to the Census of 1801. The population of the City was estimated by Graunt, in his famous Treatise on Bills of Mortality, at 384,000 in 1661; and adding one-fifth to this for the population of Westminster, Lambeth, Stepney, and other outlying parishes, he estimated the entire population at about 460,000. (Observations, &?., 5th ed. pp. 82, 105.) In 1696 the population of the City and the out-parishes was carefully estimated, by the celebrated Gregory King, at 527,560 ; and considering the great additions that had been made to the metropolis between the Restoration and the Revolution, this increase does not seem to be greater than we should have been led to infer from Graunt’s estimate. The population advanced slowly during the first half of the last century; indeed, it fell off between 1740 and 1750. In his tract on the population of England, published in 1782, Dr. Price estimated the population of London in 1777 at only 543,420 (p. 5).

But there can be no doubt that this estimate, like that which he gave of the population of the kingdom, was very decidedly under the mark; and the probability seems to be, that in 1777 London had from 640,000 to 650,000 inhabitants.” — Macculloeh s Qeographical Dictionary.

A return made in 1867 from the metropolitan police-office states that within a radius of six miles from Charing-cross there are 2637 miles of streets. Since 1849 the number of houses has increased by upwards of 60,000, and the length of streets by nearly 900 miles.

The Registrar-General, in his Report for 1866, says : — London is growing greater every day, and within its present bounds, extending over 122 square miles of territory, the population amounted last year by computation to 3,037,991 souls. In its midst is the ancient City, inhabited at night by about 100,000 people ; while around it, as far as a radius of 15 miles stretches from Charing-cross, an ever-thickening ring of people extend within the area which the metropolitan police watches over, making the whole number on an area of 687 square miles around St. Paul’s and Westminster Abbey 3,521,267 souls.

The “London” of the Registrar-General, which is identical with the Poor Law Union London, and is the London of the Census, stretching from Hampstead to Norwood, and from Hammersmith to Woolwich, is returned as comprising 194 parishes, 77,997 statute acres, and 2,803,989 people, with property assessed for the

county-rate at more than 12,000,000^. Of its area 2778 acres are covered with

water, being part of the river Thames. Of its population in 1861, 2,030,814 were in

the county of Middlesex, 579,748 in the county of Surrey, and 193,427 in the county

of Kent. Since the Census of 1851 the Middlesex portion of the population, nearly

three-fourths of the whole, had increased 16 per cent., the Surrey portion 20 per

cent., and the small portion in Kent (not much larger than Sheffield) no less than

44 per cent. ; the entire population increased 18*7 per cent., or 441,753 — a number

which would people all Liverpool or Manchester. This is more than a fifth of the

increase in all England and Wales, though the metropolis, even in 1861, did not

contain quite a seventh of the population. In the ten years, 1851-60, 528,306 persons

were married in the metropolis, 864,563 children were born there, and 610,473 persons

died there. Among its vai-ieties it has eight parishes, none of which has 100 in-

habitants ; and it has six parishes, each of which has above 100,000. At the census it

had 5625 in-patients in its hospitals, and 10,658 inmates of its orphan asylums, and

other principal charitable institutions. It has more than its share of women ; in 1851

there were 113*47 females to every 100 males, and in 1861 there was one female more

(11440) to every 100 males • but the births within the metropolis in the ten years,

1851-60, produced only 96*18 females to every 100 males; such are the changes

wrought by death and emigration. The returns state that at the date of the census,

in districts at the west-end containing 284,000 persons, 6120 residents were out of

town, and 2460 visitors were temporarily staying there; it was not the London

season, and it was but a week after Easter-day.

The revised Census returns show that on the 8th of April, 1861, the number of

PORT OF LONDON. 685

houses inhabited by the population of England and Wales was 3,739,506. There was,

therefore, one house to every 5*36 persons, or 536 persons to 100 houses. In 1851

there were 547 persons to 100 houses, so that notwithstanding increased numbers

there is rather more house-room than there was. In the metropolis, however, taken

as a whole, these returns show that the crowding is rather greater than less than it

was ; in 1851 there were 772 persons to 100 houses, in 1861 780 persons. Mr. Scott,

the City Chamberlain, shows by curious statistics, that, taking the area of the metro-

polis at sixteen miles from Charing Cross — which is the Metropolitan Police district—

the population of London, in 1801, ranged at equal distances, would stand each man

twenty-one yards from his neighbour. In 1851 each person would have stood fourteen

yards apart. In 1866, there would have been only nine yards between each person :

and in fifty years hence, supposing the population to go on increasing at its present rate,

to keep within the sixteen miles area, there will only be standing-room for each person.

A Census of the City shows the night population of the City and liberties numbered

113,387 : the mercantile and commercial population engaged in the City daily amounted

to 170,133; the total day population residing in the City to 283,520; and the number

of persons resorting to the City daily in sixteen hours, not included in the above, being

customers, clients, and others, to 509,611. The persons frequenting the City daily in

twelve hours, from 6 a.m. to 6 P.M., were 549,613 ; in sixteen hours, from 5 A.M. to

9 p.m., they were 679,744; and in twenty-four hours they were 728,986.

Taken as a whole, the more crowded part of London contained 1,150,000 persons in

1851, and about the same number were found there in 1861 ; but it is something to

have thrown into the suburbs the increase of the ten years — in the whole metropolis

440,000, almost precisely the population of Liverpool.

The present population of London is supposed to represent the number of inhabitants

living in England and Wales four centuries and a half ago, in the reign of Edward III.

A late return shows the number of passengers and vehicles passing over London Bridge in twenty-

four hours. The total number of passengers in carriages and on foot amounted, in the twenty-four

hours, to 167,910, or at the average rate of about 6996 per hour, night and day. The largest number

passed between ten and eleven in the morning, and eight and nine in the evening, averaging at those

hours 22-1 per minute. Between three and four in the morning is the quietest time in the streets of

London, and then as many as 111 persons passed over the bridge in an hour. If we take the above

167,910 as an average of the number of passengers who cross London Bridge during the working days,

and only half that number on the Sundays, the number will amount in the year to fifty-six millions.

This is nearly as many as twice the population of the United Kingdom. At times, during the throng

of business, there are 2000 persons on London Bridge. During the twenty-four hours the number of car-

riages amounted to 20,498, or an average of about 854 an hour. The greatest number of carriages in any

hour was between ten and eleven o’clock in the forenoon, when 1764 carriages passed over the bridge.

POST OF LONDON.

SIR JOHN HERSCHEL felicitously observes : ” It is a fact not a little interesting

to Englishmen, and, combined with our insular situation in the great highway of

nations, the Atlantic, not a little explanatory of our commercial eminence, that London

occupies nearly the centre of the terrestrial hemisphere.” — (Treatise on Astronomy).

On the other hand it is held that the great distance of London from the mouth of the

river, and also from the coal country and the centre of manufacturing districts, are

serious drawbacks, in spite of which London has become the immense port she un-

doubtedly is.

Tacitus describes London, in the year 61, as not dignified with the name of a colony,

but very celebrated for the number of its merchants and commerce. In 211 it was

styled ” a great and wealthy city ;” and in 359 there were engaged 800 vessels in the

import and export of corn to and from Londinum alone.

An edict of King Ethelred (a.d. 978) refers to the fact that ” the Emperor’s men,

or Easterlings, come with their ships to Billingsgate.” The Easterlings were the

merchants of the Steelyard, and paid a duty to the port. William the Norman fortified

London ; but in the charter which he granted to the inhabitants, he made no mention

of commerce. Henry I. and other sovereigns, however, granted them privileges ; and

Fitz-Stephen, in his Life of St. Thomas a Beeket, thus describes the merchandize of

London : —

“Arabia’s gold, Sabaea’s spice and incense,

Scythia’s keen weapons, and the oil of palms

From Babylon’s deep soil ; Nile’s precious gems ;

China’s bright, shiniug silks; and Gallic wines ;

Norway’s warm peltry, and the Russian sables ;

All here abound.”

Edward I. expelled the Jews, but offered some special advantages to other foreign

traders. Edward III. founded three of the great guilds which at one time held the

commerce of London in their hands — the Goldsmiths, the Merchant Taylors, and the

Skinners ; being the oldest of the now existing companies, with the single exception of

the Fishmongers, which was founded in the reign of Edward I. Before the close of

Edward IIL’s reign the Grocers, Salters, Drapers, and Vintners were founded. The

Mercers belong to the reign of Richard II. ; the Haberdashers to that of Henry VI. ;

and the Ironmongers and Clothworkers to that of Edward IV.

Under an Act of Charles II., the Port of London is held to extend as far as the

North Foreland. It, however, practically extends 6^ miles below London Bridge, to

Bugsby’s Hole, beyond Blackwall. The actual Port reaches to Limehouse, and consists

of the Upper Pool, the first bend or reach of the river, from London Bridge to near the

Thames Tunnel and Execution Dock ; and the Lower Pool, thence to Cuckold’s Point.

In the latter space colliers mostly lie in tiers ; a fair way of 300 feet being left for

shipping and steamers passing up and down. The depth of the river insures London

considerable advantage as a shipping port. Even at ebb-tide there are 12 or 13 feet

of water in the fair way of the river above Greenwich ; the mean range of the tide at

London Bridge is about 17 feet j of the highest spring-tides about 22 feet. To

Woolwich the river is navigable for ships of any burden ; to Blackwall for those of

1400 tons ; and to St. Katherine’s Docks for vessels of 800 tons.

The several Docks are described at pp. 309-312 ; the Custom House at p. 305 ;

and Billingsgate at p. 54.

” In one day (Sept. 17, 1849) there arrived in the Port 121 ships, navigated by 1387 seamen, with a

registered tonnage of 29,699 tons : 106 British, 15 foreign : 52 cargoes from our colonies, 69 from foreign

states— from the inhabitants of the whole circuit of the globe. The day’s cargoes included 32,280

packages of sugar, from the West Indies, Brazil, the East Indies, Penang, Manilla, and Rotterdam ;

317 oxen and calves, and 2734 sheep, principally from Belgium and Holland ; 3967 quarters of wheat,

13,314 quarters of oats from Archangel or the Baltic ; potatoes from Rotterdam ; 1200 packages of onions,

from Oporto ; 16,000 chests of tea, from China ; 7400 packages of coffee, from Ceylon, Brazil, and India;

532 bags.of cocoa from Grenada ; 1460 bags of rice from India, and 350 bags of tapioca from Brazil ; bacon

and pork from Hamburg, and 8000 packages of butter and 50,000 cheeses from Holland ; 767 packages

of eggs (900,000) ; of wool, 4458 bales, from the Cape and Australia; 15,000 hides, 100,000 horns, and

3600 packages of tallow, from South America and India ; hoofs of animals, 13 tons, from Port Philip,

and 140 elephants’ teeth from the Cape ; 1250 tons of granite from Guernsey, copper ore from Adelaide,

and cork from Spain ; 40,000 mats from Archangel, and 400 tons of brimstone from Sicily ; cod-liver oil,

and 3800 sealskins, from Newfoundland; 110 bales of bark from Arica, and 1100 casks of oil from the

Mediterranean; lard, oil-cake, and turpentine, from America; hemp from Russia, and potash from

Canada; 246 bales of rags, from Italy; staves for casks, timber for our houses, deals for packing-cases ;

rosewood, 876 pieces ; teak for ships, logwood for dye, lignum vita? for ships’ blocks, and ebony for

cabinets ; cotton from Bombay, zinc from Stettin, 1000 bundles of whisks from Trieste, yeast from

Rotterdam, and apples from Belgium ; of silk, 900 bales from China, finer sorts from Piedmont and

Tuscany, and 200 packages from China, Germany, and France : Cashmere shawls from Bombay; wine,

1800 packages, from France and Portugal ; rum from the East and West Indies, and scheidam from

Holland; nutmegs and cloves from Penang, cinnamon from Ceylon, 840 packages of pepper from

Bombay, and 1790 of ginger from Calcutta ; 100 barrels of anchovies from Leghorn, a cargo of pine-

apples from Nassau, and 50 fine live turtles; 54 blocks of marble from Leghorn; tobacco from America;

219 packages of treasure — Spanish dollars, Sycee silver from China, rupees from Hindostan, and English

sovereigns.” — A Day’s Business in the Port of London, by T. Howell, Esq.

” Again, in one day’s consumption, we find corahs, or silk handkerchiefs, from India ; whale-fins and

sperm-oil from our deep-sea fisheries ; from India shell-lac, indigo, and lac-dye ; saltpetre for gunpowder,

and hemp and jute for cordage ; quicksilver from the mines in Spain ; isinglass and bristles from Russia ;

Iceland moss, honey, and leeches from Hamburg; manna from Palermo, camphor from Calcutta, mac-

caroni from Naples, sugar-candy from Holland, and lemon-oil from Messina ; 81,0001bs. of currants from

the Ionian Islands, 5760 bars of iron from Sweden, and bees’-wax from the coast of Africa ; tea, sugar,

coffee, pepper, tobacco, spirits, and wine; watches, clocks, gloves, and glass-ware; needlework, ladies*

shoes, bonnets, and feathers ; toys, lace, and slate-pencils; zaffery and stavesacre from Hamburg; and

inkle from France.”— Ibid.

The river is protected by an admirable system of Police, established in 1798, and

merged into the Metropolitan Police in 1839. Execution Bock, at Wapping, the

name of one of the outlets of the river, preserves the memory of many a tale of murder

and piracy on the high seas ; for here used to be executed all pirates and sailors found

guilty of any of the greater crimes committed on ship-board. Opposite Blackwall we

remember to have seen the gibbets, on which the bodies were left to decay. The loss

PORTUGAL-STREET. 687

of life upon the Thames, by collision of vessels and other accidents, is of frightful

amount; 500 persons heing annually drowned in the river, and one-third of the number

in the Pool.

PORTUGAL-STREET,

IN the rear of the south side of Lincoln’s-Inn-fields (formerly Portugal-row) has been

the site of three theatres, upon the north side of the street. The first theatre

(named the Duke’s Theatre, from the Duke of York, its great patron ; and the Opera,

from its musical performances), was originally a tennis-court ; it was altered for Sir

William Davenant, and opened in 1662 with his operatic Siege of Rhodes, when

regular scenery was first introduced upon our stage. In the same year was produced

here Cowley’s Cutter of Coleman-street. Here Pepys saw, March 1st, 1662, Romeo

and Juliet, ” the first time it was ever acted f and May 28, ” Hamlett done,

giving us fresh reason never to think enough of Betterton.” ” Nov. 5. To the Duke’s

house to see Macbeth, a pretty good play, but admirably acted.” Pepys describes

“a mighty company of citizens, ordinary prentices, and mean people in the pit;”

where he first saw Nell Gwyn, April 3, 1665, during the performance of Lord Orrery’s

Muslapha, when the king and my Lady Castlemaine were there; Pepys sat in the

pit next to ” pretty witty Nell ” and Rebecca Marshall, of the King’s house. Etherege’s

Love in a Tub was so attractive here, that 1000Z. was received in one month, then a

great sum. Here female characters were first sustained by women ; for which purpose

Davenant engaged Elizabeth Davenport, the first Roxalana in the Siege of Rhodes ;

Mary Saunderson, famous as Queen Katherine and Juliet, and afterwards the wife of

Betterton; Mary or Moll Davis,* excellent in singing and dancing, afterwards the

mistress of Charles II. ; Mrs. Long, the mistress of the Duke of Richmond, celebrated

in male characters ; Mrs. Norris, mother of Jubilee Dicky ; Mrs. Johnson, noted as a

dancer, and as Carolina in Shadwell’s comedy of Epsom Wells. The famous

Mrs. Barry was brought out here after Davenant’s death.

Among the actors at the Duke’s were Thomas Betterton, the rival of Burbage and Garrick, and the

last survivor of the old school of actors : Joseph Harris, famous for acting Romeo, Wolsey, and Sir

Andrew Aguecheek ; William Smith, a barrister of Gray’s Inn, celebrated as Zanga in Lord Orrery’s

Mustapha; Samuel Sandford, called by King Charles II. the best representative of a villain in the

world ; James Nokes, famous for his bawling fops ; and Cave Underhill, clever as Cutter in Cowley’s

comedy, and as the grave-digger in Hamlet. — Abridged from Cunningham’s Story of Nell Gwyn.

From 1665 (the Plague) until after the Great Fire, the theatre was closed. Davenant

usually resided here.

“April 9th, 1668. I up and down to the Duke of York’s playhouse, there to see, which I did, Sir “W.

Davenant’s corpse carried out towards Westminster, there to be buried. Here were many coaches and

six horses, and many hacknies, that made it look, methought, as if it were the buriall of a poor poet.” —

Pepys.

In 1671-2, in Lord Orrery’s play of Henry V., at the Duke’s Theatre, the actors

Harris, Betterton, and Smith wore the coronation suits of King Charles, the Duke of

York, and Lord Oxford. This year the company removed to Dorset Gardens ; and

the King’s company, burnt out from Drury-lane, played at the Duke’s Theatre till

1673-4, when they left it, and it again became a tennis-court. It was refitted and re-

opened in 1695, with (first time) Congreve’s comedy of Love for Love. This second

theatre was taken down, and a new house built for Christopher Rich, and opened by

John Bich, in 1714, with Farquhar’s comedy of the Recruiting Officer ; when also

Rich introduced the first pantomime, Rich himself playing harlequin. Here Quin

played his best parts ; and from a fracas in which he was embroiled, originated the

sergeant’s guard at the Theatres Royal. The first English opera was performed here

in 1717-18 ; here was originally used the stage motto, Veluti in speculum ; and here

in 1727-8 the Beggar’s Opera was produced, and played sixty -two nights the first

season, making ” Gay rich and Rich gay.” In 1732, Rich having built a theatre in

Covent Garden, removed there ; and the Portugal-street house was by turns let for

* In the part of Celania, in the Rivals, altered by Davenant from Beaumont and Fletcher’s Two

Noble Kinsmen, Moll Davis sang “My lodging is on the cold ground” ” so charmingly, that not long

after it raised her from her bed on the cold ground to a bed royal.” — Downes’s Soscius Anglieanus,

p. 24, ed. 1703.

688 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

Italian operas, oratorios, for balls, concerts, and exhibitions ; to Giffard, of Goodman’s-

fields, in 1756 ; next as a barrack and auction-room ; and Spode and Copeland’s China

Repository, until 1848, when the premises were sold to the College of Surgeons,

August 28, and were taken down for enlarging their museum. Of the theatre little

remained, save the outer walls, built upon an arched cellar : there was a large Queen

Anne staircase, a saloon upon the first floor ; and the attic, lighted by windows in the

roof, had been probably the scene-painting loft. Upon this site the College of Surgeons

completed in 1854 a third Hall for their Museum, by aid of a Parliamentary grant of 15,000?.

In Carey-street, nearly opposite, was a public-house and stable-yard, described in Sir William Davenant’s Playhouse to be Let as ” our house inn, the Grange.” It was taken down in 1853 for the site of King’s College Hospital, see p. 438. At the north-east corner of Portugal-street was one of its olden resorts, Will’s Coffee-house.

Portugal-street was the last locality in London where stocks lingered; those of St. Clement Danes’ parish being removed from here about 1820 : they faced the burial-ground, where lay Joe Miller. Portugal-street acquired a sort of cant notoriety from the Court for the Relief of Insolvent Debtors being here. (See p. 509.)

POST-OFFICE.

THE General Post-office has had five locations since the Postmaster to Charles I. fixed his receiving-house in Sherborne-lane, in 1635, whence dates ” the settling of the letter-office of England and Scotland.” The office was next removed to Cloak-lane, Dowgate ; and then to the Black Swan, Bishopsgate-street. After the Great Fire, the office was shifted to the Black Pillars, in Brydges-street, Covent-garden ; thence, early in the last century, to the mansion of Sir Robert Viner (close to Sherborne-lane), in Lombard-street (see pp. 394, 592) ; and the chief office to St. Martin’s-le-Grand in 1829.

The General Post-office occupies the site of the College of St. Martin’s-le-Grand, at the junction with Newgate-street. It was designed by Sir R. Smirke, R.A., and was built between 1825 and 1829 : it is insulated, and is externally of Portland stone ; 400 feet long, 130 wide, and 64 high. It stands in the three parishes of St. Anne and St. Agnes, St. Leonard, and St. Michael-le-quern ; and 131 houses and nearly 1000 inhabitants were displaced to make room for this single edifice. Several Roman remains were found during the progress of the work). The St. Martin’s-le-Grand facade has three Ionic porticoes : one at each end, tetrastyle, of four fluted columns j and one in the centre, hexastyle, of six columns (from the temple of Minerva Polias, at Athens) : it is surmounted by a pediment, in the tympanum of which are sculptured the imperial arms of the United Kingdom j and on the frieze is inscribed, ” Geoegio qtjaeto eege, mdcccxxix.” Beneath are entrances to the Grand Public Hall, 80 feet long by about 60 wide, divided by Ionic columns into a centre and two aisles j and in the vaulted basement are the warm-air apparatus and gasometers.

North of the Hall are the offices for newspapers, inland letters, and foreign letters ; south are the offices of the London local post ; the communication being by a tunnel and railway under the Hall floor. In the middle story north are the offices for dead, mis-sent, and returned letters j south, secretary’s offices, board-rooms, &c. The clock, over the principal entrance, was made by Vulliamy ; the bob of the pendulum weighs 448 lbs., the object being to counteract the effect of wind on the hands of the dial. In the eastern front, facing Foster-lane, the letter-bags are received. The mechanical contrivances for the despatch of the business of the office display great ingenuity ; steam-power is variously employed : two endless chains, worked by a steam-engine, carry, in rapid succession, a series of shelves, each holding four or five men and their letter-bags, which are thus raised to various parts of the building.

King James II. has the credit of having established something like an organized foreign post : when a man could more speedily receive a reply to a letter sent to Madrid than he could to one despatched to Ireland or Scotland. The home post was in the hands of carriers, and also of pedestrian wayfarers : and the former even could not convey a note to the North, and bring an answerback, under two months at the very earliest. Witherings, one of the chief postmasters of Charles I.’s days, reformed this abuse.

He established a running-post, as it was called, between England and Scotland, the riders pushing forward night and day; and it was hoped, if the thing was not actually accomplished at the time, that the writer of a letter from London to Edinburgh would receive a reply within a week! When this running, or rather riding, post was established, very sanguine was Witherings. ” If the post,” he said, ” be punctually paid, the news will come sooner than thought.” He considered that news which passed from Edinburgh to London in three days and nights, by relays of horses, whose swinging trot never ceased, was outstripping thought. — Athenaeum.

The arrangements for the Foreign Mails in the present day show, in a forcible man-

ner, the wonderful extent of British commerce and relationships. Here are depart-

ments for Austria, Baden, Bavaria, France, Norway, Denmark, and the most northern

latitudes ; the Brazils, Chili, the Equator, Spain, Sardinia, Switzerland, United States

of America, North America, the various districts of India, Australia, &c. Here arrange-

ments are made for the overland Indian and other mails. The letters, newspapers, and

books are secured in cases of sheet-iron, which, when full, are carefully soldered up and

inclosed in wooden chests, which are branded with crosses of red or black, and marked

with the name of the district, city, &c, at which its arrival is awaited. Each of the

boxes referred to weighs, when filled with letters and papers, about 86 lbs., and the

ordinary Australian mail, exclusive of the portion sent overland, generally consists of

480 boxes of books and newspapers, and 100 boxes of letters — in all 580 boxes. These

would weigh altogether 49,880 lbs., equal to nearly twenty-two tons and a half.

The Mails were originally conveyed on horseback and in light carts, until 1784,

when mail-coaches were substituted by Mr. Palmer. The first mail-coach left the

Three Kings yard, Piccadilly, for Bristol, Aug. 24th, 1784. The speed of the mails

was at once increased from three and a half to more than six miles an hour, and sub-

sequently still greater acceleration was effected. About the year 1818, Mr. Macadam’s

improved system of road-making began to be of great survice to the Post-office, by

enabling the mails to be much accelerated. Their speed was gradually increased to

ten miles an hour, and even more ; until, in the case of the Devonport mail, the journey

of 216 miles, including stoppages, was punctually performed in twenty-one hours and

fourteen minutes. In 1830, upon the opening of the line between Liverpool and

Manchester, the mails were for the first time conveyed by railway. In 1835 Lieu-

tenant Waghorn commenced transmission to India, by the direct route through the

Mediterranean and over the Isthmus of Suez, a line of communication subsequently

extended to China and Australia. In 1859 the distance over which mails were con-

veyed by mail-coaches, railways, foot-messengers, and steam-packets was about 133,000

miles per day, this being about 3000 miles more than in the year ending 1857. In

the year 1859 the whole distance traversed by the various mails was thirty-seven

millions, five hundred and forty -five thousand miles! The annual procession of the

mail-coaches on the birthday of George III. (June 4) was once a metropolitan sight

which the king loved to see from the windows of Buckingham House. The letters are

now conveyed to the railways in omnibuses, nine of which are sometimes filled by one

n’ght’s mail at one railway. In 1839 was invented the travelling post-office, in which

clerks sort the letters during the railway journey, and the guard ties in and exchanges

the letter-bags, without stopping the train. Four miles an hour was the common rate

of the first mail-carts; a railway mail-train now averages twenty -four miles an hour;

while, between certain stations on certain lines, a speed of fifty miles an hour is attained.

By the Pneumatic Despatch the mail-bags are blown through the tube in iron cars in

about one minute, the usual time occupied by the mail carts being about ten minutes.

Persons have been conveyed through the tube, and returned by vacuum, without having

experienced the slightest discomfort.

The Rates of Postage varied according to distance until December 5th, 1839, when

the uniform rate of 4d. was tried ; and January 10th, 1840, was commenced the uniform

rate of Id. per letter of half an ounce weight, &c. The Government received 2000

plans for a new system, and adopted that of Mr. Kowland Hill ; but not until the

change had been some years agitated by a Post Magazine established for the purpose.

Among the opponents of the uniform penny stamp was the Secretary of the Post-office,

who maintained that the revenue would not recover itself for half a century, and

that the poor would not write. Lord Lichfield pointed to the absurdity of supposing

that letters, the conveyance of which cost on an average twopence-halfpenny each,

could ever be carried for a penny and leave a profit on the transaction ! The uniform

rate was pronounced by Colonel Maberly to be ” impracticable ;” and as to pre-payment,

he was sure the public would object to it, however low the rate might be ! And a Scotch journalist ridiculed the idea of persons having to stick pieces of paper upon their letters !

The stamped postage-covers came into use May 6, 1840 ;* hut the idea of a prepaid

envelope is as old as the time of Louis XIV. A pictorial envelope was designed by W.

Mulready, R.A., but little used. A fancied value is attached to this envelope ; for we

have seen advertised in the Times : — ” The Mulready Postage Envelope — For sale, an

Indian-proof impression. One of six, from the original block engraved by John Thomp-

son in the year 1840, price 20 guineas.” The postage label-stamps were first used iu

1841 ; perforated, 1854.

Number of Letters.— The greatest number of letters, under the old system, ever

known to pass through the General Post-office in one day, was received there on July

15, 1839, viz. 90,000 ; the amount of postage being 40504, a sum greater by 5304

than any hitherto collected in one day. In the third week of February the number of

letters is usually highest. The ordinary daily average is 400,000 letters ; on 19th

August, 1 853, it reached 630,000. The number of letters which pass through the

Post-office in a year is nearly 400,000,000. In 1864, 679,084,822 letters passed through

the post, being an increase of 37,000,000 over the previous year ; and in the same

period the number of book-packets and newspapers which were transmitted rose to

over 50,000,000, or 7,000,000 more than in 1863.

” It is estimated that there lies, from time to time, in the Dead-Letter Office, undergoing the process

of finding owners, some 11,0004. annually, in cash alone. In July, 1847, for instance — only a two months*

accumulation — the post-haste of 4658 letters, all containing property, was arrested by the bad super-

scriptions of the writers. They were consigned — after a searching inquest upon each by that efficient

coroner, the ” blind clerk” — to the post-office Morgue. There were bank-notes of the value of 10104.,

and money-orders for 4074. 12s. But most of these ill-directed letters contained coin in small sums,

amounting to 3104. 9». 5d. On the 17th of July, 1847, there were lying in the Dead-Letter Office bills of

exchange for the immense sum of 40,4104. 5». Id.” (Dickens’s Household Words, No. 1.) The value of

property contained in missing letters, during twelve months, is about 200,0004.

There are employed in the General Post-office, including the London District letter-

carriers, but exclusive of the receivers, 2500 persons, in different offices : — Secretary’s,

Accountant’s, Receiver’s, Dead-Letter, Money- Order, Inland, and London District

Offices. For more than half a century there were only two secretaries to the Post-

office, Sir Francis Freeling and Colonel Maberly. Sir Francis was brought up in the

Post-office, had performed the humblest as well as the highest duties of the department,

and was a protege of Mr. Palmer, the great Post-office reformer. He was succeeded

by Lieut.-Col. Maberly, M.P., who retired in 1854, when Mr. Rowland Hill, the origi-

nator of the penny-post, was appointed secretary j his services were rewarded in 1846

by a public testimonial of 13,3604″. ; Knighthood and grant. It is singular that all postal

reformers have been unacquainted with the department which they have revolutionized.

The net Revenue of the Post Office to the end of the year 1865 was 1,482,522?. The number of effec-

tive persons employed was 25,082; of pensioners, 1274; salaries, wages, allowances, &c, 1,295,1534.;

postage stamps, 22,0644. ; stationery, 32,3964. ; buildings, repairs, &c, 75,3314. ; conveyance by coaches,

carts, &c, 140,5174. ; by railways, 528,2204. ; of mails by private ships and by packets, &c., 796,3974. ; over

the isthmuses of Suez and Panama, with salaries of Admiralty agents, &c., 28,7864. ; and for mail-bags

and boxes, tolls, &c, 22,2204. ; a total for conveyance of 1,516,4424.

The Penny Post was originally projected by Robert Murray, a milliner, of the

Company of Clothworkers ; and William Dockwra, a sub-searcher in the Customs. It

was commenced as a foot-post, in 1680, with four deliveries a day. These projectors,

however, quarrelled : Murray set up his office at Hall’s Coffee-house, in Wood-street ;

* But a Stockholm paper, The FrysHHen, says, that so far back as 1823, a Swedish officer, Lieutenant

Trekenber, petitioned the Chamber of Nobles to propose to the Government to issue stamped paper

specially destined to serve for envelopes for prepaid letters ; but the proposition, though warmly sup-

ported as likely to be convenient to the public and the post-office, was rejected by a large majority.

For ten years England alone made use of the postage stamp. Prance adopted ic on the 1st of January,

1849 ; the Tour and Taxis Office introduced it into Germany in the year 1850; and it is now in use in

69 countries in Europe, 9 in Africa, 5 in Asia, 36 in America, and 10 in Oceania. About 50 postage

stamps may be counted in the United States alone. Van Diemen’s Land possesses its own; also Hayti,

Natal, Honolulu, and Liberia. A very curious little book gives an account, in the form of a catalogue,

of the postage stamps of all nations. Of these there are more than 1200 varieties. Not only have the

colonies of this and other countries, as the Bahamas and Iceland, their separate stamps, but in America

many cities also, such as New Orleans and Nashville. No effigy is so frequently on postage stamps as

that of Queen Victoria. Some of the colonies, however, have indulged in a little variety. The New

Brunswick 17 cents stamp bears on it the figure of the Prince of Wales in a Scotch dress. In the same

colony a stamp was prepared having on it the effigy of Mr. O’Connell, the local postmaster-general,

but this appears not to have been issued.

POULTRY. 691

and Dockwra, at the Penny Post-house in Lime-street, formerly the mansion of Sir

Robert Abdy. But this was considered an infringement on the right of the Duke of

York, on whom the Post-office revenue had been settled j and in a suit to try the

question, a verdict was given against Dockwra. He was compensated by a pension,

and appointed Comptroller of the Penny Post, but was dismissed in 1698. The first

office was in Cornhill, near the ’Change : parcels were received. In 1708, one Povey

set up the ” Halfpenny Carriage” private post, which was soon suppressed by the Post-

office authorities. They continued to convey parcels down to 1765, when the weight

was limited to four ounces. The postage was paid in advance down to 1794. In 1801

the Penny Post became a Twopenny Post ; and the postage was advanced to three-

pence beyond the limits of London, Southwark, and Westminster ; but in 1840 they

were consolidated with the Penny General Post.

The Money-Order Office, a distinct branch of the Post-office, is a handsome new

edifice on the west side of St. Martin’s-le-Grand. Money-orders are issued by millions

during the year, in numbers and amount, and have considerably added by commission

to the Post-office revenue.

POULTBT.

THE street extending from the east end of Cheapside to Mansion-house-street was

anciently occupied by the poulterers’ stalls of Stocks Market, who in Stow’s

time had “but lately departed from thence into other streets” (Gracechurch-street

and Newgate-market). In Scalding-alley (now St. Mildred’s-court) was a large house

where the poulterers scalded their poultry for sale. It was also called Coneyhope, or

Conning-shop, or Cony-shop, lane, from the sign of three conies (rabbits) hanging

over a poulterer’s stall at the lane end. Here was built the chapel of St. Mildred,

called in old records, Ecclesia Mildredce super WalbrooTce, vel in Pulletria ; una cum

capella heatee MaricB de Conyhop eidem annexa : the site is now occupied by the

church of St. Mildred in the Poultry, described at p. 192.

On the same side, between Nos. 31 and 32, was the oultry Compter, a Sheriff’s

prison, taken down in 1817, and Poultry Chapel built upon the site. To the Compter

were sent persons committed by the Lord Mayor; and to the prisoners was given the

broken victuals from the Mansion-house tables. ” Doctor Lamb,” the conjuror, died

in this prison, Jan. 13, 1628, after being chased and pelted by the mob across Moor-

fields ; for which outrage the City was fined 6000£. Here died six Separatists who had

been committed by Bishop Bonner for hearing the Scriptures read in their own houses.

John Dunton, the bookseller, in 1688, on the day the Prince of Orange entered

London, transferred himself and his sign of the Black Baven opposite the Poultry

Compter, where he prospered for ten years. The prison was, in 1806, in a ruinous

condition ; but the court was cheerful, ” having water continually running :” it was

the only prison in England that had a ward exclusively for Jews ; there were ” the

Bell,” and two other rooms, “very strong, studded with nails,” for felons. The

debtors were allowed to walk upon the leads with the gaoler.

Hatton (1708) calls the Poultry ” a broad street of very tall buildings.” At No. 22

lived the booksellers Dilly, famed for their hospitality to literary men: here Dr.

Johnson first met Wilkes; and Boswell, Cumberland, Knox, and Isaac Reed often

met. Dilly was the first publisher of Boswell’s Life of Johnson; the firm was also

noted for the works of Doddridge, Watts, Lardner, &c. At No. 31 lived Vernor and

Hood, the publishers of Bloomfield’s poems ; and the Beauties of England and Wales,

an unequal and unsatisfactory work. Hood was the father of Thomas Hood, the wit

and humorist, who was born in the Poultry in 1798 : ” there was a dash of ink in

my blood (writes Tom) ; my father wrote two novels, and my brother was decidedly of

a, literary turn.”

No. 25, Poultry, was the old King’s Head Tavern, where Charles II. stopped, on

the day of his restoration, to salute the landlady. It was, to the last, noticed for its

” lively turtle.” In the Beaufoy Collection, in the Corporation Library, are Tokens of

the Bose Tavern, in the Poultry, mentioned by Ned Ward (London Spy, 1709) as famous for its wine ; the Three Cranes, destroyed in the Great Fire, hut rehuilt j and

the Exchange Tavern, 1671, with, on the ohverse, a view of the Royal Exchange

quadrangle. At the Three Cranes met “the Mendicants’ Convivial Club,” sub-

sequently removed to Dyot-street, St. Giles’s.

PRIMROSE HILL

WAS named from the primroses that formerly grew here in great plenty, when it

was comparatively an untrodden hillock, in the fields between Tottenham Court

and Hampstead. It has also been called Green Berry-Hill, from the names of three

persons executed for the murder of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, whose body was found

here, Oct. 17, 1678. On the south side of the hill, during a summer drought, may be

traced a green line, which was once a ditch, extending from east to the ground west-

ward now occupied by the New-River Reservoir. In that ditch, near the site of the

Waterworks steam-engine chimney-shaft, was found Godfrey’s body, as thus described

in a letter written in 1681 :—

” As to the place, it was in a ditch on the south side of Primrose Hill, surrounded with divers closes,

fenced in with high mounds and ditches ; no roads near, only some deep, dirtyl” target=”_top”>anes, made only for the

convcniency of driving cows in and out of the ground ; and those very lanes not coming near five hun-

dred yards of the place, and impossible for any man on horseback with a dead corpse before him at

midnight to approach, unless gaps were made in the mounds, as the constable and his assistants found

by experience when they came on horseback thither.”

At the trial, before the Lord Chief- Justice Scroggs, Feb. 10, 1679, the infamous wit-

nesses, Oates, Prance, and Bedloe, declared that the unfortunate magistrate, Godfrey,

” was waylaid and inveigled into the Palace (Somerset House), under the pretence of

keeping the peace between two servants who were fighting in the yard; that he was

there strangled, his neck broke, and his own sword run through his body ; that he was

kept four days before they ventured to remove him ; at length his corpse was first

carried in a sedan-chair to Soho, and then on a horse to Primrose Hill,” as represented

on one of the several medals struck as memorials of the mysterious murder. The body

was carried to ” the White House,” then the farm-house of the estate of Chalcott’s,

abbreviated to Chalc’s, and then corrupted to Chalk Farm, which was long a tavern

noted for duels fought here. The summit of the hill is 206 feet above the Trinity

high-water mark of the Thames. (See Pbimbose-hill Paek, p. 650.)

Primrose Hill is a portion of the land bequeathed by ” sundry devout men of London”

to St. James’s Hospital, but granted by Henry VI. to Eton College, surrendered to

Henry VIII., but again returned to the College, who, a few years since, transferred it

to the Government in exchange for a piece of crown-land near Windsor; which was

done principally through the exertions of Mr. Hume, M.P., and an Association of per-

sons formed for securing the ground to the public. In the ridge adjoining is the Prim-

rose Hill Tunnel of the London and North- Western Railway ; its extent is 3493 feet,

or more than five-eighths of a mile : in tunnelling near the base of the hill, fossil

nautili were discovered.

The View from Primrose Sill comprises not only London, with its masses of houses and hundreds

of spires, but also the once rural retreats of Hampstead and Highgate, now almost become portions of

the great town itself. Opposite is St. John’s Wood, and in the rear of St. John’s Wood the graceful

spire of Harrow-on-the-Hill; nearer the spectator are the close streets of Portland Town, and the

elegant domain of Regent’s Park. The eye, after resting upon St. Paul’s as the nucleus oi the vast

city, glances over Islington and Holloway to the undulating hills of Kent and Surrey j and upon a clear

day may be descried the bright roofs of fie Crystal Palace at Sydenham.

PRISONS.

UPWARDS of 30,000 criminals and other persons (exclusive of debtors) are stated to

pass through the metropolitan gaols, houses of correction, bridewells, and peni-

tentiaries, every year. The number of prisons is smaller than half a century since ;

but the prisons themselves are of much larger extent. In 1796 there were eighteen

prisons in London, which in 1854 had been reduced one-third. About the year 1849

Mr. Dixon wrote in the Daily News an account of the chief prisons, which was re-

printed in 1850 ; and Mr. Henry Mayhew’s work on the Criminal Prisons, 1855, was

PEISONS. 693

completed in 1863. Mr. Dixon tells us that, ” All the great London gaols are pro-

vided with stands of arms, by which men could be armed in a few minutes ; beside s

signal- rockets, which would instantly convey intelligence to the Horse Guards, and to

the barracks in St. James’s and Hyde Parks, of any attack ; so that 2000 or 3000

men could be concentrated at any prison in half an hour.”

Bobough Cosiptee, Mill-lane, Tooley-street (solely for debtors from the Borough

of Southwark), was originally part of the church of St. Margaret, at St. Margaret’s

Hill, where the prison site is denoted by Counter (Compter) street.

Bridewell, Bridge-street, Blackfriars, the prison taken down in 1S62, is described

at pp. 62-65.

Beixton County House of Coeeection, Surrey, was built in 1820, for prisoners

sentenced to hard-labour. The plan of the prison is octagonal, with a chapel in the

centre. The prisoners are separated into classes; here have been imprisoned at one

time 340. The treadmill, adapted from an old contrivance, by Cubitt, an engineer,

of Lowestoft, was first set up at Brixton Prison in 1817; from its severity of applica-

tion it became very unpopular, and ” Brixton” became a low cant word.

City Peison, Camden-road, Holloway, is built upon land originally purchased by

the Corporation for a cemetery, during the raging of the cholera in 1832. The extent

is 10 acres within the boundary-wall, 18 feet high. The prison, designed by Bunning,

is built in the castellated style, has fortified gateways, and is embattled throughout the

six radiating wings; the number of cells is 436; the building is fire-proof; the venti-

lation is by a shaft 146 feet high ; the water-supply from an Artesian well, 319 feet

deep. The prisoners are variously employed ; and the discipline is neither entire sepa-

ration nor association, but the middle course. The prison was first opened Oct. 6,

1852. Cost, about 100,000/.

Clerkenwell Bridewell. — There were formerly two gaols in Clerkenwell, adjoining each other ; the oldest was the New Prison, or Bridewell, built by the Justices in 1615, upon the site of ” the Cage,” for the punishment and employment of rogues and vagabonds of Middlesex. On Shrove Tuesday, 1617, the turbulent London ’prentices ” had a cast at the New Bridewell.” Between 1622 and 1626, many popish priests were imprisoned here, among whom was Collington, whose release was granted at the instance of Count Gondomar. A friend of the wife of Pepys was imprisoned here in 1661 ; and the Diary tells us that he went, December 11, with his “wife by coach to Clerkenwell to see Mrs. Margaret Penny, who is at school there,” undergoing correction, of course. On Shrove Tuesday, 1668, a mob of the London ’prentices again assailed the New Prison, and released a number of their riotous associates imprisoned there. In 1679 the greatest part of the prison was burnt down, suspected to be the wicked work of a papist prisoner. About 1630, Taylor, the water poet, noticed the prison as ” A jayle for hereticks, For Brownists, Familists, and Schismaticks.”

In 1651 several enthusiasts were committed here for blasphemy. In 1669, Richard Baxter, the Nonconformist, was confined here for preaching in his own house at Acton.

The honest jailor allowed him to walk in the garden at Clerkenwell, and while here he published the second part of his Directions to the Converted. Here, 1775, was committed the first person convicted of dog-stealing. This bridewell was taken down about 1804. . (-See New Peison, p. 699.)

Clink, The, Bankside, was named from being the prison of the ” Clink Liberty,” in Southwark, belonging to the Bishops of Winchester ; and was used in old time ” for such as would brabble, frey, or break the peace on the said bank, or in the brothel-houses.” (Stow.) About 1745, the old prison, at the corner of Maid-lane, was abandoned, and a dwelling on the Bankside appropriated in its stead ; this was burnt in the riots of 1780, and no other prison has since been established for the liberty.

The palace of the Bishops of Winchester, at Bankside, was made a prison during the Civil Wars : Sir Kenehn Digby, while confined here as a Royalist, wrote his refutation of Browne’s Religio Medici.

Coldbath Fields Prison, or House of Correction, is for criminals sentenced to short terms of imprisonment, and is supported out of the county (Middlesex) rates.

The prisoners are compelled to labour as a punishment and towards their support.

The prison is named from the Coldbath well, the site of which is now occupied by the treadwheel. The original House of Correction was built in the reign of James I., the City authorities giving 5001. towards it, for keeping their poor employed. The

present gaol was erected by the county, in 1794, on the eastern slope of the Fleet,

on Gardner’s Farm, or Field, the ground being considerably raised ; architect, Charles

Middleton ; cost, 65,656£., providing for only 232 prisoners, in separate cells, upon the

plan of John Howard. It was opened in 1794, but soon got into disrepute ; ” men,

women, and boys were indiscriminately herded together in this chief county prison,

without employment or wholesome control ; while smoking, gaming, singing, and every

species of brutalizing conversation, tended to the unlimited advancement of crime and

pollution.” (Chesterton’s Revelations of Prison Life). The dungeons were composed

of bricks and stones, without fire or any furniture but straw, and no other barrier

against the weather but iron grates. The Minister Pitt, in the year 1799, visited

the prison, and found the prisoners without fire or candles, denied all society,

exposed to the cold and rain, allowed to breathe the air out of their cells only for an hour,

&c. ; Pitt ironically supposing that those who managed the prison ” kindly subjected

the prisoners to so much pain in this world, that less punishment might be inflicted on

them in the next.” Coleridge and Southey, in the Devil’s Walk, sung :

“As he pass’d through Coldbath Fields he looked

At a solitary cell,

And he was well pleased, for it gave him a hint

For improving his prisons in hell ;

He saw a turnkey tie a thief s hands,

With a cordial tug and a jerk;

* Nimbly,’ quoth he, ’ a man’s fingers can move

When his heart is in his work.’ ”

Much scandalous mismanagement continued so late as 1829. Captain Chesterton, in his Evidence

before the Magistrates, stated that ” on becoming Governor of the House of Correction he found it usual

to fleece the prisoners of every farthing they possessed or could procure from their friends — all the officers

having paid for their posts, and being eager to indemnify themselves. If a prisoner had no money he

was kicked and buffeted in the most merciless manner. The visit of a magistrate was always known

and prepared for beforehand. Every cell was a depot for contraband articles, especially for wine and

spirits. The prisoners slept three in a cell.”

The mixed system means silence by day and sleep at night in separate cells. The mark system means

substitution of a labour sentence for time sentences; instead of a sentence to fourteen years’ imprison-

ment, the culprit would be sentenced to perform a certain quantity of labour, represented by marks

instead of money; the criminal to be liberated when the prescribed task was accomplished, whether he

occupied one year or twenty about it. Here 272 persons were employed to superintend 682 prisoners;

yet even this large staff were found insufficient to prevent all intercourse among the. criminals. The

necessity for punishment perpetually arose. There were no less than 6794 punishments inflicted for

talking in a single year.

The governor Aris, formerly a baker in Clerkenwell, was denounced as ” a reputed

tyrant and torturer j” and in 1800, a riot took place in the prison, which the Clerken-

well volunteers suppressed. Volunteers from the adjacent parishes then watched the

prison, and the Clerkenwell cavalry paraded round the outer gates for several nights

to keep the mob off. Aris was dismissed from his office, and he died in poverty. In

1830, several persons were confined here for selling unstamped newspapers, when an

attack being meditated to liberate the ” political martyrs,” the prison was put in a

state of defence : ” we received,” says the late governor, Colonel Chesterton, ” in addi-

tion to what we already possessed, from the Tower, 25 carbines, 2000 rounds of ball-

cartridge, and 1500 hand-grenades;” scaling ladders were manufactured, and the

governor’s house was fortified, but no attack was made. In 1834 the silent system

was introduced, and 914 prisoners were suddenly apprised that ” all intercommunica-

tion by word, gesture, or sign was prohibited.” The treadwheel had been previously

introduced, 12,000 feet of ascent being the amount of the daily ” hard labour” sentence,

which being injurious to health, was limited to 1200 feet. The picking of oakum or

coir is enforced here, the silent associated system is continued, and the prison ” has

the thorough aspect of an old English jail.”

The prison uniform is coarse woollen blue cloth for misdemeanants, and dark grey for felons : each

prisoner is known only by the number on his back ; and a star upon the arm denotes good conduct.

The workshop is an interesting scene ; but the oakum-picking-room, with its felon faces, is a painful

sight : and the treadwheel, employing 320 prisoners at a time, is another repulsive feature. Carpenters,

PRISONS. 695

tinmen, blacksmiths, and other handicraftsmen work here; and in the ground is the upper part of a

vessel, with masts and rigging’, for teaching boys the sea-service ; there are also schools and reforma-

tory visits. (See Dixon’s London Prisons, 1850.)

Large additions have been made to this prison. In 1830, a vagrants’ ward for 150

was added, then a female ward for 300 ; the gaol has proper accommodation for

upwards of 1500 prisoners, males only. There were formerly six distinct treadwheels,

there is now treadwheel labour for 160 prisoners : the mill grinds wheat, and from the

flour which it yields (about 30 cwt. daily) bread for the three county prisons is made.

In 1862, there were here upwards of 1700 felons, misdemeanants, and vagrants, and

sometimes are 700 or 800 in excess of the number of cells. The annual ordinary

charge per prisoner has been estimated at 211. 19s. 4d. Money received in the year

for products of the prisoners’ labour, 1901Z. 3*. 5d. ; prisoners’ earnings in work for

the county, 43001. 18s. 3d. — viz., shoemaking, bricklaying, and other repairs, tailoring,

washing, needlework, and painting. There are two chapels and two chaplains, two

schoolmasters, and abundance of books of religious and secular instruction. The prison

is well described in Pinks’s History of Clerkenwell, 1865.

In 1820 the Cato-street conspirators were lodged here before being sent to the Tower. John Hunt

was imprisoned here for a libel on George IV. ” I sometimes,” says Mr. Bedding, ” beguiled an hour

with him at chess. He had a lofty and comfortable, though small apartment, at the top of the prison,

where the air was excellent. Towusend, one of the Bow-street officers, was governor of the prison, and

an excellent governor he made. John Hunt had the privilege of walking for a couple of hours daily in

the governor’s garden, for which he alone was indebted to the governor himself.”— -Cyrus Bedding’s

Jiecol lections.

In 1863, the prison was enlarged by the addition of 326 cells on the separate system,

heated, lighted, and ventilated, and each furnished with a bed or hammock ; previously,

about 250 slept every night on the floor of a work-room. The wall circuit has also

been extended, so as to inclose the piece of vacant ground facing the governor’s house,

and this has been rebuilt, as well as the lofty prison gateway, with the three sabres

and the conventional fetters, a pair of gigantic knockers, &c. The warders wear blue

uniforms instead of the gaolers’ habit as of old.

Fleet Pbison is described at pp. 344-346.

Giltsptjb-stbeet Compteb, or the City House of Correction, was built by George

Dance, in 1791, to supersede the wretched prison in Wood-street, whence the prisoners

were removed in 1791 : it was then only used for debtors, but subsequently for remands

and committals for trial, and minor offenders. The rear of the prison abntted on

Christ’s Hospital, and its towers are visible from the yard : the happy shouts of the

boys at play were heard by the prisoners, and the balls often fell within the prison-

yards, as if to remind the fallen inmates how much innocence they had outlived ! In

1808 Sheriff Phillips described Giltspur-street, with its corner, entitled ” Ludgate”

(for citizen debtors, clergymen, proctors, and attorneys), and the whole prison, as

greatly overcrowded by the removal to it of the Poultry Compter debtors. The soli-

tary confinement was in front of the building, where, however, the prisoners could see

the busy street, and the crowds to witness executions in front of Newgate. About 6000

prisoners were annually committed to Giltspur-street ; but it was one of the worst

managed and least secure of the metropolitan prisons, and the escapes from it were the

most frequent. As a proof of the lenity of its management, it is related that, on the

death of Mr. Teague, the humane governor of Giltspur-street Compter, in 1841, nearly

every prisoner wore a black crape hat-band ! The prison was closed in 1854, when

the keeper had a retiring allowance of 300Z. a year : it has since been taken down.

HoESEMONGEB-lANE Gaol, on the south side of Newington Causeway, was built

upon the plan of John Howard, in 1791-9 (George Gwilt, architect), upon the site of

a market-garden. It is a common gaol for the county of Surrey, under the Sheriff,

Court of Quarter Sessions, and Magistrates, and is for debtors and criminals. Three

sides of the prison quadrangle are for the confinement of felons, and one side for debtors,

the latter arranged in classes. Among several small benefactions to the debtors is a

donation made to the old White Lion Prison in Southwark (mentioned by Stow), by

Mrs. Margaret Symcott, or Eleanor Gwynne, of 65 penny-loaves, every eight weeks,

issuing from the Chamberlain’s office. (Manning and Bray’s Surrey, vol. iii. App.—

The employments are knitting, netting, oakum-picking, lime-washing, and cleansing the gaol : it will contain about 400 prisoners.

Upon the roof of the north lodge were executed, on Feb. 21, 1803, Colonel Edward

Marcus Despard and six associates, who had been tried and found guilty, by a special

commission, of high treason ; Richard Patch for murder, April 8, 1806 ; and Nov. 13,

1849, the Mannings, husband and wife, for murder. Leigh Hunt was imprisoned here

for a libel on the Prince Regent, in 1813; and here he was first introduced to Lord

Byron. (See Leigh Hunt’s Autobiography, vol. ii.) In June, 1849, three burglars

escaped from their cells in this prison by means of a key which they made from a

pewter pot ; but they were recaptured in scaling the 20-feet wall.

Lttdgate Pbison is described at page 538, where the romantic story of Sir Stephen

Forster is narrated. This ancient City gate was made a prison in 1373, for poor debtors

who were free of the City, who, however, had to pay lodgings, chamber-rent, and for

water, since Forster’s provisions were neglected. When the gate was taken down, the

prisoners were removed to the London Workhouse, in Bishopsgate-street.

This prison had some curious regulations. To preserve order the master, keeper, and prisoners

chose from among themselves a reader of divine service; an upper steward, called the master of the

box; an under steward, and seven assistants by turns daily; a running assistant, two churchwardens,

a scavenger, a chamberlain, a running post; and the criers or beggars at the gate (such as we remember at the Fleet), who were generally six in number. The reader, besides attending to prayers, had to

ring the bell twice a day, and for a quarter of an hour before nine at night, to warn strangers to

depart the prison : besides his salary and fees, he had a dish of meat out of the Lord Mayor’s basket.

The master of the box, with the under steward, assistants, and churchwardens were elected monthly by

the prisoners; and the election of other officers was conducted in the most orderly manner. The offi-

ciating assistant could commit a prisoner to the stocks, or shackles, for abusing any person, and he had

to see the cellar cleared out at ten o’clock ; he had also to set up candles, look after the dock, &c. The

churchwardens had to call to prayers, after the bell had done ringing. The scavenger had to keep the

prison clean, to fetter offenders, and put them in the stocks. The chamberlain took care of all the

prison bedding and linen, and appointed lodgings for new comers, and gave notice to strangers to leave

at ten o’clock. The running post had to fetch in a basket the broken meat from the Lord Mayor’s

table, provisions from the clerk of the market, from private families, and the charities given in the

streets. Two of the criers begged daily at the gates ; he at Ludgate-street was allowed a fourth of what

was given, and he on the Blackf’riars’ side one-half. Notwithstanding this complex machinery corrup-

tion crept in : the keeper and turnkey of the prison claimed fees without either right or reason. The

prisoners had to pay 8d. a month for clean sheets, and not above two were to lie in a bed ; for a couch,

Id. a week ; for chamber-room, &c, Id. a week for lamps and candles. A freeman of the City, on being

arrested for debt, could insist upon being carried to the Ludgate Prison ; bailiffs’ fees, 4s. or 5«., due

2d. If new comers could not pay the demands, the clothes of the poor prisoner were privately taken

from him, and not returned until the money was paid. He was, however, allowed to go abroad, ou

giving good security to return at night, for the charge of h keeper’s fee, 1*. 6rf.; head turnkey, 2s. Gd.

Often the discharge fees came to more than the debt. Hungry, and at times almost naked, the poor

prisoners lay in these unsanitary dens until death. There was a gift to this prison, called Nell G Wynne’s

dole, distributed to prisoners every ninth week. Some of the old statues from Ludgate remain, but

railway trains now rattle over the prison site.

As early as 1218, Ludgate was a common gaol for felons taken in London City; and

so lately as 1457, Newgate, and not the Tower, was the prison for the nobility and

great officers of State. In 1252, one John OfFrem, committed to this prison for having

killed a prior, escaped, which so displeased King Henry III. with the City, that the

sheriff’s were sent to the Tower, and there remained a month. In 1431, in consequence

of a false complaint made by the keeper of Newgate, eighteen freemen were taken to

the compters, and chained as if they had been felons.

Maeshalsea Pbison, “so called as pertaining to the Marshalles of England”

(Stow), stood in High-street, Southwark. Here were confined persons guilty of

piracies and other offences on the high seas. (See page 509). In 1377 it was broken

into by a mob of sailors, who murdered a gentleman confined in it for killing one of

their comrades, but had been pardoned. During the rebellion of Wat Tyler, in 1381,

the marshal of this prison, and the governor of the King’s Bench, Sir John Imworth,

was seized and beheaded.

• ” To the Marshalsea Bishop Bonner was sent, on losing his see of London for adherence to Rome.

A man meeting him cried, ’ Good morrow, bishop quondam – ;’ to which Bonner replied, ’ Farewell, knave

semper.’ He lived ten years in the Marshalsea, and died there Sept. 5, 1569; he was buried at mid-

night, with other prisoners, in St. George’s, Southwark. In the reigns of Henry VIII., Mary, and

Elizabeth, the Marshalsea was the second prison in importance in London, being inferior only to the

Tower. Christopher Brooke, the poet, was confined in the Marshalsea for being concerned in the

wedding of Dr. Donne. George Wither was committed here for writing the satire, Abuses Stript and

Whipt; but he procured his release by his Satire to the King.” — Dixon, London Prisons, abridged.

Garrick played for the benefit of the prisoners, at Drury-lane, ” being the first application of this

PRISONS. 697

kind,” the Provoked Wife, Sir John Brute, Garrick; Lady Fanciful, Mrs. Give; Lady Brute, Mrs.

Pritchard. Farce of Duke and No Duke, Trappolin, Mr. Woodward. Tickets to be had at the Marshal-

sea Prison, South wark.

The Marshalsea escaped the riots of 1780. The old prison, which contained ahout

sixty rooms and a chapel, occupied the site of the house, No. 119, High-street ; it was

then removed to other premises nearer St. George’s Church ; and these were taken

down in 1812, when the prisoners were drafted to the Queen’s Bench. (See Mab-

shalsea and Palace Couet, page 509.)

Millbank Pbison, Westminster, near the foot of Vauxhall Bridge, is the largest

penal establishment in England. The site was purchased, in 1799, of the Marquis of

Salisbury, for 12,000/. ; but the building was not commenced until 1812, when a con-

tract was entered into by the Government with Jeremy Bentham ; and the edifice is a

modification of his ” Panopticon, or Inspection House.” It was next changed into a

regular Government prison for criminals, adult and juvenile, and became the general

depot for transports waiting” to be drafted to other prisons, or placed on shipboard for

dockyard labour ; and here are sent the most reckless and hardened criminals from all

parts of the country. The soil of the site is a deep peat, and the buildings are laid on

a solid and expensive concrete j but the situation is low and unhealthy. The prison

cost half a million of money, or about 500/. for each cell ! The only entrance is in the

Thames front. The ground-plan consists of six pentagonal buildings, radiating from

a circle, wherein is the governor’s house ; and each line terminates in a tower in the

outer octagonal wall, which incloses about 16 acres; 7 covered with buildings, in-

cluding 12 chapels and airing-yards, and 9 laid out as gardens. The corridors are

upwards of 3 miles long ; there are about 1550 cells ; and from 4000 to 5000 persons

pass through the prison yearly. There are 40 staircases, making in all 3 miles distance.

In 1843 the name of the Penitentiary was changed, by Act of Parliament, to the

Millbank Prison. From the general resemblance of its conical-roofed towers to those

of the Bastile du Temple at Paris, as well as from the severity of its system, the Peni-

tentiary has been stigmatized as ” the English Bastile.”

” The dark cells, 20 steps below the ground-floor, are small, ill-ventilated, and doubly barred ; and no

glimpse of day ever enters this fearful place, where the offender is locked up for three days, fed upon

bread and water, and has only a board to sleep on.” — Dixon, 1850.

Newgate, on the east side of the Old Bailey, is now used as a gaol of detention for

persons about to be tried at the adjacent Central Criminal Court ; here are also con-

fined prisoners convicted of assaults or offences on the high seas, and those who are

under sentence of death. Until 1815, when Whitecross-street prison was built, New-

gate was used for debtors as well as felons : hence its ¦ Debtors’ Door.”

Sheriff Hoare, 1740-1, tells us how the names of the prisoners in each gaol were read over to him

and his colleague; the keepers acknowledged them, one by one, to be in their custody; and then ten-

dered the keys, which were delivered back to them again; and after having executed the indentures, the

Sheriffs partook of sack and walnuts, provided by the keepers of the prison, at a tavern adjoining Guild-

hall. Formerly the Sheriffs attended the Lord Mayor, on Easter-eve, ” through the streets, to collect

charity for the prisoners in the City prisons.”

Old Newgate prison was over and about the City gate ” so called, as built after the

four principal gates were reckoned old.” It was merely a tower or appendage to the

gate, which stretched across the west end of Newgate-street ; still, from the time of

King John to that of Charles II., it was sufficient prison-room for the City and county.

It was originally ” Chamberlain Gate,” and was rebuilt by the executors of Sir Richard

Whittington, whose statue, with the traditional cat, was placed in a niche upon the

wall. Here were also statues of Concord, Mercy, Justice and Truth, Peace and

Plenty, &c.

” In the Beaufoy Collection, at Guildhall, is a Newgate Prison Token, No. 715. Obv. Belonging to

ye cellor on the masters side at 1669. ’Rev. Newgate — View of Newgate and the Debtors’ Prison.

This token was struck as a monetary medium among the prisoners, and is of the utmost rarity and

interest, from the delineation of the prison it affords.” — Burn’s Descriptive Catalogue, p. 138.

Newgate was restored by Wren in 1672, after the Great Fire ; but it was burnt to

the ground in the riots of 1780, when the rioters stole the keys, which were found

some time after in the basin of water in St. James’s-square. Dr. Johnson and Dr.

Scott (Lord Stowell) saw Newgate in ruins, ” with the fire yet glowing :” the iron bars

were eaten through, and the stones vitrified by the intense heat.

698 CURIOSITIES OF LONDON.

On the top of Old Newgate, as shown in prints, was a windmill, an early attempt at ventilation.

” For,” says Chamberlain, in 1770, ” a contagious disease, called the gaol distemper, has frequently

destroyed great numbers of prisoners, and even carried its contagion into courts of justice, when trials

were held. To prevent as much as possible these dreadful effects, a ventilator has been placed on the

top of Newgate, to expel the foul air, and make way for the admission of such as is fresh